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The Barghawatas (also Barghwata or Berghouata) were a group of Berber tribes on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, belonging to the Masmuda confederacy. After allying with the Sufri
Sufri
Kharijite
Kharijite
rebellion in Morocco
Morocco
against the Umayyad Caliphate, they established an independent state (CE 744 - 1058) in the area of Tamesna on the Atlantic coast between Safi and Salé
Salé
under the leadership of Tarif al-Matghari.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Religion 4 Tribes 5 Barghawata
Barghawata
kings 6 See also 7 References 8 Notes

Etymology[edit] Some historians believe that the term Barghawata
Barghawata
is a phonetic deformation of the term Barbati, a nickname which Tarif carried. It is thought that he was born in the area of Barbate, near Cádiz
Cádiz
in Spain.[1] However, Jérôme Carcopino
Jérôme Carcopino
and other historians think the name is much older and the tribe is the same as that which the Romans called Baquates, who up until the 7th century lived near Volubilis.[2] History[edit] Few details are known about Barghawata. Most of the historical sources are largely posterior to their rule and often present a contradictory and confused historical context. However, one tradition appears more interesting. It comes from Córdoba in Spain and its author is the Large Prior of Barghawata
Barghawata
and the Barghawata
Barghawata
ambassador to Córdoba Abu Salih Zammur, around the middle of the 10th century. This tradition is regarded as most detailed concerning Barghwata.[3] It was reported by Al Bakri, Ibn Hazm
Ibn Hazm
and Ibn Khaldun, although their interpretations comprise some divergent points of view. The Barghawatas, along with the Ghomara and the Miknasa, launched the Berber Revolt
Berber Revolt
of CE 739/40. They were fired up by Sufri
Sufri
Kharijite preachers, a Muslim sect that embraced a doctrine representing total egalitarianism in opposition to the aristocracy of the Quraysh which had grown more pronounced under the Umayyad Caliphate. The rebels elected Maysara al-Matghari to lead their revolt, and successfully seized control of nearly all of what is now Morocco, inspiring further rebellions in the Maghreb
Maghreb
and al-Andalus. At the Battle of Bagdoura, the rebels annihilated a particularly strong army dispatched by the Umayyad caliph from Syria. But the rebels army itself was eventually defeated in the outskirts Kairouan, Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
in CE 741. In the aftermath, the rebel alliance dissolved. Even before this denouement, the Barghawatas, as founders of the revolt, had grown resentful of the attempt by later adherents, notably the Zenata chieftains, in alliance with the increasingly authoritarian Sufri
Sufri
commissars, to take control of the leadership of the rebellion. As their primary objective – the liberation of their people from Umayyad rule – had already been achieved, and there was little prospect of it ever being re-imposed, the Barghwata saw little point in continued military campaigns. In CE 742 or 743, the Barghwata removed themselves from the rebel alliance, and retreated to the Tamesna region, on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, where they founded their new independent state and abandoned their Sufri
Sufri
Kharijitism. The Barghawatas ruled in the Tamesna region for more than three centuries (CE 744–1058). Under the successors of Salih ibn Tarif, Ilyas ibn Salih (CE 792-842); Yunus (CE 842-888) and Abu Ghufail (CE 888–913) the tribal kingdom was consolidated, and missions sent to neighbouring tribes. After initially good relations with the Caliphate of Cordoba there was a break at the end of the 10th century with the ruling Umayyads. Two Umayyad incursions, as well as attacks by the Fatimids
Fatimids
were fought off by the Barghawata. From the 11th century there was an intensive guerrilla war with the Banu Ifran. Even though the Barghawata
Barghawata
were subsequently much weakened,[4] they were still able to fend off Almoravid
Almoravid
attacks—the spiritual leader of the Almoravids, Ibn Yasin, fell in battle against them (CE 1058). Only in 1149 were the Barghawata
Barghawata
eliminated by the Almohads
Almohads
as a political and religious group. Religion[edit] After the conversion to Islam
Islam
at the beginning of the 8th century and the Maysara uprising (CE 739-742), the Barghawata
Barghawata
Berbers
Berbers
formed their own state on the Atlantic coast between Safi and Salé. The Barghawata
Barghawata
kingdom followed a syncretic religion inspired by Islam (perhaps influenced by Judaism)[5] with elements of Sunni, Shi'a
Shi'a
and Kharijite
Kharijite
Islam, mixed with astrological and traditional Berber mythology such as their taboo surrounding eating eggs and chickens, and the belief that the saliva of the prophet contained baraka, or, roughly translated, blessedness.[6] Supposedly, they had their own Qur'an
Qur'an
in the Berber language
Berber language
comprising 80 suras under the leadership of the second ruler of the dynasty Salih ibn Tarif who had taken part in the Maysara uprising. He proclaimed himself a prophet.[7] He also claimed to be the final Mahdi, and that Isa (Jesus) would be his companion and pray behind him. Tribes[edit] The Barghawata
Barghawata
confederacy was made of 29 tribes. 12 of these tribes adopted the Barghawata
Barghawata
religion while 17 retained Islam.[8] Barghawata
Barghawata
religion (syncretic with Islam) tribes

Gerawa Zouagha Branès Banu Abi Nacer Menjasa Banu Abi Nuh Banu Waghmar Matghara Banu Borgh Banu Derr Matmata Banu Zaksent

Khariji Muslim tribes

Zenata-Jbal Banu Bellit Nemala Ounsent Banu Ifren Banu Naghit Banu Nuaman Banu Fallusa Banu Kuna Banu Sebker Assada Regana Azmin Manada Masina Resana Trara

Some constituent tribes, such as Branès, Matmata, Ifren and Trara, were fractions of much larger tribal groups, and only the Tamesna-based fractions joined the Barghawata
Barghawata
Confederacy. Barghawata
Barghawata
kings[edit]

Tarif al-Matghari Ṣāliḥ ibn Tarīf (744-?), who declared himself prophet[7] in 744 and went away at the age of 47, promising to return. Ilyas ibn Salih (?792-842),[9] who is said to have professed Islām publicly but Ṣāliḥ's religion secretly, and died in the 50th year of his reign. Yunus ibn Ilyas (?842-888), who made Ṣāliḥ's religion official and fought those who would not convert (killing 7770 people, according to Ibn Khaldun's sources, some at a place called Tamlukeft). Curiously enough, he is also said to have performed the Hajj. He died in the 44th year of his reign. Abu-Ghufayl Muhammad (?888-917), who may also have been called a prophet (according to a poem Ibn-Khaldun cites) and who had 44 wives and more sons. He died in the 29th year of his reign. Abu al-Ansar Abdullah (?917-961), buried at Ameslakht. He died in the 44th year of his reign. Abu Mansur Isa (?961-?), who was 22 when he became king.

See also[edit]

Berbers
Berbers
portal

Kingdom of Nekor Maghrawa Banu Ifran

References[edit]

Ulrich Haarmann, Geschichte der Arabischen Welt. C.H. Beck München, 2001. John Iskander, Devout Heretics: The Barghawata
Barghawata
in Maghribi Historiography, in The Journal of North African Studies Volume 12, 2007, pages 37–53. Stephan und Nandy Ronart, Lexikon der Arabischen Welt. Artemis Verlag, 1972. Mohammed Talbi, Hérésie, acculturation et nationalisme des berbères Bargawata, in Premier congrès des cultures Méditerranéennes d'influence arabo-berbère, Alger 1973,217-233.

Notes[edit]

^ Tarif, el conquistador de Tarifa by Enrique Gozalbes Cravioto - (in Spanish) ^ see e.g. this article originally published in Hesperis Archived April 18, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. and for a contrary view the reference by Mohammed Talbi cited above ^ Talbi (ref. cited above) believes, however, that it contains a certain amount of myth or propaganda ^ Al Bakri even states they were annihilated in 1029, although this is inconsistent with what he himself states elsewhere regarding their battles with the Almoravids ^ It is believed that Salih Ibn Tarif was a Jewish born in the Iberian Peninsula - Kitab Al-Istibsar, transl. of E. Fagnan, L'Afrique Septentrionale au XII siécle de notre Ere, Argel, 1900, p. 157. ^ The Barghawata
Barghawata
Heresy: Contextualizing a Berber Cultural Rebellion ^ a b Talbi (ref. cited above) notes that in fact there is no contemporary record of him being anything other than a Sufri Kharijite, and that it may have been a myth propagated by Yunus ^ http://www.achaari.ma/Article.aspx?C=5790 ^ Dates with question marks are calculated on the basis of a secondary source [1][permanent dead link]. Other info is from Ibn Khaldun.

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Berber peoples

Ancient

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Quinquegentiani

Middle-Ages

Adjissa Awerba Awregha Azdeja Bahlula Barghawata Fazaz Fendelawa Ghumara Gazoula Ghiatta Godala Guanches Haskura Houara Kutama Lamtuna Luwata Madyuna Masmuda Matmata Nafzawa Sanhaja Zanata

Banu Ifran Jarawa Maghrawa

Modern

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Islamic dynasties in Maghreb
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Salihids (710–1019) Barghawata
Barghawata
(744-1058) Rustamids (767-909) Muhallabids
Muhallabids
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Kingdom of Ait Abbas
(f. 1510, r. 1510–1872) Kuku Sultanate (1515-1638) Alaouites (f. 1631, r. 1666–present) Husainids (1705–1957) Karamanli (1711–1835) Senussi

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