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Basophil
Basophils are a type of white blood cells. Basophils are the least common of the granulocytes, representing about 0.5 to 1% of circulating white blood cells.[2] However, they are the largest type of granulocyte. They are responsible for inflammatory reactions during immune response, as well as in the formation of acute and chronic allergic diseases, including anaphylaxis, asthma, atopic dermatitis and hay fever.[3] They can perform phagocytosis (cell eating), produce histamine and serotonin that induce inflammation, and heparin that prevents blood clotting[4], although there are less than that found in Mast cell
Mast cell
granules[5]
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Contrast Medium
A contrast agent (or contrast medium) is a substance used to increase the contrast of structures or fluids within the body in medical imaging.[1] Contrast agents absorb or alter external electromagnetism or ultrasound, which is different from radiopharmaceuticals, which emit radiation themselves. Contrast agents, enhance the radiodensity in a target tissue or structure. Contrast agents are commonly used to improve the visibility of blood vessels and the gastrointestinal tract. Several types of contrast agent are in use in medical imaging and they can roughly be classified based on the imaging modalities where they are used
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Cytoplasm
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus. It comprises cytosol (the gel-like substance enclosed within the cell membrane) and the organelles – the cell's internal sub-structures. All of the contents of the cells of prokaryotic organisms (such as bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus) are contained within the cytoplasm. Within the cells of eukaryotic organisms the contents of the cell nucleus are separated from the cytoplasm, and are then called the nucleoplasm. The cytoplasm is about 80% water and usually colorless.[1] The submicroscopic ground cell substance or cytoplasmatic matrix which remains after exclusion the cell organelles and particles is groundplasm
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Pollen
Pollen
Pollen
is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells). Pollen
Pollen
grains have a hard coat made of sporopollenin that protects the gametophytes during the process of their movement from the stamens to the pistil of flowering plants, or from the male cone to the female cone of coniferous plants. If pollen lands on a compatible pistil or female cone, it germinates, producing a pollen tube that transfers the sperm to the ovule containing the female gametophyte. Individual pollen grains are small enough to require magnification to see detail
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T Cell
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. T cells can be distinguished from other lymphocytes, such as B cells and natural killer cells, by the presence of a T-cell receptor
T-cell receptor
on the cell surface. They are called T cells because they mature in the thymus from thymocytes[1] (although some also mature in the tonsils[2]). The several subsets of T cells each have a distinct function. The majority of human T cells rearrange their alpha and beta chains on the cell receptor and are termed alpha beta T cells (αβ T cells) and are part of the adaptive immune system
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Proteoglycan
Proteoglycans are proteins[1] that are heavily glycosylated. The basic proteoglycan unit consists of a "core protein" with one or more covalently attached glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain(s).[2] The point of attachment is a serine (Ser) residue to which the glycosaminoglycan is joined through a tetrasaccharide bridge (e.g. chondroitin sulfate-GlcA-Gal-Gal-Xyl-PROTEIN). The Ser residue is generally in the sequence -Ser-Gly-X-Gly- (where X can be any amino acid residue but proline), although not every protein with this sequence has an attached glycosaminoglycan. The chains are long, linear carbohydrate polymers that are negatively charged under physiological conditions due to the occurrence of sulfate and uronic acid groups
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Tick
Ticks are small arachnids, part of the order Parasitiformes. Along with mites, they constitute the subclass Acari. Ticks are ectoparasites (external parasites), living by feeding on the blood of mammals, birds, and sometimes reptiles and amphibians. Ticks had evolved by the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period, the most common form of fossilisation being immersed in amber. Ticks are widely distributed around the world, especially in warm, humid climates. Almost all ticks belong to one of two major families, the Ixodidae
Ixodidae
or hard ticks, which are difficult to crush, and the Argasidae
Argasidae
or soft ticks. Adults have ovoid or pear-shaped bodies which become engorged with blood when they feed, and eight legs. As well as having a hard shield on their dorsal surfaces, hard ticks have a beak-like structure at the front containing the mouthparts whereas soft ticks have their mouthparts on the underside of the body
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Organ System
In biology, an organ system is a group of organs that work together to perform one or more functions. Each does a particular job in the body, and is made up of certain tissues. Organs and their tissue systems[edit] These specific systems are widely studied in anatomy
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Chondroitin
Chondroitin is a chondrin derivative.[1] Types include: Chondroitin sulfate Dermatan sulfateReferences[edit]^ Chondroitin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)v t ePolysaccharides: glycosaminoglycansUnsulfated, extracellularHyaluronan Sodium hyaluronateSulfated, extracellularChondroitin Chondroitin sulfate Dermatan sulfateHeparan sulfate Keratan sulfateSulfated, intracellularHeparinSyntheticPolysulfated glycosaminoglycanThis biochemistry article is a stub
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Proteolytic Enzyme
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis; protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds. Proteases have evolved multiple times, and different classes of protease can perform the same reaction by completely different catalytic mechanisms
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Elastase
In molecular biology, elastase is an enzyme from the class of proteases (peptidases) that break down proteins.[1]Contents1 Forms and classification 2 Function 3 The role of human elastase in disease3.1 A1AT 3.2 Cyclic hematopoeiesis 3.3 Other diseases4 The role of bacterial elastase in disease 5 References 6 External linksForms and classification[edit] Eight human genes exist for elastase:Family Gene
Gene
symbol
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Lysophospholipase
In enzymology, a lysophospholipase (EC 3.1.1.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 2-lysophosphatidylcholine
2-lysophosphatidylcholine
+ H2O ⇌ displaystyle rightleftharpoons glycerophosphocholine + a carboxylateThus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 2-lysophosphatidylcholine and H2O, whereas its two products are glycerophosphocholine and carboxylate. This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds
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Lipid
In biology, a lipid is a substance of biological origin that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.[3] It comprises a group of naturally occurring molecules that include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. The main biological functions of lipids include storing energy, signaling, and acting as structural components of cell membranes.[4][5] Lipids have applications in the cosmetic and food industries as well as in nanotechnology.[6] Scientists sometimes broadly define lipids as hydrophobic or amphiphilic small molecules; the amphiphilic nature of some lipids allows them to form structures such as vesicles, multilamellar/unilamellar liposomes, or membranes in an aqueous environment
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Microscope
A microscope (from the Ancient Greek: μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye. Microscopy
Microscopy
is the science of investigating small objects and structures using such an instrument. Microscopic means invisible to the eye unless aided by a microscope. There are many types of microscopes, and they may be grouped in different ways. One way is to describe the way the instruments interact with a sample to create images, either by sending a beam of light or electrons to a sample in its optical path, or by scanning across, and a short distance from, the surface of a sample using a probe. The most common microscope (and the first to be invented) is the optical microscope, which uses light to pass through a sample to produce an image
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Cell Nucleus
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin
Latin
nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotes usually have a single nucleus, but a few cell types, such as mammalian red blood cells, have no nuclei, and a few others have many. Cell nuclei contain most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA
DNA
molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. The genes within these chromosomes are the cell's nuclear genome and are structured in such a way to promote cell function. The nucleus maintains the integrity of genes and controls the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression—the nucleus is, therefore, the control center of the cell
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Dye
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. The dye is generally applied in an aqueous solution, and may require a mordant to improve the fastness of the dye on the fiber.[1] Both dyes and pigments are colored, because they absorb only some wavelengths of visible light. Dyes are usually soluble in water whereas pigments are insoluble
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