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Tianjin

天津市

Tientsin, T'ien-chin
Location of Tianjin Municipality within China
Location of Tianjin Municipality within China
Coordinates (Tianjin Century Clock Plaza): [tʰjɛ́n.tɕín] (About this soundlisten)), alternately romanized as Tientsin, is a municipality and a coastal metropolis in Northern China on the shore of the Bohai Sea. It is one of the nine national central cities in Mainland China, with a total population estimated at 15,621,200 in 2016.[5] Its built-up (or metro) area, made up of 12 central districts (all but Baodi, Jizhou, Jinghai and Ninghe), was home to 12,491,300 inhabitants in 2016 and is also the world's 29th-largest agglomeration (between Chengdu and Rio de Janeiro) and 11th-most populous city proper.[6]

It is governed as one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of Chinese central government and is thus under direct administration of the State Council. Tianjin borders Hebei Province and Beijing Municipality, bounded to the east by the Bohai Gulf portion of the Yellow Sea. Part of the Bohai Economic Rim, it is the largest coastal city in northern China.

In terms of urban population, Tianjin is the fourth largest in China, after Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou. In terms of administrative area population, Tianjin ranks fifth in Mainland China.[7] The walled city of Tianjin was built in 1404. As a treaty port since 1860, Tianjin has been a major seaport and gateway to Beijing. During the Boxer Rebellion the city was the seat of the Tianjin Provisional Government. Under the Qing dynasty and the Republic of China, Tianjin became one of the largest cities in the region.[8] At that time, numerous European-style buildings and mansions were constructed in concessions, many of which are well-preserved today. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, Tianjin suffered a depression due to the policy of the central government and Tangshan earthquake, but recovered from 1990s.[9] Nowadays Tianjin is a dual-core city, with its main urban area (including the old city) located along the Hai River, which connects to the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers via the Grand Canal; and Binhai, an adjacent New Area urban core located east of the old city, on the coast of the Bohai Gulf. As of the end of 2010, around 285 Fortune 500 companies have set up base in Binhai. Since 2010, Tianjin's Yujiapu Financial District has become known as China's Manhattan [10][11] and the city is considered as one of the world's top 100 cities, including in the Global Financial Centres Index.[12] Tianjin is ranked as a Beta global city[13], together with Chongqing (China), Perth (Australia) and Philadelphia (the U.S). Tianjin is also one of the top 25 science cities in the world by scientific research as tracked by the Nature Index and home to multiple notable institutes of higher education, including Tianjin University, Nankai University and Tianjin Medical University.[14][15]

Name

Tianjin is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese characters 天津, which mean "Heavenly Ford" or "Ford of Heaven".

The origin of the name is obscure. One folk etymology is that it was an homage to the patriotic Chu poet Qu Yuan, whose "Li Sao" includes the verse "... departing from the Ford of Heaven at dawn ..." (朝發軔於天津兮, zhāo fārèn yú Tiānjīn xī). Another is that it honors a former name of the girl, a Chinese constellation recorded under the name Tianjin in the Astronomical Record section of the Book of Sui. A third is that it derives from a place name noted in the River Record of the History of Jin. The most common is that it was bestowed by the Yongle Emperor of the Ming, who crossed Tianjin's Gu River on his way south to overthrow his nephew, the Jianwen Emperor.

History

Early history

The land where Tianjin is located today was created in between 900-1300 CE by sedimentation of various rivers entering the sea at Bohai Gulf, including the Yellow River, which entered the open sea in this area at one point. The construction of the Grand Canal under the Sui dynasty helped the future development of Tianjin as the canal ran from Hangzhou to the Beijing and Tianjin region by 609 CE. Grain from southern China was regularly transported to the north through the canal and was used during the subsequent dynasties. Tianjin begins to be increasingly mentioned in records during the Song dynasty and gains importance during the Yuan dynasty. Tianjin experienced development under the Yuan and became a prime location for the storage of goods and grains. Tianjin became a garrison town and shipping station during the Ming dynasty. It became a center of commerce and prosperity by the 17th century.[16]

Qing dynasty

During the Qing dynasty (1644–1911) Tianjin Prefecture or Zhou () was established in 1725, and Tianjin County was established within the prefecture in 1731. Later it was upgraded to an urban prefecture or Fu () before becoming a relay station () under the command of the Viceroy of Zhili.

1919 map of Tianjin

Opening up as a treaty port

In 1856, Chinese soldiers boarded The Arrow, a Chinese-owned ship registered in Hong Kong flying the British flag and suspected of piracy, smuggling, and of being engaged in the opium trade. They captured 12 men and imprisoned them. In response, the British and French sent gunboats under the command of Admiral Sir Michael Seymour to capture the Taku forts near Tianjin in May 1858. At the end of the first part of the Second Opium War in June of the same year, the British and French prevailed, and the Treaty of Tientsin were signed, which opened Tientsin (Tianjin) to foreign trade. The treaties were ratified by the Xianfeng Emperor in 1860, and Tianjin was formally opened to Great Britain and France, and thus to the outside world. Between 1895 and 1900, Britain and France were joined by Japan, Germany and Russia, and even by countries without Chinese concessions such as Austria-Hungary, Italy and Belgium, in establishing self-contained concessions in Tianjin, each with its own prisons, schools, barracks and hospitals.[17] These nations left many architectural reminders of their rule, notably churches and thousands of villas.

Church of Our Lady's Victories, built in 1869, was the site of the Tianjin Church Massacre.

The presence of foreign influence in Tianjin was not always peaceful; one of the most serious violent incidents to date was the Tianjin Church Massacre. In June 1870, the orphanage held by the Wanghailou Church (Church Our Lady's Victories), in Tianjin, built by French Roman Catholic missionaries, was accused of the kidnapping and brainwashing of Chinese children. On June 21, the magistrate of Tianjin County initiated a showdown at the church that developed into violent clashes between the church's Christian supporters and some non-Christian Tianjin residents. The furious protesters eventually burned down Wanghailou Church and the nearby French consulate and killed eighteen foreigners including ten French nuns, the French consul himself, and merchants. France and six other Western nations complained to the Qing government, which was forced to pay compensation for the incident.

In 1885 Li Hongzhang founded the Tianjin Military Academy (天津武備學堂) for Chinese army officers with German advisors, as part of his military reforms.[18] The move was supported by Anhui Army commander Zhou Shengchuan.[18]:267 The academy was to serve Anhui Army and Green Standard Army officers. Various practical military, mathematic and science subjects were taught at the academy. The instructors were German officers.[18]:267 Another program was started at the academy for five years in 1887 to train teenagers as new army officers.[18]:268 Mathematics, practical and technical subjects including sciences, foreign languages, Chinese Classics and history were taught at the school. Exams were administered to students. The instruction for Tianjin Military Academy was copied at the Weihaiwei and Shanhaiguan military schools.[18]:268 The 'maritime defense fund' supplied the budget for the Tianjin Military Academy, which was shared with the Tianjin Naval Academy.[18]:268 The Tianjin Military Academy in 1886 adopted as part of its curriculum the Romance of the Three Kingdoms.[19] Among its alumni were Wang Yingkai and municipalities under the direct administration of Chinese central government and is thus under direct administration of the State Council. Tianjin borders Hebei Province and Beijing Municipality, bounded to the east by the Bohai Gulf portion of the Yellow Sea. Part of the Bohai Economic Rim, it is the largest coastal city in northern China.

In terms of urban population, Tianjin is the fourth largest in China, after Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou. In terms of administrative area population, Tianjin ranks fifth in Mainland China.[7] The walled city of Tianjin was built in 1404. As a treaty port since 1860, Tianjin has been a major seaport and gateway to Beijing. During the Boxer Rebellion the city was the seat of the Tianjin Provisional Government. Under the Qing dynasty and the Republic of China, Tianjin became one of the largest cities in the region.[8] At that time, numerous European-style buildings and mansions were constructed in concessions, many of which are well-preserved today. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, Tianjin suffered a depression due to the policy of the central government and Tangshan earthquake, but recovered from 1990s.[9] Nowadays Tianjin is a dual-core city, with its main urban area (including the old city) located along the Hai River, which connects to the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers via the Grand Canal; and Binhai, an adjacent New Area urban core located east of the old city, on the coast of the Bohai Gulf. As of the end of 2010, around 285 Fortune 500 companies have set up base in Binhai. Since 2010, Tianjin's Yujiapu Financial District has become known as China's Manhattan [10][11] and the city is considered as one of the world's top 100 cities, including in the Global Financial Centres Index.[12] Tianjin is ranked as a Beta global city[13], together with Chongqing (China), Perth (Australia) and Philadelphia (the U.S). Tianjin is also one of the top 25 science cities in the world by scientific research as tracked by the Nature Index and home to multiple notable institutes of higher education, including Tianjin University, Nankai University and Tianjin Medical University.[14][15]

Tianjin is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese characters 天津, which mean "Heavenly Ford" or "Ford of Heaven".

The origin of the name is obscure. One folk etymology is that it was an homage to the patriotic Chu poet Qu Yuan, whose "Li Sao" includes the verse "... departing from the Ford of Heaven at dawn ..." (朝發軔於天津兮, zhāo fārèn yú Tiānjīn xī). Another is that it honors a former name of the girl, a Chinese constellation recorded under the name Tianjin in the Astronomical Record section of the Book of Sui. A third is that it derives from a place name noted in the River Record of the History of Jin. The most common is that it was bestowed by the Yongle Emperor of the Ming, who crossed Tianjin's Gu River on his way south to overthrow his nephew, the Jianwen Emperor.

History

Early history

The land where Tianjin is located today was created in between 900-1300 CE by sedimentation of various rivers entering the sea at Bohai Gulf, including the Yellow River, which entered the open sea in this area at one point. The construction of the Grand Canal under the Sui dynasty helped the future development of Tianjin as the canal ran from Hangzhou to the Beijing and Tianjin region by 609 CE. Grain from southern China was regularly transported to the north through the canal and was used during the subsequent dynasties. Tianjin begins to be increasingly mentioned in records during the Song dynasty and gains importance during the Yuan dynasty. Tianjin experienced development under the Yuan and became a prime location for the storage of goods and grains. Tianjin became a garrison town and shipping station during the Ming dynasty. It became a center of commerce and prosperity by the 17th century.[16]

Qing dynasty

During the Qing dynasty (1644–1911) Tianjin Prefecture or Zhou () was established in 1725, and Tianjin County was established within the prefecture in 1731. Later it was upgraded to an urban prefecture or Fu () before becoming a relay station () under the command of the Viceroy of Zhili.

1919 map of Tianjin

Opening up as a treaty port

In 1856, Chinese soldiers boarded The Arrow, a Chinese-owned ship registered in Hong Kong flying the British flag and suspected of piracy, smuggling, and of being engaged in the opium trade. They captured 12 men and imprisoned them. In response, the British and French sent gunboats under the command of Admiral Sir Michael Seymour to capture the Taku forts near Tianjin in May 1858. At the end of the first part of the Second Opium War in June of the same year, the British and French prevailed, and the Treaty of Tientsin were signed, which opened Tientsin (Tianjin) to foreign trade. The treaties were ratified by the Xianfeng Emperor in 1860, and Tianjin was formally opened to Great Britain and France, and thus to the outside world. Between 1895 and 1900, Britain and France were joined by Japan, Germany and Russia, and even by countries without Chinese concessions such as Austria-Hungary, Italy and Belgium, in establishing self-contained concessions in Tianjin, each with its own prisons, schools, barracks and hospitals.[17] These nations left many architectural reminders of their rule, notably churches and thousands of villas.

folk etymology is that it was an homage to the patriotic Chu poet Qu Yuan, whose "Li Sao" includes the verse "... departing from the Ford of Heaven at dawn ..." (朝發軔於天津兮, zhāo fārèn yú Tiānjīn xī). Another is that it honors a former name of the girl, a Chinese constellation recorded under the name Tianjin in the Astronomical Record section of the Book of Sui. A third is that it derives from a place name noted in the River Record of the History of Jin. The most common is that it was bestowed by the Yongle Emperor of the Ming, who crossed Tianjin's Gu River on his way south to overthrow his nephew, the Jianwen Emperor.

The land where Tianjin is located today was created in between 900-1300 CE by sedimentation of various rivers entering the sea at Bohai Gulf, including the Yellow River, which entered the open sea in this area at one point. The construction of the Grand Canal under the Sui dynasty helped the future development of Tianjin as the canal ran from Hangzhou to the Beijing and Tianjin region by 609 CE. Grain from southern China was regularly transported to the north through the canal and was used during the subsequent dynasties. Tianjin begins to be increasingly mentioned in records during the Song dynasty and gains importance during the Yuan dynasty. Tianjin experienced development under the Yuan and became a prime location for the storage of goods and grains. Tianjin became a garrison town and shipping station during the Ming dynasty. It became a center of commerce and prosperity by the 17th century.[16]

Qing dynasty

During the Qing dynasty (1644–1911) Tianjin Prefecture or Zhou (Qing dynasty (1644–1911) Tianjin Prefecture or Zhou () was established in 1725, and Tianjin County was established within the prefecture in 1731. Later it was upgraded to an urban prefecture or Fu () before becoming a relay station () under the command of the Viceroy of Zhili.

In 1856, Chinese soldiers boarded The Arrow, a Chinese-owned ship registered in Hong Kong flying the British flag and suspected of piracy, smuggling, and of being engaged in the opium trade. They captured 12 men and imprisoned them. In response, the British and French sent gunboats under the command of Admiral Sir Michael Seymour to capture the Taku forts near Tianjin in May 1858. At the end of the first part of the Second Opium War in June of the same year, the British and French prevailed, and the Treaty of Tientsin were signed, which opened Tientsin (Tianjin) to foreign trade. The treaties were ratified by the Xianfeng Emperor in 1860, and Tianjin was formally opened to Great Britain and France, and thus to the outside world. Between 1895 and 1900, Britain and France were joined by Japan, Germany and Russia, and even by countries without Chinese concessions such as Austria-Hungary, Italy and Belgium, in establishing self-contained concessions in Tianjin, each with its own prisons, schools, barracks and hospitals.[17] These nations left many architectural reminders of their rule, notably churches and thousands of villas.

Church of Our Lady's Victories, built in 1869, was the site of the Tianjin Church Massacre.

The presence of foreign influence in Tianjin was not always peaceful; one of the most serious violent incidents to date was the The presence of foreign influence in Tianjin was not always peaceful; one of the most serious violent incidents to date was the Tianjin Church Massacre. In June 1870, the orphanage held by the Wanghailou Church (Church Our Lady's Victories), in Tianjin, built by French Roman Catholic missionaries, was accused of the kidnapping and brainwashing of Chinese children. On June 21, the magistrate of Tianjin County initiated a showdown at the church that developed into violent clashes between the church's Christian supporters and some non-Christian Tianjin residents. The furious protesters eventually burned down Wanghailou Church and the nearby French consulate and killed eighteen foreigners including ten French nuns, the French consul himself, and merchants. France and six other Western nations complained to the Qing government, which was forced to pay compensation for the incident.

In 1885 Li Hongzhang founded the Tianjin Military Academy (天津武備學堂) for Chinese army officers with German advisors, as part of his military reforms.[18] The move was supported by Anhui Army commander Zhou Shengchuan.[18]:267 The academy was to serve Anhui Army and Green Standard Army officers. Various practical military, mathematic and science subjects were taught at the academy. The instructors were German officers.[18]:267 Another program was started at the academy for five years in 1887 to train teenag

In 1885 Li Hongzhang founded the Tianjin Military Academy (天津武備學堂) for Chinese army officers with German advisors, as part of his military reforms.[18] The move was supported by Anhui Army commander Zhou Shengchuan.[18]:267 The academy was to serve Anhui Army and Green Standard Army officers. Various practical military, mathematic and science subjects were taught at the academy. The instructors were German officers.[18]:267 Another program was started at the academy for five years in 1887 to train teenagers as new army officers.[18]:268 Mathematics, practical and technical subjects including sciences, foreign languages, Chinese Classics and history were taught at the school. Exams were administered to students. The instruction for Tianjin Military Academy was copied at the Weihaiwei and Shanhaiguan military schools.[18]:268 The 'maritime defense fund' supplied the budget for the Tianjin Military Academy, which was shared with the Tianjin Naval Academy.[18]:268 The Tianjin Military Academy in 1886 adopted as part of its curriculum the Romance of the Three Kingdoms.[19] Among its alumni were Wang Yingkai and Duan Qirui. Among its staff was Yinchang.

In June 1900, the Boxers were able to seize control of much of Tianjin. On June 26, European defense forces heading towards Beijing were stopped by Boxers at nearby Langfang, and were defeated and forced to turn back to Tianjin. The foreign concessions were also under siege for several weeks.

In July 1900, the Eight-Nation Alliance recaptured Tientsin. This alliance soon established the Tianjin Provisional Government, composed of representatives from each of the occupying forces (Russian, British, Japanese, German, French, American, Austro-Hungarian, and Italian). The city was governed by this council until August 15, 1902 when the city was returned to Qing control. Eminent Qing General Yuan Shikai led efforts to transform Tianjin into a modern city, establishing the first modern Chinese police force. In 1907, Yuan supervised China's first modern democratic elections for a county council.

municipality of China in 1927. From 1930 to 1935, Tientsin was the provincial capital of Hopeh, after which it was reestablished as a municipality.

Garrison duty was highly regarded by the troops. General George C. Marshall, the "architect of victory" in World War II when he was the United States Army Chief of Staff, served at Tianjin in the 1920s as Executive Officer of the 15th Infantry. The US withdrew this unit in 1938 and a US presence was maintained only by the dispatch of a small US Marine Corps unit from the Embassy Guard at Beijing.

Asahi Street (now Heping Road) i

Because of the rapid development of industry, commerce and finance, Tientsin was established as a municipality of China in 1927. From 1930 to 1935, Tientsin was the provincial capital of Hopeh, after which it was reestablished as a municipality.

Garrison duty was highly regarded by the troops. General George C. Marshall, the "architect of victory" in World War II when he was the United States Army Chief of Staff, served at Tianjin in the 1920s as Executive Officer of the 15th Infantry. The US withdrew this unit in 1938 and a US presence was maintained only by the dispatch of a small US Marine Corps unit from the Embassy Guard at Beijing.

On July 30, 1937, Tianjin fell to Japan, as part of the Second Sino-Japanese War, but was not entirely occupied, as the Japanese for the most part respected foreign concessions until 1941, when the American and British concessions were occupied. In the summer of 1939, there occurred a major crisis in Anglo-Japanese relations with the Tientsin Incident. On June 14, 1939, the Imperial Japanese Army surrounded and blockaded the British concession over the refusal of the British authorities to hand over to the Japanese six Chinese who had assassinated a locally prominent Japanese collaborator, and had taken refuge in the British concession. For a time, the 1939 crisis appeared likely to cause an Anglo-Japanese war, especially when reports of the maltreatment by the Japanese Army of British subjects wishing to leave or enter the concession appeared in the British press. The crisis ended when the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain was advised by the Royal Navy and the Foreign Office that the only way to force the Japanese to lift the blockade was to send the main British battle fleet to Far Eastern waters, and that given the current crisis in Europe that it would be inappropriate to send the British fleet out of European waters, thus leading the British to finally turn over the six Chinese, who were then executed by the Japanese. During the Japanese occupation, Tianjin was ruled by the North China Executive Committee, a puppet state based in Beijing.

On August 9, 1940, all of the British troops in Tianjin were ordered to withdraw. On November 14, 1941 the American Marine unit stationed in Tianjin was ordered to leave, but before this could be accomplished, the Japanese attacked the United States. The American Marine detachment surrendered to the Japanese on December 8, 1941. Only the Italian and French concessions (the local French officials were loyal to Vichy) were allowed by the Japanese to remain. When Italy signed an armistice with the Allies in September 1943, Japanese troops took the Italian concession following a battle with its garrison, and the Italian Social Republic formally ceded it to Wang Jingwei's Japan-controlled puppet state. Japanese occupation of the city lasted until August 15, 1945, with the surrender of Japan marking the end of World War II.

Post World War II

Tianjin has a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk bordering on Dwa). It has a four-season, monsoon-influenced climate, typical of East Asia, with cold, windy, very dry winters reflecting the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone, and hot, humid summers, due to the monsoon. Spring in the city is dry and windy, occasionally seeing sandstorms blowing in from the Gobi Desert, capable of lasting for several days. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −3.4 °C (25.9 °F) in January to 26.8 °C (80.2 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 12.9 °C (55.2 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 48% in July to 61% in October, the city receives 2,522 hours of bright sunshine annually. Having a low annual total precipitation of 511 millimeters (20.1 in), and nearly three-fifths of it occurring in July and August alone, the city lies within the semi-arid zone, with parts of the municipality being humid continental (Köppen BSk/Dwa, respectively).[24]

Extreme temperatures have ranged from −22.9 °C (−9 °F) to 40.5 °C (105 °F).[25]

Hai River forms within Tianjin Municipality at the confluence of the Ziya River (子牙河), Daqing River (大清河), Yongding River, North Grand Canal, and South Grand Canal, and enters the Pacific Ocean within the municipality, as well in Tanggu District. Major reservoirs include the Beidagang Reservoir in the extreme south (in Dagang District) and the Yuqiao Reservoir in the extreme north in Ji County.

Tianjin has a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk bordering on Dwa). It has a four-season, monsoon-influenced climate, typical of East Asia, with cold, windy, very dry winters reflecting the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone, and hot, humid summers, due to the monsoon. Spring in the city is dry and windy, occasionally seeing sandstorms blowing in from the Gobi Desert, capable of lasting for several days. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −3.4 °C (25.9 °F) in January to 26.8 °C (80.2 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 12.9 °C (55.2 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 48% in July to 61% in October, the city receives 2,522 hours of bright sunshine annually. Having a low annual total precipitation of 511 millimeters (20.1 in), and nearly three-fifths of it occurring in July and August alone, the city lies within the semi-arid zone, with parts of the municipality being humid continental (Köppen BSk/Dwa, respectively).[24]

Extreme temperatures have ranged from −22.9 °C (−9 °F) to 40.5 °C (105 °F).[25]

Climate data for Tianjin (1981–2010 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.3
(57.7)
20.8
(69.4)
30.5
(86.9)
33.1
(91.6)
40.5
(104.9)
39.6
(103.3)
40.5
(104.9)
37.4
(99.3)
34.9
(94.8)
30.8
(87.4)
23.1
(73.6)
14.4
(57.9)
40.5
(104.9)
Average high °C (°F) 2.0
(35.6)
5.7
(42.3)
12.2
(54.0)
20.9
(69.6)
26.5
(79.7)
30.2
(86.4)
31.3
(88.3)
30.5
(86.9)
26.6
(79.9)
19.9
(67.8)
10.6
(51.1)
3.8
(38.8)
18.4
(65.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) −3.4
(25.9)
−0.1
(31.8)
6.4
(43.5)
14.7
(58.5)
20.5
(68.9)
24.8
(76.6)
26.8
(80.2)
25.9
(78.6)
21.1
(70.0)
14.1
(57.4)
5.2
(41.4)
−1.2
(29.8)
12.9
(55.2)
[25]

In May 2014, the city's administration enacted new laws in an attempt to lower the city's pollution levels. These measures included several restrictions on days of severe pollution; halving the number of vehicles allowed on roads, halting construction and manufacturing activity, closing schools, and halting large-scale outdoor activities.[28]

Foreign-born professional sportsmen have made statements regarding Tianjin's air quality, citing it as an impediment to athletic activity and being thick enough to "taste".[29]

Administrative divisions

Tianjin is divided into 16 county-level divisions, which are all districts.

Administrative divisions of Tianjin
Division code[30] Division Area in km2[31][full citation needed] Total population 2010[32] Urban area
population 2010[33]
Seat Postal code Subdivisions[34][full citation needed]
Subdistricts Towns Townships Ethnic townships Residential communities Villages
120000 Tianjin 11,760.00 12,938,693 10,277,893 Hexi 300000 112 118 10 1 1723 3762
120101 Heping 9.97 273,477 Xiaobailou Subdistrict 300041 6 63
120102 Hedong 15.06 860,852 Dawangzhuang Subdistrict 300171 13 158
120103 Hexi 41.24 870,632 Dayingmen Subdistrict 300202 13 171
120104 Nankai 40.64 1,018,196 Changhong Subdistrict 300110 12 180
120105 Hebei 29.14 788,451 Wanghailou Subdistrict 300143 10 109
120106 Hongqiao 21.30 531,526 Xiyuzhuang Subdistrict 300131 10 196
120110 Dongli 460.00 598,966 591,040 [29]

Tianjin is divided into 16 county-level divisions, which are all districts.

Administrative divisions of Tianjin