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Barrier Cream
A BARRIER CREAM is a topical formulation used in industrial applications and as a cosmetic to place a physical barrier between the skin and contaminants that may irritate the skin (contact dermatitis or occupational dermatitis ). There are many other terms for creams designed to protect skin from harmful substances, including skin protective creams, pre-work creams, antisolvent gels, protective ointments, and SHIELDING LOTIONS. Three classes of barrier creams are used: water repellent creams, water-soluble creams, and creams designed for special applications. Barrier creams may contain substances such as zinc oxide , talc or kaolin to layer over the skin. For hand care they are designed to protect against the harm from detergents and other irritants. The efficacy of barrier creams is controversial. They have not been demonstrated to be useful in preventing hand eczema . A 2010 Cochrane review concluded that there was insufficient evidence to determine whether barrier cream could prevent occupational contact dermatitis . They are a poor substitute for protective clothing for workers. Gloves provide a greater protection than barrier creams. However they are reasonably effective for the protection of face against some airborne substances. Some evidence suggests that improper use of barrier cream could cause a harmful rather than a beneficial effect
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Topical Medication
A TOPICAL MEDICATION is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body. Most often topical administration means application to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes to treat ailments via a large range of classes including creams , foams , gels , lotions , and ointments. Many topical medications are epicutaneous, meaning that they are applied directly to the skin. Topical
Topical
medications may also be inhalational , such as asthma medications , or applied to the surface of tissues other than the skin, such as eye drops applied to the conjunctiva , or ear drops placed in the ear, or medications applied to the surface of a tooth . The word _topical_ derives from Greek τοπικός _topikos_, "of a place"
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Contact Dermatitis
CONTACT DERMATITIS is a type of inflammation of the skin. It results from either exposure to allergens (allergic contact dermatitis ) or irritants (irritant contact dermatitis ). Phototoxic dermatitis occurs when the allergen or irritant is activated by sunlight. Diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis can often be supported by patch testing . CONTENTS * 1 Signs and symptoms * 2 Causes * 2.1 Irritant contact dermatitis * 2.2 Allergic contact dermatitis * 2.3 Photocontact dermatitis * 3 Diagnosis * 4 Prevention * 5 Treatment * 5.1 Self-care * 5.2 Medical care * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Contact dermatitis
Contact dermatitis
is a localized rash or irritation of the skin caused by contact with a foreign substance. Only the superficial regions of the skin are affected in contact dermatitis. Inflammation of the affected tissue is present in the epidermis (the outermost layer of skin) and the outer dermis (the layer beneath the epidermis). Contact dermatitis
Contact dermatitis
results in large, burning, and itchy rashes. These can take anywhere from several days to weeks to heal. This differentiates it from contact urticaria (hives), in which a rash appears within minutes of exposure and then fades away within minutes to hours
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Occupational Dermatitis
CONTACT DERMATITIS is a type of inflammation of the skin. It results from either exposure to allergens (allergic contact dermatitis ) or irritants (irritant contact dermatitis ). Phototoxic dermatitis occurs when the allergen or irritant is activated by sunlight. Diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis can often be supported by patch testing . CONTENTS * 1 Signs and symptoms * 2 Causes * 2.1 Irritant contact dermatitis
Irritant contact dermatitis
* 2.2 Allergic contact dermatitis * 2.3 Photocontact dermatitis
Photocontact dermatitis
* 3 Diagnosis * 4 Prevention * 5 Treatment * 5.1 Self-care * 5.2 Medical care * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Contact dermatitis is a localized rash or irritation of the skin caused by contact with a foreign substance. Only the superficial regions of the skin are affected in contact dermatitis. Inflammation of the affected tissue is present in the epidermis (the outermost layer of skin) and the outer dermis (the layer beneath the epidermis). Contact dermatitis results in large, burning, and itchy rashes. These can take anywhere from several days to weeks to heal. This differentiates it from contact urticaria (hives), in which a rash appears within minutes of exposure and then fades away within minutes to hours
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Talc
TALC or TALCUM is a clay mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. In loose form, it was one of the most widely used substances known as baby powder , along with corn starch . It occurs as foliated to fibrous masses, and in an exceptionally rare crystal form. It has a perfect basal cleavage , and the folia are not elastic , although slightly flexible. Mohs scale of mineral hardness , based on scratch hardness comparison , defines value 1 as the hardness of talc. As such, talc can easily be scratched by a fingernail . Talc
Talc
has a specific gravity of 2.5–2.8, a clear or dusty luster , and is translucent to opaque. Talc
Talc
is not soluble in water, but is slightly soluble in dilute mineral acids . Its color ranges from white to grey or green and it has a distinctly greasy feel. Its streak is white. Soapstone
Soapstone
is a metamorphic rock composed predominantly of talc. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Formation * 3 Occurrence * 4 Uses * 4.1 Sterile talc powder * 5 Safety * 5.1 Industrial grade * 5.2 Food grade * 5.3 Asbestos link * 6 Litigation * 7 See also * 8 References ETYMOLOGYThe word "talc" derives from Medieval Latin talcus, which in turn originates from Arabic : طلق‎‎ ṭalq which in turn was derived from Persian : تالک‎‎ tālk
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Kaolin
KAOLINITE /ˈkeɪəlᵻˌnaɪt/ is a clay mineral , part of the group of industrial minerals , with the chemical composition Al 2Si 2O 5(OH )4. It is a layered silicate mineral , with one tetrahedral sheet of silica (SiO4) linked through oxygen atoms to one octahedral sheet of alumina (AlO6) octahedra. Rocks that are rich in kaolinite are known as KAOLIN /ˈkeɪəlᵻn/ or CHINA CLAY. The name "kaolin" is derived from "Gaoling" (Chinese : 高嶺; pinyin : Gāolǐng; literally: "High Ridge"), a Chinese village near Jingdezhen
Jingdezhen
in southeastern China's Jiangxi
Jiangxi
Province . The name entered English in 1727 from the French version of the word: kaolin, following Francois Xavier d\'Entrecolles 's reports from Jingdezhen. Kaolinite has a low shrink–swell capacity and a low cation-exchange capacity (1–15 meq/100 g). It is a soft, earthy, usually white, mineral (dioctahedral phyllosilicate clay ), produced by the chemical weathering of aluminium silicate minerals like feldspar . In many parts of the world it is colored pink-orange-red by iron oxide , giving it a distinct rust hue. Lighter concentrations yield white, yellow, or light orange colors. Alternating layers are sometimes found, as at Providence Canyon State Park in Georgia, United States. Commercial grades of kaolin are supplied and transported as dry powder, semi-dry noodle or as liquid slurry
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Hand Eczema
HAND ECZEMA presents on the palms and soles, and may sometimes be difficult or impossible to differentiate from atopic dermatitis , allergic contact dermatitis , and psoriasis , which also commonly involve the hands. :78 Even a biopsy of all these conditions may not result in a definitive diagnosis, as all three conditions may demonstrate spongiosis and crusting on the hands. :78 Non-communicable inflammation of the skin of the hands is referred to as hand eczema. Hand eczema
Hand eczema
is widely prevalent and, as it is a very visible condition associated with severe itching or pain, has serious consequences for the affected person including a high psychological impact. Different disease patterns can be identified according to the course of the illness, appearance of symptoms, degree of severity, or catalysts. Prognosis is hard to predict for individual cases of chronic hand eczema and usually differs from patient to patient. Successful treatment depends on determining the causes of the condition, obtaining an accurate diagnosis, sustainable hand protection procedures and an early, extensive, and where appropriate internal treatment
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Cochrane Review
COCHRANE is a British non-profit , non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers. Cochrane has more than 37,000 volunteers in more than 130 countries. The group conducts systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials of health-care interventions and diagnostic tests and publishes them in The Cochrane Library . A few reviews, in occupational health for example, incorporate results from non-randomized, observational studies . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Logo
Logo
* 3 Reception * 4 Partnerships * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYCochrane, previously known as the COCHRANE COLLABORATION, was founded in 1993 under the leadership of Iain Chalmers . It was developed in response to Archie Cochrane 's call for up-to-date, systematic reviews of all relevant randomized controlled trials of health care. Cochrane's suggestion that the methods used to prepare and maintain reviews of controlled trials in pregnancy and childbirth should be applied more widely was taken up by the Research and Development Programme, initiated to support the United Kingdom's National Health Service . Through the NHS R the winner gets a $1000 and their expenses paid to an annual Cochrane conference where they receive the award
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Sodium Lauryl Sulfate
SODIUM DODECYL SULFATE, synonymously SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE (or laurilsulfate; SDS or SLS, respectively), is a synthetic organic compound with the formula CH3(CH2)11SO4 Na . It is an anionic surfactant used in many cleaning and hygiene products. The sodium salt is of an organosulfate class of organics. It consists of a 12-carbon tail attached to a sulfate group, that is, it is the sodium salt of dodecyl hydrogen sulfate, the ester of dodecyl alcohol and sulfuric acid . Its hydrocarbon tail combined with a polar "headgroup " give the compound amphiphilic properties and so make it useful as a detergent . Also derived as a component of mixtures produced from inexpensive coconut and palm oils , SDS is a common component of many domestic cleaning, personal hygiene and cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food products, as well as of industrial and commercial cleaning and product formulations
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Hydrophilia
A HYDROPHILE is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water. In contrast, hydrophobes are not attracted to water and may seem to be repelled by it. CONTENTS * 1 Molecules * 2 Chemicals * 2.1 Liquid chemicals * 2.1.1 Alcohols * 2.2 Solid chemicals * 2.2.1 Cyclodextrins * 3 Membrane filtration * 4 See also * 5 References MOLECULESA hydrophilic molecule or portion of a molecule is one whose interactions with water and other polar substances are more thermodynamically favorable than their interactions with oil or other hydrophobic solvents. They are typically charge-polarized and capable of hydrogen bonding . This makes these molecules soluble not only in water but also in other polar solvents . Hydrophilic molecules (and portions of molecules) can be contrasted with hydrophobic molecules (and portions of molecules). In some cases, both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties occur in a single molecule. An example of these amphiphilic molecules is the lipids that comprise the cell membrane . Another example is soap , which has a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail, allowing it to dissolve in both water and oil. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules are also known as polar molecules and nonpolar molecules , respectively. Some hydrophilic substances do not dissolve
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Petroleum Jelly
Petroleum
Petroleum
jelly, petrolatum, white petrolatum, soft paraffin/paraffin wax or multi-hydrocarbon, CAS number 8009-03-8, is a semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons (with carbon numbers mainly higher than 25),[1] originally promoted as a topical ointment for its healing properties. After petroleum jelly became a medicine chest staple, consumers began to use it for many ailments as well as cosmetic purposes, including toenail fungus, genital rashes (non-STD), nosebleeds, diaper rash, and chest colds. Its folkloric medicinal value as a "cure-all" has since been limited by better scientific understanding of appropriate and inappropriate uses. It is recognized by the U.S
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Pathogens
In biology , a PATHOGEN (Greek : πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease ; the term came into use in the 1880s. Typically the term is used to describe an infectious agent such as a virus , bacterium , protozoa , prion , a fungus , or other micro-organism. There are several substrates including pathways where the pathogens can invade a host. The principal pathways have different episodic time frames, but soil contamination has the longest or most persistent potential for harboring a pathogen. Diseases caused by organisms in humans are known as pathogenic diseases. CONTENTS* 1 Pathogenicity * 1.1 Context-dependent pathogenicity * 1.2 Related concepts * 1.2.1 Virulence
Virulence
* 1.2.2 Transmission * 2 Types of pathogens * 2.1 Bacterial * 2.2 Viral * 2.3 Fungal * 2.4 Prionic * 2.5 Other parasites * 2.6 Algal * 3 Treatment and health care * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links PATHOGENICITYPATHOGENICITY is the potential disease -causing capacity of pathogens. Pathogenicity is related to virulence in meaning, but some authorities have come to distinguish it as a qualitative term, whereas the latter is quantitative. By this standard, an organism may be said to be pathogenic or non-pathogenic in a particular context, but not "more pathogenic" than another
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Irritant Contact Dermatitis
IRRITANT CONTACT DERMATITIS is a form of contact dermatitis that can be divided into forms caused by chemical irritants and those caused by physical irritants. CONTENTS * 1 Chemical irritant contact dermatitis * 2 Physical irritant contact dermatitis * 2.1 Low humidity * 2.2 Plants * 3 References CHEMICAL IRRITANT CONTACT DERMATITISChemical irritant contact dermatitis is either acute or chronic, which is usually associated with strong and weak irritants respectively. The following definition is provided by Mathias and Maibach (1978): The mechanism of action varies. Detergents, surfactants, extremes of pH, and organic solvents all directly affecting the barrier properties of the epidermis. These effects include removing fat emulsion, defatting of dermal lipids, inflicting cellular damage on the epithelium, and increasing the transepidermal water loss by damaging the horny layer water-binding mechanisms and damaging the DNA, which causes the layer to thin. Concentrated irritants have an acute effect, but this is not as common as the accumulative, chronic effect of irritants whose deleterious effects build up with subsequent doses (ESCD 2006). Chemical irritants are often strong alkalis as found in drain cleaners and soap with lye residues. Many other chemical compounds can also cause contact dermatitiis
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World Health Organization
World Health Organization Organisation mondiale de la santé (in French) Flag of the World Health Organization ABBREVIATION WHO OMS FORMATION 7 April 1948; 69 years ago (1948-04-07) TYPE Specialized agency of the United Nations LEGAL STATUS Active HEADQUARTERS Geneva , Switzerland HEAD Tedros Adhanom , Director-General PARENT ORGANIZATION United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) WEBSITE www.who.intThe WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health . It was established on 7 April 1948, headquartered in Geneva , Switzerland. The WHO is a member of the United Nations Development Group . Its predecessor, the Health Organization , was an agency of the League of Nations . The constitution of the World Health Organization had been signed by 61 countries on 22 July 1946, with the first meeting of the World Health Assembly finishing on 24 July 1948. It incorporated the _Office international d'hygiène publique_ and the League of Nations Health Organization. Since its creation, it has played a leading role in the eradication of smallpox