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Barrier Cream
A BARRIER CREAM is a topical formulation used in industrial applications and as a cosmetic to place a physical barrier between the skin and contaminants that may irritate the skin (contact dermatitis or occupational dermatitis ). There are many other terms for creams designed to protect skin from harmful substances, including skin protective creams, pre-work creams, antisolvent gels, protective ointments, and SHIELDING LOTIONS. Three classes of barrier creams are used: water repellent creams, water-soluble creams, and creams designed for special applications. Barrier creams may contain substances such as zinc oxide , talc or kaolin to layer over the skin. For hand care they are designed to protect against the harm from detergents and other irritants. The efficacy of barrier creams is controversial. They have not been demonstrated to be useful in preventing hand eczema
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Allergic Contact Dermatitis
ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS (ACD) is a form of contact dermatitis that is the manifestation of an allergic response caused by contact with a substance; the other type being irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). Although less common than ICD, ACD is accepted to be the most prevalent form of immunotoxicity found in humans. By its allergic nature, this form of contact dermatitis is a hypersensitive reaction that is atypical within the population. The mechanisms by which these reactions occur are complex, with many levels of fine control. Their immunology centres on the interaction of immunoregulatory cytokines and discrete subpopulations of T lymphocytes. CONTENTS * 1 Signs and symptoms * 2 Cause * 3 Mechanism * 3.1 Memory Response * 4 Diagnosis * 5 Treatment * 6 References SIGNS AND SYMPTOMSThe symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis are very similar to the ones caused by irritant contact dermatitis, which makes the first even harder to diagnose
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Hydrophobic
In chemistry , HYDROPHOBICITY is the physical property of a molecule (known as a HYDROPHOBE) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water . (Strictly speaking, there is no repulsive force involved; it is an absence of attraction.) In contrast, hydrophiles are attracted to water. Hydrophobic molecules tend to be nonpolar and, thus, prefer other neutral molecules and nonpolar solvents . Because water molecules are polar, hydrophobes do not dissolve well among them. Hydrophobic molecules in water often cluster together, forming micelles . Water on hydrophobic surfaces will exhibit a high contact angle . Examples of hydrophobic molecules include the alkanes , oils , fats , and greasy substances in general. Hydrophobic materials are used for oil removal from water, the management of oil spills , and chemical separation processes to remove non-polar substances from polar compounds. Hydrophobic is often used interchangeably with lipophilic , "fat-loving"
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Humectant
A HUMECTANT /hjuːˈmɛktənt/ is a hygroscopic substance used to keep things moist; it is the opposite of a desiccant . It is often a molecule with several hydrophilic groups, most often hydroxyl groups ; however, amines and carboxyl groups , sometimes esterified , can be encountered as well (its affinity to form hydrogen bonds with molecules of water is the crucial trait). They are used in many products, including food, cosmetics, medicines and pesticides. A humectant attracts and retains the moisture in the air nearby via absorption, drawing the water vapor into or beneath the organism's or object's surface. By contrast, desiccants also attract ambient moisture, but adsorb —not absorb—it, by condensing the water vapor onto the surface, as a layer of film. When used as a food additive , a humectant has the effect of keeping the foodstuff moist. Humectants are sometimes used as a component of antistatic coatings for plastics
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Stratum Corneum
The STRATUM CORNEUM ( Latin
Latin
for 'horny layer') is the outermost layer of the epidermis , consisting of dead cells (corneocytes ). This layer is composed of 15–20 layers of flattened cells with no nuclei and cell organelles. Their cytoplasm shows filamentous keratin . These corneocytes are embedded in a lipid matrix composed of ceramides , cholesterol , and fatty acids . The stratum corneum functions to form a barrier to protect underlying tissue from infection , dehydration , chemicals and mechanical stress. Desquamation
Desquamation
, the process of cell shedding from the surface of the stratum corneum, balances proliferating keratinocytes that form in the stratum basale . These cells migrate through the epidermis towards the surface in a journey that takes approximately fourteen days
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Transepidermal Water Loss
TRANSEPIDERMAL WATER LOSS (TEWL or TWL) is the loss of water that passes from inside a body (animal or plant ) through the epidermis (that is, either the epidermal layer of animal skin or the epidermal layer of plants ) to the surrounding atmosphere via diffusion and evaporation processes. TEWL in mammals is also known as insensible water loss (IWL), as it is a process over which organisms have little physiologic control and of which they are usually mostly unaware. Insensible loss of body water can threaten fluid balance ; in humans, substantial dehydration sometimes occurs before a person realizes what is happening. Measurements of TEWL may be useful for identifying skin damage caused by certain chemicals, physical insult (such as "tape stripping ") or pathological conditions such as eczema , as rates of TEWL increase in proportion to the level of damage
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Skin Irritation
IRRITATION, in biology and physiology , is a state of inflammation or painful reaction to allergy or cell-lining damage. A stimulus or agent which induces the state of irritation is an IRRITANT. Irritants are typically thought of as chemical agents (for example phenol and capsaicin ) but mechanical, thermal (heat), and radiative stimuli (for example ultraviolet light or ionising radiations ) can also be irritants. Irritation
Irritation
also has non-clinical usages referring to bothersome physical or psychological pain or discomfort. Irritation
Irritation
can also be induced by some allergic response due to exposure of some allergens for example contact dermatitis, irritation of mucousal membranes and pruritus. Mucosal membrane is most common site of irritation because it contains secretory glands that release mucous which attracts the allergens due to its sticky nature
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Moisturizer
MOISTURIZERS or EMOLLIENTS (/ᵻˈmɒliənts/ ) are complex mixtures of chemical agents specially designed to make the external layers of the skin (epidermis ) softer and more pliable. They increase the skin's hydration (water content) by reducing evaporation. Naturally occurring skin lipids and sterols , as well as artificial or natural oils , humectants , emollients, lubricants , etc., may be part of the composition of commercial skin moisturizers. They usually are available as commercial products for cosmetic and therapeutic uses, but can also be made at home using common pharmacy ingredients
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Dermis
The DERMIS or CORIUM is a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it makes up the cutis ) and subcutaneous tissues , that primarily consists of dense irregular connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain. It is divided into two layers, the superficial area adjacent to the epidermis called the papillary region and a deep thicker area known as the reticular dermis. The dermis is tightly connected to the epidermis through a basement membrane . Structural components of the dermis are collagen , elastic fibers , and extrafibrillar matrix . It also contains mechanoreceptors that provide the sense of touch and thermoreceptors that provide the sense of heat . In addition, hair follicles , sweat glands , sebaceous glands , apocrine glands , lymphatic vessels and blood vessels are present in the dermis. Those blood vessels provide nourishment and waste removal for both dermal and epidermal cells
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Hygroscopy
HYGROSCOPY is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment , which is usually at normal or room temperature. This is achieved through either absorption or adsorption with the absorbing or adsorbing substance becoming physically changed somewhat. This could be an increase in volume, boiling point, viscosity, or other physical characteristic or property of the substance, as water molecules can become suspended between the substance's molecules in the process. Apparatus for the determination of the hygroscopicity of fertilizer, Fixed Nitrogen Research Laboratory, ca.1930 HYGROSCOPIC substances include cellulose fibers (such as cotton and paper), sugar , caramel , honey , glycerol , ethanol , wood , methanol , sulfuric acid , many fertilizer chemicals, many salts (including sodium chloride ), and a wide variety of other substances
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Morbidity And Mortality Weekly Report
The MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY REPORT is a weekly epidemiological digest for the United States published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It is the main vehicle for publishing public health information and recommendations that have been received by the CDC from state health departments. Material published in the report is in the public domain and may be reprinted without permission. As of 2015 , the journal's editor-in-chief is Sonja Rasmussen. As noted in the sequel, some single reports have evoked media interest also outside health and medical contexts. However, many reports are parts of series, providing consistent long-terms statistics, and also indicating trend changes. Such a standing report section is the "Notifiable Diseases and Mortality Tables", which reports deaths by disease and state, and city for city, for 122 large cities
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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Social Media
SOCIAL MEDIA are computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information , ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks . The variety of stand-alone and built-in social media services currently available introduces challenges of definition; however, there are some common features: * Social media are interactive Web 2.0 Internet -based applications. * User-generated content , such as text posts or comments, digital photos or videos, and data generated through all online interactions, are the lifeblood of social media. * Users create service-specific profiles for the website or app that are designed and maintained by the social media organization . * Social media facilitate the development of online social networks by connecting a user's profile with those of other individuals or groups
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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