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Battle Of Cape Matapan
The Battle of Cape Matapan
Cape Matapan
(Greek: Ναυμαχία του Ταινάρου) was a Second World War
Second World War
naval engagement between British and Axis forces, fought from 27–29 March 1941
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Mediterranean Sea
The Mediterranean Sea
Sea
is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean Basin
and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe
Southern Europe
and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa
North Africa
and on the east by the Levant. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is usually identified as a separate body of water
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Greece
Greece
Greece
(Greek: Ελλάδα), officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), historically also known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern Europe,[10] with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2016. Athens
Athens
is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece
Greece
is located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania
Albania
to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the north, and Turkey
Turkey
to the northeast
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United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe
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Australia
Coordinates: 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133Commonwealth of AustraliaFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Advance Australia
Australia
Fair"[N 1]Capital Canberra 35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35.30806°S 149.12444°E / -35.30806; 149.12444Largest city SydneyNational language English[N 2]DemonymAustralian Aussie
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Kingdom Of Italy
The Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II
King Victor Emmanuel II
of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy
Italy
under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy
Italy
declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866 and received the region of Veneto
Veneto
following their victory. Italian troops entered Rome
Rome
in 1870, ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power
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Nazi Germany
Coordinates: 52°31′N 13°24′E / 52.517°N 13.400°E / 52.517; 13.400 "Drittes Reich" redirects here
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Operation Stone Age
During the Second World War, Operation Stone Age
Operation Stone Age
or Stoneage was the passage of MW13, a convoy of four merchant ships that reached Malta from Egypt on 20 November 1942 from Alexandria. Its arrival is considered to have broken the siege of that island. A simultaneous convoy from Gibraltar
Gibraltar
was cancelled as Axis forces still held Tunisia and would have been too great a threat.Contents1 Background 2 Prelude 3 Convoy 4 Aftermath 5 See also 6 Notes 7 Footnotes 8 References 9 External linksBackground[edit] British possession of Malta
Malta
had been sustained through 1942, despite heavy naval losses and in November 1942 the rewards were realised. The surviving ships of Operation Pedestal, including the tanker SS Ohio, had delivered sufficient stores and military materiel to reinvigorate British submarine and aircraft activity from the island's bases
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Battle Of Cape Bon (1941)
The naval Battle of Cape Bon
Cape Bon
took place on December 13, 1941 during the Second World War, between two Italian light cruisers and an Allied destroyer flotilla off Cape Bon, Tunisia. The loss of the two cruisers and their valuable fuel cargoes was a serious defeat for the Regia Marina.Contents1 Background 2 Action 3 Footnotes 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksBackground[edit] When Italy
Italy
declared war in June 1940, the Regia Marina
Regia Marina
was one of the largest navies in the world but it was restricted to the Mediterranean. The British Empire
British Empire
possessed enough resources and naval might to maintain a strong presence in the area and replace most losses by redeploying ships
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Operation Abstention
Operation Abstention
Operation Abstention
was a code name given to the British invasion of the Italian island of Kastelorizo, off Turkey, during the Second World War, in late February 1941. The goal was to establish a base to challenge the Italian naval and air supremacy on the Greek Dodecanese islands.[3]Contents1 Background 2 Battle2.1 Landing 2.2 Italian landing3 Aftermath 4 Order of battle 5 See also 6 Footnotes 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksBackground[edit] After the attack on Taranto and the success of Operation Compass, an offensive in Cyrenaica, Libya
Libya
from December 1940 – February 1941, the British conducted operations to neutralize Italian forces in the Dodecanese
Dodecanese
islands
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Raid On Souda Bay
The Raid on Souda Bay
Souda Bay
was an Italian Royal Navy
Royal Navy
small craft assault on Souda Bay, Crete, during the first hours of 26 March 1941. The Royal Navy heavy cruiser HMS York and the Norwegian tanker Pericles were disabled by Italian motor launches and eventually lost.Contents1 Background 2 The attack 3 Aftermath 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksBackground[edit] Souda is a naturally protected harbor on the northwest coast of the island
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Battle Of The Tarigo Convoy
The Battle of the Tarigo Convoy
Battle of the Tarigo Convoy
(sometimes referred to as the Action off Sfax) was a naval battle of World War II, part of the Battle of the Mediterranean. It was fought on 16 April 1941, between four British and three Italian destroyers, near the Kerkennah Islands
Kerkennah Islands
off Sfax, in the Tunisian coast. The battle was named after the Italian flagship, the destroyer Luca Tarigo. Control of the sea between Italy and Libya
Libya
was heavily disputed as both sides sought to safeguard their own convoys while interdicting those of their opponent. Axis convoys to North Africa supplied the German and Italian armies there, and British attacks were based on Malta, itself dependent upon convoys.Contents1 The battle 2 Aftermath 3 Notes 4 ReferencesThe battle[edit] In mid-April, 1941, a five ship Axis convoy sailed from Naples, en route to Tripoli
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Battle Of Crete
Personnel Over ~23,000 casualties[7]4,123 to 6,000+ dead[8] 3,000 wounded[9] 17,479 capturedMaterial4 cruisers sunk 6 destroyers sunk 1 aircraft carrier damaged 2 battleships damaged 4 cruisers damaged 2 destroyers damaged 1 submarine damagedPersonnel Over ~6,000 casualties[10]4,041 dead 2,000 to 2,640 wounded[11]Material284 Luftwaffe aircraft destroyed or written off and several hundred damaged[12] 1 Italian destroyer damaged 1 Italian torpedo boat damagedOver 500 Greek civilians executed by Axis soldiersv t eBattle of the MediterraneanMalta Club Run¹ Malta Convoys¹ Axis Convoys² Espero ¹² Mers-el-Kébir Calabria¹² Cape Spada Hurry ¹ Cape Passero¹ MB8 ¹ Taranto Strait of Otranto² White ¹ Cape Spartivento¹ Excess ¹ Convoy AN 14¹ Genoa Abstention Souda Bay Matapan Tarigo ² Crete ² Substance ¹ Halberd ¹ U-boat Campaign Duisburg ² Bon² 1st Sirte¹² Alexandria 2nd Sirte¹
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Operation Substance
Operation Substance
Operation Substance
was a British naval operation in July 1941 during the Second World War
Second World War
to escort convoy GM 1, the first of the series from
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Operation Halberd
Operation Halberd
Operation Halberd
was a British naval operation that took place on 27 September 1941, during the Second World War. The British were attempting to deliver a convoy from Gibraltar
Gibraltar
to Malta. The convoy was escorted by several battleships and an aircraft carrier, to deter interference from the Italian surface fleet, while a close escort of cruisers and destroyers provided an anti-aircraft screen. The Italian fleet sortied after the convoy was detected, but turned back after learning the strength of the escorting force. Air attacks by Italian bombers and fighters damaged several ships, and forced one of the merchant vessels to be scuttled
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Mediterranean U-boat Campaign (World War II)
The Mediterranean U-boat
U-boat
Campaign lasted approximately from 21 September 1941 to 19 September 1944 during World War II. Malta
Malta
was an active British base strategically located near supply routes from Europe to North Africa. As a result, Axis supply convoys across the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
suffered severe losses, which in turn threatened the fighting ability of the Axis armies in North Africa. At the same time the Allies were able successfully to keep their North African armies supplied. The Kriegsmarine
Kriegsmarine
initially aimed, unsuccessfully, to isolate Malta
Malta
but later it concentrated its U-boat
U-boat
operations on disrupting Allied landing operations in southern Europe
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