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Barghawata
The Barghawatas (also Barghwata or Berghouata) were a group of Berber tribes on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, belonging to the Masmuda confederacy. After allying with the Sufri
Sufri
Kharijite
Kharijite
rebellion in Morocco
Morocco
against the Umayyad Caliphate, they established an independent state (CE 744 - 1058) in the area of Tamesna on the Atlantic coast between Safi and Salé
Salé
under the leadership of Tarif al-Matghari.Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 Religion 4 Tribes 5 Barghawata
Barghawata
kings 6 See also 7 References 8 NotesEtymology[edit] Some historians believe that the term Barghawata
Barghawata
is a phonetic deformation of the term Barbati, a nickname which Tarif carried
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Berber Languages
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages[2] (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg
Tuareg
Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ, pronounced [tæmæˈzɪɣt], [θæmæˈzɪɣθ]), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. They comprise a group of closely related dialects spoken by the Berbers, who are indigenous to North Africa.[3] The languages were traditionally written with the ancient Libyco-Berber script, which now exists in the form of Tifinagh.[4] Berber is spoken by large populations of Morocco, Algeria
Algeria
and Libya, by smaller populations of Tunisia, northern Mali, western and northern Niger, northern Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
and Mauritania
Mauritania
and in the Siwa Oasis
Siwa Oasis
of Egypt
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Ancient Carthage
Carthage
Carthage
(Punic: Qart-ḥadašt, 𐤒𐤓𐤕•𐤇𐤃𐤔𐤕‬, Qart-ḥadašt – "New City")[1] was the Phoenician city-state of Carthage
Carthage
and during the 7th to 3rd centuries BC, including its wider sphere of influence, the Carthaginian Empire. The empire extended over much of the coast of North Africa
North Africa
as well as encompassing substantial parts of coastal Iberia
Iberia
and the islands of the western Mediterranean Sea.[2] Carthage
Carthage
was founded in 814 BC.[3][4] A dependency of the Phoenician state of Tyre at the time, Carthage
Carthage
gained independence around 650 BC and established its political hegemony over other Phoenician settlements throughout the western Mediterranean, this lasting until the end of the 3rd century BC
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Ifni War
The Ifni
Ifni
War, sometimes called the Forgotten War in Spain
Spain
(la Guerra Olvidada), was a series of armed incursions into Spanish West Africa by Moroccan insurgents that began in October 1957 and culminated with the abortive siege
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Tangier International Zone
The Tangier
Tangier
International Zone (Arabic: منطقة طنجة الدولية‎ Minṭaqat Ṭanja ad-Dawliyya, French: Zone Internationale de Tanger, Spanish: Zona Internacional de Tánger) was a 373-square-kilometre (144 sq mi) international zone centered on the city of Tangier, Morocco, then under French and Spanish protectorate, under the joint administration of France, Spain, and the United Kingdom <
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Rif War
The Rif
Rif
War was an armed conflict fought from 1920 to 1927 between the colonial power Spain
Spain
(later joined by France) and the Berber tribes of the Rif
Rif
mountainous region. Led by Abd el-Krim, the Riffians at first inflicted several defeats on the Spanish forces by using guerrilla tactics and captured European weapons. After France's military intervention against Abd el-Krim's forces and the major landing of Spanish troops at Al Hoceima, considered the first amphibious landing in history to involve the use of tanks and aircraft, Abd el-Krim surrendered to the French and was taken into exile.[8] In 1909, Rifian tribes aggressively confronted Spanish workers of the iron mines of the Rif, near Melilla, which led to the intervention of the Spanish Army. The military operations in Jebala, in the Moroccan West, began in 1911 with the Larache
Larache
Landing
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French Conquest Of Morocco
France MoroccoZaian Confederation Varying other Berber tribesCommanders and leadersLouis-Hubert Lyautey Paul Prosper Henrys Joseph-François Poeymirau Philippe PétainAbdel-Salam Mohammed Abdel-Karim Mhamadi Bojabbar Mohamed Mouha ou Hammou Zayani Moha ou Said Ali Amhaouch Assou OubasslamCasualties and losses9,445 French regulars (622 officers) killed 11,254 natives killed 15,000 wounded[1]Unknownv t eFranco-Moroccan conflicts Larache expedition
Larache expedition
(1765) Conquest of Algeria (1830–47)
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Spanish Protectorate Of Morocco
The Spanish protectorate in Morocco[a] was established on 27 November 1912 by a treaty between France
France
and Spain[1] that converted the Spanish sphere of influence in Morocco
Morocco
into a formal protectorate. The Spanish protectorate consisted of a northern strip on the Mediterranean and the Strait of Gibraltar, and a southern part of the protectorate[2] around Cape Juby, bordering the Spanish Sahara
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Agadir Crisis
Treaty of Fez:France establishes a full protectorate over MoroccoBelligerents German Empire United Kingdom  French Third Republic Kingdom of Spainv t eScramble for AfricaBoer War (1880) Tunisia (1881) Sudan (1881) Egypt (1882) Wassoulou (1883) Eritrea (1887) Dahomey (1890) Mashonaland (1890) Dahomey (1892) Matabeleland (1893) Wassoulou (1894) Ashanti (1895) Ethiopia (1895) Matabeleland (1896) Zanzibar (1896) Benin (1897) Wassoulou (1898) Chad
Chad
(1898) (Kousséri) Fashoda (1898) South Africa (1899) Namibia (1904) Tanganyika (1905)
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Algeciras Conference
 Germany  Austria-Hungary  Great Britain  France  Russian Empire  Spain  United States  Kingdom of Italy  Morocco  Netherlands  Sweden  Portugal  Belgium  Ottoman EmpireLanguages French, English and SpanishThe Algeciras
Algeciras
Conference of 1906 took place in Algeciras, Spain, and lasted from 16 January to 7 April. The purpose of the conference was to find a solution to the First Moroccan Crisis
First Moroccan Crisis
of 1905 between France and Germany, which arose as Germany responded to France's effort to establish a protectorate over the independent state of Morocco.[1] Germany was not trying to stop French expansion – its goal was to enhance its own international prestige, and it failed badly
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First Moroccan Crisis
The First Moroccan Crisis
First Moroccan Crisis
(also known as the Tangier
Tangier
Crisis) was an international crisis between March 1905 and May 1906 over the status of Morocco. The crisis worsened German relations with both France
France
and the United Kingdom, and helped enhance the new Anglo-French Entente.Contents1 The Kaiser's visit 2 French reaction; concentration of troops for war2.1 The Algeciras Conference3 Consequence 4 Further reading 5 See also 6 ReferencesThe Kaiser's visit[edit] On March 31, 1905, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany
Germany
landed at Tangier, Morocco
Morocco
and conferred with representatives of Sultan Abdelaziz of Morocco.[1] The Kaiser proceeded to tour the city on the back of a white horse
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Miknasa
The Miknasa (Berber: Imeknasen) is a Zenata
Zenata
Berber tribe in Morocco and western Algeria.[1] Unlike the indigenous Maghrawa of today's Morocco, the Miknasa Berbers originated in southern Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
(modern Tunisia), but migrated westwards into central Morocco
Morocco
and western Algeria
Algeria
in pre-Islamic times. The modern Moroccan city of Meknes, which took its name from them,[2] bears witness to their presence, as does the Spanish town of Mequinenza.[3] After defeat by the Umayyads, many of the Miknasa converted to Islam.[4] In 711, members of the tribe took part in the conquest of the Visigothic Kingdom
Visigothic Kingdom
under Tariq ibn Ziyad
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Fatimid Caliphate
The Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: الفاطميون‎, al-Fāṭimīyūn) was an Ismaili
Ismaili
Shia
Shia
Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea
Red Sea
in the east to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
in the west. The dynasty of Arab origin[4][5] ruled across the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast of Africa and ultimately made Egypt
Egypt
the centre of the caliphate. At its height the caliphate included in addition to Egypt
Egypt
varying areas of the Maghreb, Sudan, Sicily, the Levant, and Hijaz. The Fatimids
Fatimids
claimed descent from Fatimah, the daughter of Islamic prophet Muhammad
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Caliphate Of Córdoba
The Caliphate
Caliphate
of Córdoba (Arabic: خلافة قرطبة‎; trans. Khilāfat Qurṭuba) was a state in Islamic Iberia
Iberia
along with a part of North Africa
North Africa
ruled by the Umayyad
Umayyad
dynasty. The state, with the capital in Córdoba, existed from 929 to 1031. The region was formerly dominated by the Umayyad
Umayyad
Emirate of Córdoba
Emirate of Córdoba
(756–929). The period was characterized by an expansion of trade and culture, and saw the construction of masterpieces of al-Andalus architecture. In January 929, Abd-ar-Rahman III
Abd-ar-Rahman III
proclaimed himself caliph (Arabic: خليفة) of Córdoba[2] in place of his original title, Emir
Emir
of Córdoba (Arabic: أمير قرطبة 'Amīr Qurṭuba)
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Muslim Conquest Of The Maghreb
Muslim conquest of the Levantal-Qaryatayn Bosra Ajnadayn Marj Rahit Fahl Damascus Maraj-al-Debaj Emesa Yarmouk Jerusalem Hazir Aleppo Iron Bridge GermaniciaMuslim conquest of EgyptHeliopolis Babylon Fortress Alexandria NikiouMuslim conquest of North AfricaSufetula Vescera Mamma Carthage Umayyad
Umayyad
invasions of Anatolia and Constantinople1st Constantinople Sebastopolis Tyana 2nd Constantinople Nicaea AkroinonArab–
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Mauretania
 Spain ∟ Ceuta  ∟ Melilla Mauretania
Mauretania
(also spelled Mauritania)[3] is the Latin name for an area in the ancient Maghreb
Maghreb
(Tamazgha). It stretched from central present-day Algeria
Algeria
westwards to the Atlantic, covering northern Morocco, and southward to the Atlas Mountains.[4] Its native inhabitants, seminomadic pastoralists of Berber ancestral stock, were known to the Romans as the Mauri and the Masaesyli.[5] Beginning in 27 BC, the kings of Mauretania
Mauretania
became Roman vassals until about 44 AD when the area was annexed to Rome and divided into two provinces: Mauretania Tingitana
Mauretania Tingitana
and Mauretania
Mauretania
Caesariensis. In the late 3rd century, another province, Mauretania
Mauretania
Sitifensis, was formed out of the eastern part of Caesariensis
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