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Baoding Military Academy
Baoding
Baoding
Military Academy (Chinese: 保定軍校; pinyin: Bǎodìng Jūnxiào; Wade–Giles: Pao-ting Chün-hsiao) was a military academy based in Baoding, Republican China, in the first two decades of the 20th century. For a time, it was the most important military academy in China, and its cadets played prominent roles in the political and military history of the Republic of China. The Baoding
Baoding
Military Academy closed in 1923, but served as a model for the Whampoa Military Academy, which was founded in Guangzhou
Guangzhou
in 1924
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Chinese Language
Legend:   Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language   Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers   Major Chinese-speaking settlementsThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Yinchang
Yin Chang or Yin-ch'ang (traditional Chinese: 廕昌; simplified Chinese: 荫昌; pinyin: Yìnchāng) (1859[1]–1928) was a military official and politician in the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China. He was appointed the nation's first Minister of War in the late Qing Dynasty. Later he also became the military Chief of Staff in the Beiyang Government. He was ethnic Manchu, and his family belonged to the Plain White Banner Clan of the Manchu Military Organization (滿洲正白旗); he held the title of Prince of that clan; at court he was addressed as Wu-lou.[2]Contents1 Biography1.1 In the Qing Dynasty 1.2 In the Xinhai Revolution and the Beiyang Government2 References 3 FootnotesBiography[edit] In the Qing Dynasty[edit] Originally Yin Chang was a student of Guozijian, and by 1872 he was studying German at the Tongwen Guan, Beijing. In 1877 he was sent to Germany as an attaché to the Chinese Legation in Berlin
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Xia Wei
Orville Hickock Schell III (Chinese: 夏伟; pinyin: Xià Wěi; born May 20, 1940) is an American writer, academic, and activist. He is known for his works on China, and is the Arthur Ross Director of the Center on U.S.-China Relations at the Asia Society in New York. He previously served as Dean of the University of California, Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism.Contents1 Background and education 2 Journalism career 3 Farming career 4 Views on China 5 Publications 6 External links 7 ReferencesBackground and education[edit] Schell's father Orville Hickok Schell, Jr., was a prominent lawyer who headed the New York City Bar Association, chaired the human rights group Americas Watch from its founding in 1981 until his death in 1987, co-founded Helsinki Watch, forerunner to Human Rights Watch, and became the namesake of the Orville H. Schell, Jr. Center for International Human Rights at Yale Law School
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Japan
Coordinates: 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136Japan 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-kokuFlagImperial SealAnthem: "Kimigayo" 君が代"His Imperial Majesty's Reign"[2][3] Government
Government
Seal of JapanGo-Shichi no Kiri (五七桐)Area controlled by Japan
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Xinhai Revolution
Chinese Revolutionary Alliance victory Abdication
Abdication
of Puyi Fall of the Qing dynasty End of Imperial China Establishment of the Republic of China Destabilization of ChinaBelligerents Qing dynasty Provisional Government of the Republic of China Hubei
Hubei
Military Government of the Republic of China Tongmenghui Gelaohui Tiandihui Various other revolutionary groups and forces Regional officials and warlordsCommanders and leaders Empress Dowager Longyu Prince-Regent Zaifeng Prime Minister Yuan Shikai Feng Guozhang Ma Anliang Duan Qirui Yang Zengxin Ma Qi Various other nobles of the Qing dynasty Prov. President Sun Yat-sen General Huang Xing Song Jiaoren Chen Qimei Prov. Vice President Li Yuanhong Prov
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Boxer Protocol
Boxer ProtocolThe Boxer Protocol was signed on September 7, 1901, between the Qing Empire of China and the Eight-Nation Alliance that had provided military forces (Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) plus Belgium, Spain and the Netherlands after China's defeat in the intervention to put down the Boxer Rebellion at the hands of the Eight-Power Expeditionary Force. It is often regarded as one of the Unequal Treaties.Contents1 Names 2 Negotiations during the Boxer Rebellion 3 Signatories3.1 Foreign powers4 The clauses4.1 Other clauses included5 Hoax demands 6 Demands rejected by China 7 Remittance 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksNames[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Tianjin
Tianjin
Tianjin
([tʰjɛ́n.tɕín] ( listen)), formerly known in English as Tientsin, is a metropolis in northern coastal Mainland China
China
and one of the four national central cities of the country, with a total population of 15,469,500, and is also the world's 6th-most populous city proper.[3] It is governed as one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of the PRC and is thus under direct administration of the central government. Tianjin
Tianjin
borders Hebei Province and Beijing
Beijing
Municipality, bounded to the east by the Bohai Gulf portion of the Yellow Sea. Part of the Bohai Economic Rim, it is the largest coastal city in northern China. In terms of urban population, Tianjin
Tianjin
is the fourth largest in China, after Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou
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Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Romanization
Romanization
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Beiyang
The term Beiyang (Chinese: 北洋; pinyin: Běiyáng; Wade-Giles: Peiyang; meaning 'Northern Ocean') originated toward the end of the Qing dynasty, and it referred to the coastal areas of Zhili (Traditional Chinese:直隸, Simplified Chinese: 直隶, pinyin: Zhílì) (today's Hebei), Liaoning, and Shandong in northeast China. Minister of Beiyang's (北洋通商大臣) position was held by the Viceroy of Zhili. Its main responsibilities were trade relations and occasionally foreign affairs. See also[edit]Beiyang Army Beiyang Fleet Beiyang Government Beiyang UniversityCoordinates: 41°00′N 123°00′E / 41.000°N 123.000°E / 41.000; 123.000   This article related to the history of China is a stub
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Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
(Chinese: 袁世凱; pinyin: Yuán Shìkǎi; 16 September 1859 – 6 June 1916) was a Chinese emperor, general, statesman and warlord, famous for his influence during the late Qing dynasty, his role in the events leading up to the abdication of the last Qing Emperor, his autocratic rule as the first formal President of the Republic of China, and his short-lived attempt to restore monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor (Chinese: 洪憲皇帝).Contents1 Early life 2 Years in
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Zhili Province
Zhili, formerly romanized as Chihli, was a northern province of China from the 14th-century Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
until the province was dissolved in 1928 during the Warlord Era.Contents1 History 2 Gallery 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] The name Zhili
Zhili
means "directly ruled" and indicates regions directly ruled by the imperial government of China. Zhili
Zhili
province was first constituted during the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
when the capital of China
China
was located at Nanjing
Nanjing
along the Yangtze River
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Duan Qirui
Duan Qirui
Duan Qirui
(Chinese: 段祺瑞; pinyin: Duàn Qíruì; Wade–Giles: Tuan Ch'i-jui; IPA: [tu̯àn t͡ɕʰíɻu̯èi̯]) (6 March 1865 – 2 November 1936) was a Chinese warlord and politician, a commander of the Beiyang Army
Beiyang Army
and the acting Chief Executive of the Republic of China (in Beijing) from 1924–26. He was also the Premier of the Republic of China
Republic of China
on four occasions between 1913 and 1918. He was arguably the most powerful man in China from 1916–20.Contents1 Early life 2 Early career 3 Politics3.1 State Premier 3.2 World War I 3.3 Anhui
Anhui
clique 3.4 Fall from power 3.5 Return as chief executive4 Personal life 5 See also 6 Notes 7 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Born in Hefei
Hefei
as Duan Qirui
Duan Qirui
(Chinese: 段啟瑞), his courtesy name was Zhiquan (Chinese: 芝泉)
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Republic Of China (1912–49)
The Republic
Republic
of China
China
was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia
Mongolia
and Taiwan. It was founded in 1912, after the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty, was overthrown in the Xinhai Revolution. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, former leader of the Beiyang Army. His party, then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. Song was assassinated shortly after, and the Beiyang Army
Beiyang Army
led by Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
maintained full control of the government in Beijing. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan tried to reinstate the monarchy, before resigning after popular unrest
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