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Berber-language
Northern Berber Kabyle    Kayble (Taqbaylit) Atlas   Central Atlas (Tamaziɣt)   Shilha (Tacelḥit)   Senhaja de srair & Ghomara Zenati   Riffian (Tarifit)   Ait Seghrouchen & Ayt Warayn   Shenwa   Shawiya   Other Zenati ( Mzab-Wargla, East Zenati )Western Berber   Zenaga(Tuḍḍungiyya) Eastern Berber   Eastern Berber (Siwi, Nafusi, Sokna, Ghadamès, Awjila) Tuareg    Tuareg
Tuareg
(Tamasheq)This article contains Tifinagh
Tifinagh
text
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Berbers
Berbers
Berbers
or Amazighs (Berber languages: ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ Imaziɣen; singular: ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖ Amaziɣ / Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting the Maghreb. They are distributed in an area stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Siwa Oasis
Siwa Oasis
in Egypt, and from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the Niger
Niger
River in West Africa. Historically, they spoke Berber languages, which together form the Berber branch of the Afroasiatic family. Since the Muslim conquest
Muslim conquest
of North Africa
North Africa
in the seventh century, a large number of Berbers
Berbers
inhabiting the Maghreb
Maghreb
(Tamazgha) have in varying degrees used as lingua franca the other languages spoken in North Africa
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Zenaga Language
Zenaga (autonym: Tuḍḍungiyya) is a Berber language
Berber language
spoken from the town of Mederdra
Mederdra
in southwestern Mauritania
Mauritania
to the Atlantic coast and in Senegal. It shares its basic linguistic structure with other Berber idioms, but specific features are quite different
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Sanhaja De Srair Language
Senhaja de Srair ("Senhaja of Srair") is a Northern Berber language. It is spoken by the Sanhaja Berbers inhabiting the southern part of the Moroccan Rif. Despite its speech area, the Sanhaja language belongs to the Atlas branch of Berber.[2] It has also been influenced by the neighbouring Riffian language. References[edit]^ Sanhaja de Srair at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) ^ a b Lameen Souag, 2004: "Senhaja de Srair is not Zenati, but rather Atlas, belonging (despite location) with Middle Atlas Tamazight." ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Senhaja De Srair". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. Bibliography[edit]Peter Behnstedt, "La frontera entre el bereber y el árabe en el Rif", Estudios de dialectología norteafricana y andalusí vol
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Ghomara Language
The Ghomara language
Ghomara language
is a Northern Berber language spoken in Morocco. It is the mother tongue of the Ghomara Berbers, who total around 10,000 people. Ghomara Berber is spoken on the western edge of the Rif, among the Beni Bu Zra and Beni Mansur tribes of the Ghomara confederacy. Despite being listed as endangered, it is still being passed on to children in these areas.[4] Ghomara Berber is relatively similar to Senhadja de Srair Berber spoken around Ketama
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Riffian Language
Riffian, Rif
Rif
Berber or Riffian Berber (native local name: Tmaziɣt; external name: Tarifit) is a Zenati Northern Berber language. It is spoken natively by some 1.4 million Riffians
Riffians
of Morocco
Morocco
and Algeria, primarily in the Rif
Rif
provinces of Al Hoceima, Nador, Driouch, Berkane and as a minority language in Tangier, Oujda and Tetouan
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Ait Seghrouchen Berber
Ait Seghrouchen Berber, or Seghroucheni (Seghrusheni), is a Zenati Berber language of the Eastern Middle Atlas
Middle Atlas
Berber cluster
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Eastern Middle Atlas Berber
Eastern Middle Atlas
Middle Atlas
Berber is a cluster of Berber dialects spoken in the eastern and north-eastern parts of the Middle Atlas, in Morocco. These dialects are those of the tribes of Aït Seghrushen, Aït Waraïn, Marmusha, Aït Alaham, Aït Yub and Aït Morghi.[2][3][4] Despite the fact that they are mutually intelligible with neighbouring Central Atlas Tamazight
Central Atlas Tamazight
dialects and are generally classified among them, these dialects actually belong to the Zenati languages and are intermediate dialects between the Riffian and Atlas languages.[5][1][6] Among these Zenati dialects, those of Aït Seghrouchen and Aït Waraïn were subject to most studies, while only a few studies were focused on the dialects of Aït Alaham and Marmusha, and practically none focused on the dialects of Aït Yub and Aït Morghi. References[edit]^ a b M
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Shenwa Language
Shenwa, also spelt Chenoua (native name: Haqbaylit̠), is a Zenati Berber language
Berber language
spoken on Mount Chenoua
Mount Chenoua
(Jebel Chenoua) in Algeria, just west of Algiers, and in the provinces of Tipaza (including the town of Cherchell) and Chlef
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Shawiya Language
Shawiya, or Shawiya Berber, also spelt Chaouïa (native form: Tacawit [θaʃawiθ]), is a Zenati Berber language
Berber language
spoken in Algeria
Algeria
by the Shawiya people. The language's primary speech area is the Awras Mountains in eastern Algeria
Algeria
and the surrounding areas, including Batna, Khenchela, Sétif, Oum El Bouaghi, Souk Ahras, Tébessa
Tébessa
and the northern part of Biskra.Contents1 Language 2 Bibliography 3 References 4 External linksLanguage[edit] The Shawiya people
Shawiya people
call their language Tacawit (Thashawith) (IPA: [θʃawɪθ] or [hʃawɪθ]), which is also known as Numidian Berber. Estimates of number of speakers range from 1.4 to 3 million speakers.[1][3] The French spelling of Chaouïa is commonly seen, due to the influence of French conventions on Algeria
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Mzab–Wargla Languages
The Mzab–Wargla languages
Mzab–Wargla languages
or Northern Saharan oasis dialects are a dialect cluster of the Zenati languages, within the Northern Berber subbranch
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East Zenati Languages
The East Zenati languages (Blench, 2006) or Tunisian and Zuwara (Kossmann, 2013) are a group of the Zenati Berber dialects spoken in Tunisia
Tunisia
and Libya. Marteen Kossmann considers the easternmost varieties of Zenati dialects as transitional to Eastern Berber, but they are quite different from the neighboring Nafusi. According to Kossmann, the dialect cluster of Tunisian Berber and Zuwara is consisting of the varieties spoken in mainland Tunisia (Sened (extinct), Matmata and Tataouine), Jerba and Zuwara, but not Nafusi which is considered a dialect of Eastern Berber.[3] Before Kossmann, Roger Blench (2006) considered East Zanati to be a dialect cluster consisting of Sened (extinct, including Tmagurt), Djerbi, Matmata (Tamezret, Zrawa & Taujjut), and Nafusi. [4] References[edit]^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tunisian-Zuwara". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0
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Tuareg
The Tuareg people
Tuareg people
(/ˈtwɑːrɛɡ/; also spelt Twareg or Touareg; endonym: Kel Tamasheq, Kel Tagelmust[4]) are a large Berber ethnic confederation
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North Africa
North Africa
Africa
is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries situated in the northern-most region of the African continent. The term "North Africa" has no single accepted definition. It is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic
Atlantic
shores of Morocco
Morocco
in the west, to the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and the Red Sea
Red Sea
in the east. Others have limited it to the countries of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, a region known by the French during colonial times as “Afrique du Nord” and by the Arabs
Arabs
as the Maghreb
Maghreb
(“West”). The most commonly accepted definition includes Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, as well as Libya
Libya
and Egypt
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Afroasiatic Language Family
Language
Language
is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated at least since Gorgias
Gorgias
and Plato
Plato
in ancient Greece. Thinkers such as Rousseau
Rousseau
have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky. Estimates of the number of human languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000
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Siwa Oasis
The Siwa Oasis
Oasis
(Arabic: واحة سيوة‎, Wāḥat Sīwah, IPA: [ˈwæːħet ˈsiːwæ]; Berber languages: Isiwan, ⵉⵙⵉⵡⴰⵏ) is an urban oasis in Egypt, between the Qattara Depression and the Egyptian Sand Sea
Egyptian Sand Sea
in the Western Desert, nearly 50 km (30 mi) east of the Libyan border, and 560 km (348 mi) from Cairo.[1][2][3] About 80 km (50 mi) in length and 20 km (12 mi) wide,[1] Siwa Oasis
Oasis
is one of Egypt's most isolated settlements, with about 33,000 people,[4] mostly Berbers[1] who developed a unique culture and a distinct language of the Berber family called Siwi.[5] Its fame lies primarily in its ancient role as the home to an oracle of Ammon, the ruins of which are a popular tourist attraction which gave the oasis its ancient name Ammonium
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