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Bianzhong
BIANZHONG (pronounced ) is an ancient Chinese musical instrument consisting of a set of bronze bells, played melodically. These sets of chime bells were used as polyphonic musical instruments and some of these bells have been dated at between 2,000 to 3,600 years old. They were hung in a wooden frame and struck with a mallet. Along with the stone chimes called bianqing , they were an important instrument in China's ritual and court music going back to ancient times. Several sets of bianzhong were imported to the Korean court during the Song Dynasty . Pronounced in Korean as PYEONJONG, the instrument became an important part in Korea's ritual and court music and is still in use. The instrument's name is pronounced HENSHō in Japanese. CONTENTS * 1 Archaeology * 2 See also * 3 Further reading * 4 References * 5 External links ARCHAEOLOGY Bronze
Bronze
Zhong Bell from Spring and Autumn period; excavated in 1978 from the storage pit in Taigongmiao village, Baoji city, Shaanxi province Among the most important sets of bianzhong discovered are a complete ceremonial set of 65 zhong bells , found in a near-perfect state of preservation during the excavation of the tomb of Marquis Yi , who died ca. 430 BCE. Yi was the ruler of Zeng , one of the minor states under control of the major State of Chu . This region is now part of the present-day Hubei province
Hubei province

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Bianzhong Of Marquis Yi Of Zeng
The BIANZHONG OF MARQUIS YI OF ZENG (simplified Chinese : 曾侯乙编钟; traditional Chinese : 曾侯乙編鐘; pinyin : Zēnghóuyǐ Biānzhōng), or ZENGHOUYI BELLS, is the name given to an ancient musical instrument made of bells (called bianzhong ) unearthed in 1978 in the Zeng-hou-yi Tomb in Sui County , Hubei
Hubei
Province, China . The bianzhong were made in 433 B.C. The bianzhong are hung on two sets of wooden racks. One rack is 7.48 metres (24.5 ft) long and 2.65 metres (8 ft 8 in) wide. The other rack is 3.35 metres (11.0 ft) long and 2.73 metres (8 ft 11 in) wide. The two racks are perpendicular to each other. The instrument contains a total of 64 bianzhong, which are hung at three levels and are divided into eight groups. There are 19 bells in three groups at the top level. 33 bells are in three groups in the middle level. There are 12 bells in two groups at the bottom level. The biggest bell is 153.4 centimetres (60.4 in) in height and weighs 203.6 kilograms (449 lb) weight. The smallest bell is 20.4 centimetres (8.0 in) high and weighs 2.4 kilograms (5.3 lb). Each bell can play two tones with three degrees' interval between them. The tonal range of Zenghouyi Bells is from C2 to D7. In the middle area of the tonal range, it can play all twelve half tones. The wooden hammers used to strike the bells were also unearthed from the Zeng-hou-yi Tomb
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Traditional Chinese Characters
TRADITIONAL CHINESE CHARACTERS (traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese : 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin : Zhèngtǐzì/Fántĭzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan
Taiwan
, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
Kangxi Dictionary
. The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
, and have been more or less stable since the 5th century (during the Southern and Northern Dynasties .) The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters
, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People\'s Republic of China
China
on Mainland China
Mainland China
in the 1950s
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Simplified Chinese Characters
SIMPLIFIED CHINESE CHARACTERS (简化字; _jiǎnhuàzì_) are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the _Table of General Standard Chinese Characters _ for use in mainland China . Along with traditional Chinese characters , it is one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language . The government of the People\'s Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s in an attempt to increase literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore . Traditional Chinese characters are currently used in Hong Kong , Macau , and the Republic of China ( Taiwan ). While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups generally retain their use of Simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities generally tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name above or colloquially (简体字; _ jiǎntǐzì _). The latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms
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Standard Chinese
STANDARD CHINESE, also known as MODERN STANDARD MANDARIN, STANDARD MANDARIN, or simply MANDARIN, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
, and also one of the four official languages of Singapore
Singapore
. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect , its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects , and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese . Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is an analytic language , though with many compound words . There exist two standardised forms of the language, namely PUTONGHUA in Mainland China
China
and GUOYU in Taiwan. Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(plus Hanyu Pinyin romanization for teaching), while Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters (plus Bopomofo for teaching). There are many characters that are identical between the two systems
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Hanyu Pinyin
PINYIN, or HàNYǔ PīNYīN, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China , Malaysia , Singapore , and Taiwan . It is often used to teach Standard Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters . The system includes four diacritics denoting tones . Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet , and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang , based on earlier forms of romanization of Chinese . It was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for romanization alone (in part to make areas more English-friendly) rather than for educational and computer-input purposes. The word _Hànyǔ_ (simplified Chinese : 汉语; traditional Chinese : 漢語) means the spoken language of the Han people . _Pīnyīn_ (拼音) literally means "spelled sounds"
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Wade–giles
WADE–GILES (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/ ), sometimes abbreviated WADE, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese . It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade , during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles 's _Chinese–English Dictionary _ of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the Nanking dialect -based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the Postal Romanization
Postal Romanization
(still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hanyu Pinyin system approved in 1958. Outside mainland China, it has mostly been replaced by Pīnyīn, even though Taiwan
Taiwan
implements a multitude of Romanization systems in daily life. Additionally, its usage can be seen in the common English names of certain individuals and locations such as Chiang Ching-kuo
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Cantonese
CANTONESE, or STANDARD CANTONESE, is a variety of the Chinese language spoken within the city of Canton (Guangzhou) and its vicinity in southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety of Yue , one of the major subdivisions of Chinese. In mainland China , it is the main _lingua franca _ of the province of Guangdong and some neighbouring areas such as Guangxi , being the majority language of the Pearl River Delta . It is the dominant and official language of Hong Kong and Macau . Cantonese is also widely spoken amongst overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia (most notably in Vietnam and Malaysia , as well as in Singapore and Cambodia to a lesser extent) and throughout the Western world . While the term _Cantonese_ refers narrowly to the prestige variety , it is often used in a broader sense for the entire Yue subdivision of Chinese, including related but largely mutually unintelligible languages such as Taishanese . When Cantonese and the closely-related Yuehai dialects are classified together, there are about 80 million total speakers. Cantonese is viewed as vital part of the cultural identity for its native speakers across large swathes of southeastern China , Hong Kong and Macau
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Yale Romanization Of Cantonese
The YALE ROMANIZATION OF CANTONESE was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook _Speak Cantonese_ (1958). Unlike the Yale romanization of Mandarin , it is still widely used in books and dictionaries, especially for foreign learners of Cantonese
Cantonese
. It shares some similarities with Hanyu Pinyin in that unvoiced, unaspirated consonants are represented by letters traditionally used in English and most other European languages to represent voiced sounds. For example, is represented as _b_ in Yale, whereas its aspirated counterpart, is represented as _p_. Because of this, the Yale romanization is easy for English speakers to pronounce without much training. Students studying Cantonese
Cantonese
at the University of Hong Kong learn the Jyutping
Jyutping
system of romanization, while those who attend The Chinese University of Hong Kong 's New-Asia Yale-in-China Chinese Language Center are taught to use the Yale romanization
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Jyutping
JYUTPING (Chinese : 粵拼; Jyutping: _Jyut6ping3_; Cantonese pronunciation: ) is a romanisation system for Cantonese
Cantonese
developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is _THE LINGUISTIC SOCIETY OF HONG KONG CANTONESE ROMANISATION SCHEME_. The LSHK promotes the use of this romanisation system. The name _Jyutping_ (itself the Jyutping
Jyutping
romanisation of its Chinese name, 粵拼) is a contraction consisting of the first Chinese characters of the terms _Jyut6jyu5_ (粵語, meaning "Cantonese speech") and _ping3jam1_ (拼音 "phonetic alphabet")
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Southern Min
SOUTHERN MIN, or MINNAN (simplified Chinese : 闽南语; traditional Chinese : 閩南語), is a branch of Min Chinese
Min Chinese
spoken in certain parts of China
China
including southern Fujian
Fujian
(the Minnan region
Minnan region
), eastern Guangdong
Guangdong
, Hainan
Hainan
, and southern Zhejiang
Zhejiang
, and in Taiwan
Taiwan
. The Minnan dialects are also spoken by descendants of emigrants from these areas in diaspora , most notably the Philippines
Philippines
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore
Singapore
. In common parlance, Southern Min
Southern Min
usually refers to Hokkien
Hokkien
, including Amoy and Taiwanese Hokkien
Hokkien
; both are combinations of Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou speeches. The Southern Min
Southern Min
dialect group also includes Teochew , though Teochew has limited mutual intelligibility with Hokkien
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Hokkien
HOKKIEN /hɒˈkiɛn/ (from Chinese : 福建話; Pe̍h-ōe-jī : _Hok-kiàn-oē_) is a Southern Min dialect group spoken throughout Southeastern China , Taiwan and Southeast Asia , and by other overseas Chinese . Hokkien originated in southern Fujian , the Min-speaking province. It is closely related to Teochew , though there is limited mutual intelligibility , and is somewhat more distantly related to Hainanese and Leizhou dialect . Besides Hokkien, there are also other Min and Hakka dialects in Fujian province, most of which are not mutually intelligible with Hokkien. Hokkien historically served as the lingua franca amongst overseas Chinese communities of all dialects and subgroups in Southeast Asia, and remains today as the most spoken variety of Chinese in the region, including in Singapore , Malaysia , Indonesia , Philippines and some parts of Indochina (particularly Thailand, Laos and Cambodia)
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Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Southern Min Amoy Taiwanese CREATOR Walter Henry Medhurst Elihu Doty John Van Nest Talmage TIME PERIOD 1830s–present CHILD SYSTEMS TLPA Taiwanese Romanization System
Taiwanese Romanization System
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters.PE̍H-ōE-Jī (pronounced ( listen ), abbreviated POJ, literally vernacular writing, also known as CHURCH ROMANIZATION) is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min Chinese, particularly Taiwanese Southern Min and Amoy Hokkien
Hokkien
. Developed by Western missionaries working among the Chinese diaspora in Southeast Asia in the 19th century and refined by missionaries working in Xiamen and Tainan
Tainan
, it uses a modified Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
and some diacritics to represent the spoken language. After initial success in Fujian , POJ became most widespread in Taiwan
Taiwan
and, in the mid-20th century, there were over 100,000 people literate in POJ. A large amount of printed material, religious and secular, has been produced in the script, including Taiwan
Taiwan
's first newspaper, the Taiwan
Taiwan
Church News
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Hangul
The KOREAN ALPHABET, 한글 , known as HANGUL in South Korea (also transcribed HANGEUL) and as 조선글(CHOSŏN\'GŭL) /조선문자(CHOSŏN MUNTCHA) in North Korea , is the alphabet that has been used to write the Korean language since the 15th century. It was created in 1443 under King Sejong the Great during the Joseon Dynasty . Now the alphabet is the official script of both South Korea and North Korea, and co-official in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County of China's Jilin Province . In South Korea, primarily Hangul is used to write the Korean language, as using Hanja ( Chinese characters ) in typical Korean writing fell out of common usage during the late 1990s. In its classical and modern forms, the alphabet has 19 consonant and 21 vowel letters. However, instead of being written sequentially like the letters of the Latin script, Hangul letters are grouped into blocks, such as 한 _han_, each of which transcribes a syllable . That is, although the syllable 한 _han_ may look like a single character, it is actually composed of three letters: _h_, _a_, and ㄴ _n_. Each syllabic block consists of two to six letters, including at least one consonant and one vowel . These blocks are then arranged horizontally from left to right or vertically from top to bottom
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Hanja
HANJA ( Hangul : 한자; Hanja: 漢字; Korean pronunciation: ) is the Korean name for Chinese characters (Chinese : 漢字; pinyin : _hànzì_). More specifically, it refers to those Chinese characters borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language with Korean pronunciation . _Hanja-mal_ or _hanja-eo _ refers to words that can be written with hanja, and _hanmun_ (한문, 漢文) refers to Classical Chinese writing, although "hanja" is sometimes used loosely to encompass these other concepts. Because hanja never underwent major reform, they are almost entirely identical to traditional Chinese and _kyūjitai _ characters. Only a small number of hanja characters are modified or unique to Korean. By contrast, many of the Chinese characters currently in use in Japan and Mainland China have been simplified, and contain fewer strokes than the corresponding hanja characters. Although a phonetic Korean alphabet, now known as hangul , had been created by a team of scholars commissioned in the 1440s by King Sejong the Great , it did not come into widespread use until the late 19th and early 20th century. Thus, until that time it was necessary to be fluent in reading and writing hanja in order to be literate in Korean, as the vast majority of Korean literature and most other Korean documents were written in hanja
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