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TIANJIN (Chinese : 天津; pinyin : _ Tiānjīn _), formerly known in English as TIENTSIN, is a metropolis in northern coastal Mainland China
China
and one of the five national central cities of the country, with a total population of 15,469,500, and is also the world's 6th-most populous city proper . It is governed as one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of the PRC and is thus under direct administration of the central government . Tianjin
Tianjin
borders Hebei Province and Beijing Municipality , bounded to the east by the Bohai Gulf portion of the Yellow Sea . Part of the Bohai Economic Rim
Bohai Economic Rim
, it is the largest coastal city in northern China
China
.

In terms of urban population, Tianjin
Tianjin
is the fourth largest in China, after Shanghai
Shanghai
, Beijing
Beijing
, and Guangzhou
Guangzhou
. In terms of administrative area population, Tianjin
Tianjin
ranks fifth in Mainland China. The walled city of Tianjin
Tianjin
was built in 1404. As a treaty port since 1860, Tianjin
Tianjin
has been a major seaport and gateway to Beijing. During the Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
the city was the seat of the Tianjin
Tianjin
Provisional Government . Under the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
and the Republic of China, Tianjin became one of the largest cities in the region. At that time, numerous European-style buildings and mansions were constructed in concessions, many of which are well-preserved today. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, Tianjin
Tianjin
suffered a depression due to the policy of the central government and Tangshan earthquake , but recovered from 1990s. Nowadays Tianjin
Tianjin
is a dual-core city, with its main urban area (including the old city) located along the Hai River
Hai River
, which connects to the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers via the Grand Canal ; and Binhai , a New Area urban core located east of the old city, on the coast of Bohai Sea . As of the end of 2010, around 285 Fortune 500 companies have set up base in Binhai, which is a new growth pole in China
China
and is a hub of advanced industry and financial activity.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name

* 2 History

* 2.1 Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
* 2.2 Opening up as a treaty port * 2.3 Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
* 2.4 Post World War II

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Climate * 3.2 Measures to improve air quality

* 4 Administrative divisions * 5 Politics

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Industry * 6.2 Agriculture * 6.3 Resources * 6.4 Binhai New Area

* 7 Demographics

* 8 Media

* 8.1 Previous newspapers * 8.2 Censorship capital

* 9 Tourism * 10 Landmarks and attractions * 11 Culture * 12 Cuisine

* 13 Transport

* 13.1 Port of Tianjin * 13.2 Trams

* 13.3 Rapid transit

* 13.3.1 Light railway

* 13.3.2 Metro

* 13.3.2.1 Current map of Tianjin Metro
Tianjin Metro
and Binhai Mass Transit

* 13.4 Rail * 13.5 Bus * 13.6 Roads and expressways * 13.7 Airport

* 14 Religion * 15 Sports * 16 Martial arts

* 17 Education

* 17.1 Colleges and universities * 17.2 High schools

* 18 Notable people from Tianjin
Tianjin
* 19 Twin towns and sister cities * 20 See also

* 21 References

* 21.1 Notes * 21.2 Citations * 21.3 Works cited

* 22 Further reading * 23 External links

NAME

Tianjin
Tianjin
is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese characters 天津, which mean "Heavenly Ford " or "Ford of Heaven".

The origin of the name is obscure. One folk etymology is that it was an homage to the patriotic Chu poet Qu Yuan
Qu Yuan
, whose " Li Sao " includes the verse "...departing from the Ford of Heaven at dawn..." (朝发轫于天津兮, _zhāo fārèn yú Tiānjīn xī_). Another is that it honors a former name of the Girl , a Chinese constellation recorded under the name Tianjin
Tianjin
in the Astronomical Record section of the Book of Sui . A third is that it derives from a place name noted in the River Record of the History of Jin . The most common are that it was bestowed by the Yongle Emperor of the Ming , who crossed Tianjin's Gu River on his way south to overthrow his nephew the Jianwen Emperor .

HISTORY

The land where Tianjin
Tianjin
is located today was created in ancient times by sedimentation of various rivers entering the sea at Bohai Gulf , including the Yellow River
Yellow River
which entered the sea in this area at one point. Before this time, it was open sea.

The opening of the Grand Canal during the Sui dynasty prompted the development of Tianjin
Tianjin
into a trading center.

QING DYNASTY

During the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
(1644–1911) Tianjin
Tianjin
was promoted to a prefecture or _Zhou_ (州) in 1725 with Tianjin
Tianjin
County established under the prefecture in 1731. Later it was to upgraded to an urban prefecture or _Fu_ (府) before becoming a relay station (驻地) under the command of the Viceroy of Zhili . 1902 map of Tianjin
Tianjin

OPENING UP AS A TREATY PORT

See also: Concessions in Tianjin

In 1856, Chinese soldiers boarded _The Arrow_, a Chinese-owned ship registered in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
flying the British flag and suspected of piracy, smuggling, and of being engaged in the opium trade. They captured 12 men and imprisoned them. In response, the British and French sent gunboats under the command of Admiral Sir Michael Seymour to capture the Taku forts near Tianjin
Tianjin
in May 1858. At the end of the first part of the Second Opium War in June of the same year, the British and French prevailed, and the Treaties of Tianjin were signed, which opened Tianjin
Tianjin
to foreign trade. The treaties were ratified by the Emperor of China
China
in 1860, and Tianjin
Tianjin
was formally opened to Great Britain and France, and thus to the outside world. Between 1895 and 1900, Britain and France
France
were joined by Japan, Germany and Russia
Russia
, and even by countries without Chinese concessions such as Austria-Hungary , Italy and Belgium
Belgium
, in establishing self-contained concessions in Tianjin
Tianjin
, each with its own prisons, schools, barracks and hospitals. These nations left many architectural reminders of their rule, notably churches and thousands of villas. Today those villas provide an exotic flavour to Tianjin. Church of Our Lady's Victories, built in 1869, was the site of the Tientsin Church Incident

The presence of foreign influence in Tianjin
Tianjin
was not always peaceful; one of the most serious violent incidents to take place was the Tianjin Church Incident . In June 1870, the orphanage held by the Wanghailou Church (Church Our Lady's Victories), in Tianjin, built by French Roman Catholic missionaries , was accused of the kidnapping and brainwashing of Chinese children. On June 21, the magistrate of Tianjin
Tianjin
County initiated a showdown at the church that developed into violent clashes between the church's Christian supporters and non-Christian Tianjin
Tianjin
residents. The furious protestors eventually burned down Wanghailou Church and the nearby French consulate and killed eighteen foreigners including ten French nuns, the French consul, and merchants. France
France
and six other Western nations complained to the Qing government, which was forced to pay compensation for the incident.

In 1885 Li Hongzhang founded the Tianjin
Tianjin
Military Academy 天津武備學堂 for Chinese army officers, with German advisers, as part of his military reforms. The move was supported by Anhui
Anhui
Army commander Zhou Shengchuan. :267 The academy was to serve Anhui
Anhui
Army and Green Standard Army officers. Various practical military, mathematic and science subjects were taught at the academy. The instructors were German officers. :267 Another program was started at the academy for five years in 1887 to train teenagers as new army officers. :268 Mathematics, practical and technical subjects, sciences, foreign languages, Chinese Classics and history were taught at the school. Exams were administered to students. The instruction for Tianjin
Tianjin
Military Academy was copied at the Weihaiwei and Shanhaiguan military schools. :268 The 'maritime defense fund' supplied the budget for the Tianjin
Tianjin
Military Academy, which was shared with the Tianjin
Tianjin
Naval Academy. :268 The Tianjin
Tianjin
Military Academy in 1886 adopted as part of its curriculum the Romance of the Three Kingdoms . Among its alumni were Wang Yingkai and 段祺瑞 Duan Qirui . Among its staff was Yinchang .

In June 1900, the Boxers were able to seize control of much of Tianjin. On June 26, European defense forces heading towards Beijing were stopped by Boxers at nearby Langfang , and were defeated and forced to turn back to Tianjin. The foreign concessions were also under siege for several weeks. Tung Lai Bank building on Heping Road, built in 1930

In July 1900, the Eight-Nation Alliance recaptured Tianjin
Tianjin
. This alliance soon established the Tianjin
Tianjin
Provisional Government, composed of representatives from each of the occupying forces (Russian, British, Japanese, German, French, American, Austro-Hungarian, and Italian). The city was governed by this council until August 15, 1902 when the city was returned to Qing control. Eminent Qing General Yuan Shikai led efforts to transform Tianjin
Tianjin
into a modern city, establishing the first modern Chinese police force. In 1907, Yuan supervised China's first modern democratic elections for a county council. Major crossing (Rue Général Foch and Rue de Chaylard) of downtown Tientsin in French concession

Western nations were permitted to garrison the area to ensure open access to Beijing. The British maintained a brigade of two battalions in Tianjin, and the Italians, French, Japanese, Germans, Russians, and Austro-Hungarians maintained understrength regiments; the United States did not initially participate. During World War I, the German and Austro-Hungarian garrisons were captured and held as Prisoners of War by Allied Forces while the Bolshevik government withdrew the Russian garrison in 1918. In 1920, the remaining participating nations asked the United States
United States
to join them, and the US then sent the 15th Infantry Regiment, less one battalion, to Tianjin
Tianjin
from the Philippines.

Because of the rapid development of industry, commerce and finance, Tientsin was established as a municipality of China
China
in 1927. From 1930 to 1935, Tientsin was the provincial capital of Hopeh , after that re-established as a municipality.

Garrison duty was highly regarded by the troops. General George C. Marshall , the "architect of victory" in World War II when he was the United States
United States
Army Chief of Staff, served at Tianjin
Tianjin
in the 1920s as Executive Officer of the 15th Infantry . The US withdrew this unit in 1938 and a US presence was maintained only by the dispatch of a small US Marine Corps unit from the Embassy Guard at Beijing. Asahi Street (now Heping Road) in 1939 Tianjin
Tianjin
flood

SECOND SINO-JAPANESE WAR

On July 30, 1937, Tianjin
Tianjin
fell to Japan, as part of the Second Sino-Japanese War , but was not entirely occupied, as the Japanese for the most part respected foreign concessions until 1941, when the American and British concessions were occupied. In the summer of 1939, there occurred a major crisis in Anglo-Japanese relations with the Tientsin Incident . On June 14, 1939, the Imperial Japanese Army surrounded and blockaded the British concession over the refusal of the British authorities to hand over to the Japanese six Chinese who had assassinated a locally prominent Japanese collaborator, and had taken refuge in the British concession. For a time, the 1939 crisis appeared likely to cause an Anglo-Japanese war, especially when reports of the maltreatment by the Japanese Army of British subjects wishing to leave or enter the concession appeared in the British press. The crisis ended when the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain was advised by the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
and the Foreign Office that the only way to force the Japanese to lift the blockade was to send the main British battle fleet to Far Eastern waters, and that given the current crisis in Europe that it would be inappropriate to send the British fleet out of European waters, thus leading the British to finally turn over the six Chinese, who were then executed by the Japanese. During the Japanese occupation, Tianjin
Tianjin
was ruled by the North China
China
Executive Committee , a puppet state based in Beijing.

On August 9, 1940, all of the British troops in Tianjin
Tianjin
were ordered to withdraw. On November 14, 1941 the American Marine unit stationed in Tianjin
Tianjin
was ordered to leave, but before this could be accomplished, the Japanese attacked the United States. The American Marine detachment surrendered to the Japanese on December 8, 1941. Only the Italian and French concessions (the local French officials were loyal to Vichy ) were allowed by the Japanese to remain. When Italy signed an armistice with the Allies in September 1943, Japanese troops took the Italian concession following a battle with its garrison, and the Italian Social Republic formally ceded it to Wang Jingwei 's Japan-controlled puppet state . Japanese occupation of the city lasted until August 15, 1945, with the surrender of Japan
Japan
marking the end of World War II.

POST WORLD WAR II

In Pingjin Campaign of Chinese Civil War, the city was captured after 29 hours of fighting. Finally the Communists took over Tianjin
Tianjin
on 15 January 1949.

More recently, since 2008 Tianjin
Tianjin
has held the Annual Meeting of the New Champions of World Economic Forum
World Economic Forum
(also called Summer Davos ), in alternating years with another Chinese city, Dalian
Dalian
.

In October 2010, the UN Climate Change Conference convened in Tianjin. Panorama of Hai River
Hai River

On 12 August 2015, huge explosions in the Binhai area of the city caused widespread damage and hundreds of casualties. Chinese state media reported that at least the initial blast was from unknown hazardous materials in shipping containers at a plant warehouse owned by Ruihai Logistics, a firm specializing in handling hazardous materials . 173 people were killed, nearly 800 others were wounded, and eight remain missing.

GEOGRAPHY

Map of the Hai River
Hai River
Basin. 2011 satellite image of Tianjin
Tianjin
Hai river in 2012

Tianjin
Tianjin
is located along the west coast of the Bohai Gulf , looking out to the provinces Shandong
Shandong
and Liaoning
Liaoning
across those waters, bordered by Beijing
Beijing
120 kilometres (75 mi) to the northwest, and except for the east, is surrounded on all sides by Hebei
Hebei
. With a latitude ranging from 38° 34' to 40° 15' N, and longitude ranging from 116° 43' to 118° 04' E, the total area is 11,860.63 square kilometres (4,579.41 square miles). There is 153 km (95 mi) of coastline and 1,137.48 kilometres (706.80 miles) of land border. It lies at the northern end of the Grand Canal of China
China
, which connects with the Yellow River
Yellow River
and Yangtze River
Yangtze River
. The municipality is generally flat, and swampy near the coast, but hilly in the far north, where the Yan Mountains intrude into northern Tianjin. The highest point in the municipality is Jiuding Peak (九顶山) in Ji County on the northern border with Hebei, at an altitude of 1,078.5 m (3,538 ft).

The Hai River
Hai River
forms within Tianjin
Tianjin
Municipality at the confluence of the Ziya River (子牙河), Daqing River (大清河), Yongding River, North Grand Canal, and South Grand Canal, and enters the Pacific Ocean within the municipality as well, in Tanggu District . Major reservoirs include the Beidagang Reservoir in the extreme south (in Dagang District ) and the Yuqiao Reservoir in the extreme north in Ji County.

CLIMATE

Tianjin
Tianjin
features a four-season, monsoon -influenced climate, typical of East Asia, with cold, windy, very dry winters reflecting the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone , and hot, humid summers, due to the monsoon. Spring in the city is dry and windy, occasionally seeing sandstorms blowing in from the Gobi Desert , capable of lasting for several days. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −3.4 °C (25.9 °F) in January to 26.8 °C (80.2 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 12.90 °C (55.2 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 48% in July to 61% in October, the city receives 2,522 hours of bright sunshine annually. Having a low annual total precipitation of 511 millimetres (20.1 in), and nearly three-fifths of it occurring in July and August alone, the city lies within the semi-arid zone, with parts of the municipality being humid continental (Köppen _Dwa_/_BSk_, respectively).

Extreme temperatures have ranged from −22.9 °C (−9 °F) to 40.5 °C (105 °F).

CLIMATE DATA FOR TIANJIN (1981–2010)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 14.3 (57.7) 20.8 (69.4) 30.5 (86.9) 33.1 (91.6) 40.5 (104.9) 39.6 (103.3) 40.5 (104.9) 37.4 (99.3) 34.9 (94.8) 30.8 (87.4) 23.1 (73.6) 14.4 (57.9) 40.5 (104.9)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 2.0 (35.6) 5.7 (42.3) 12.2 (54) 20.9 (69.6) 26.5 (79.7) 30.2 (86.4) 31.3 (88.3) 30.5 (86.9) 26.6 (79.9) 19.9 (67.8) 10.6 (51.1) 3.8 (38.8) 18.4 (65.1)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) −3.4 (25.9) −0.1 (31.8) 6.4 (43.5) 14.7 (58.5) 20.5 (68.9) 24.8 (76.6) 26.8 (80.2) 25.9 (78.6) 21.1 (70) 14.1 (57.4) 5.2 (41.4) −1.2 (29.8) 12.9 (55.22)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −7.4 (18.7) −4.4 (24.1) 1.7 (35.1) 9.3 (48.7) 15.1 (59.2) 20.0 (68) 22.9 (73.2) 22.2 (72) 16.7 (62.1) 9.4 (48.9) 1.1 (34) −5 (23) 8.5 (47.3)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −18.1 (−0.6) −22.9 (−9.2) −17.7 (0.1) −2.8 (27) 4.5 (40.1) 10.1 (50.2) 16.2 (61.2) 13.7 (56.7) 6.2 (43.2) −2.2 (28) −11.4 (11.5) −16.2 (2.8) −22.9 (−9.2)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 2.4 (0.094) 3.6 (0.142) 8.1 (0.319) 22.1 (0.87) 37.3 (1.469) 80.6 (3.173) 148.8 (5.858) 124.1 (4.886) 44.6 (1.756) 26.3 (1.035) 10.7 (0.421) 2.8 (0.11) 511.4 (20.133)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM) 1.6 2.0 3.1 4.5 5.9 7.8 11.1 9.4 6.0 4.7 2.9 2.0 61

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 57 54 51 50 55 64 75 76 69 64 61 59 61.3

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 170.1 170.2 202.4 223.8 249.0 226.9 206.4 204.4 205.3 196.1 163.0 157.6 2,375.2

PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 59 59 56 58 60 57 48 53 60 61 57 57 57.1

Source: China
China
Meteorological Administration

MEASURES TO IMPROVE AIR QUALITY

In May 2014, the city's administration enacted new laws in an attempt to lower the city's pollution levels. These measures included several restrictions on days of severe pollution; halving the number of vehicles allowed on roads, halting construction and manufacturing activity, closing schools, and halting large-scale outdoor activities.

Foreign-born professional sportsmen have made statements regarding Tianjin's air quality, citing it as an impediment to athletic activity and being thick enough to "taste".

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Main articles: List of administrative divisions of Tianjin and List of township-level divisions of Tianjin
Tianjin

Tianjin
Tianjin
is divided into 16 county-level divisions , which are all districts .

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS OF TIANJIN

1 2 3 4 5 6 JIZHOU BAODI NINGHE BINHAI DONGLI JINNAN XIQING BEICHEN WUQING JINGHAI 1. HEPING 2. HEXI 3. HEBEI 4. NANKAI 5. HEDONG 6. HONGQIAO

DIVISION CODE DIVISION AREA IN KM2 POPULATION 2010 SEAT POSTAL CODE SUBDIVISIONS

SUBDISTRICTS TOWNS TOWNSHIPS ETHNIC TOWNSHIPS RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITIES VILLAGES

120000 TIANJIN 11760.00 12,938,224 Hexi 300000 112 118 10 1 1723 3762

120101 HEPING 9.97 273,466 Xiaobailou Subdistrict 300041 6

63

120102 HEDONG 15.06 860,852 Dawangzhuang Subdistrict 300171 13

158

120103 HEXI 41.24 870,632 Dayingmen Subdistrict 300202 13

171

120104 NANKAI 40.64 1,018,196 Changhong Subdistrict 300110 12

180

120105 HEBEI 29.14 788,368 Wanghailou Subdistrict 300143 10

109

120106 HONGQIAO 21.30 531,526 Xiyuzhuang Subdistrict 300131 10

196

120110 DONGLI 460.00 569,955 Zhangguizhuang Subdistrict 300300 9

90 102

120111 XIQING 545.00 684,690 Yangliuqing Town 300380 2 7

106 151

120112 JINNAN 401.00 593,063 Xianshuigu Town 300350

8

68 165

120113 BEICHEN 478.00 669,031 Guoyuanxincun Subdistrict 300400 5 9

115 126

120114 WUQING 1570.00 949,413 Yunhexi Subdistrict 301700 6 24

64 695

120115 BAODI 1523.00 799,057 Baoping Subdistrict 301800 6 16

37 765

120116 BINHAI 2270.00 2,482,065 Xingang Subdistrict 300451 19 7

254 144

120117 NINGHE 1414.00 416,143 Lutai Town 301500

11 3

34 282

120118 JINGHAI 1476.00 646,978 Jinghai Town 301600

16 2

46 383

120119 JIZHOU 1590.00 784,789 Wenchang
Wenchang
Subdistrict 301900 1 20 5 1 32 949

DIVISIONS IN CHINESE AND VARIETIES OF ROMANIZATIONS

ENGLISH CHINESE PINYIN

TIANJIN MUNICIPALITY 天津市 Tiānjīn Shì

HEPING DISTRICT 和平区 Hépíng Qū

HEDONG DISTRICT 河东区 Hédōng Qū

HEXI DISTRICT 河西区 Héxī Qū

NANKAI DISTRICT 南开区 Nánkāi Qū

HEBEI DISTRICT 河北区 Héběi Qū

HONGQIAO DISTRICT 红桥区 Hōngqiáo Qū

DONGLI DISTRICT 东丽区 Dōnglì Qū

XIQING DISTRICT 西青区 Xīqīng Qū

JINNAN DISTRICT 津南区 Jīnnán Qū

BEICHEN DISTRICT 北辰区 Běichén Qū

WUQING DISTRICT 武清区 Wǔqīng Qū

BAODI DISTRICT 宝坻区 Bǎodǐ Qū

BINHAI NEW AREA 滨海新区 Bīnhǎi Xīnqū

NINGHE DISTRICT 宁河区 Nínghé Qū

JINGHAI DISTRICT 静海区 Jìnghǎi Qū

JIZHOU DISTRICT 蓟州区 Jìzhōu Qū

In addition, the Tianjin
Tianjin
Economic and Technological Development Area (TEDA) is not a formal level of administration, but nevertheless enjoys rights similar to a regular district. Airport Industrial Park, Dongli District

These districts and counties are further subdivided, as of December 31, 2004 , into 240 township-level divisions , including 120 towns , 18 townships , 2 ethnic townships and 100 subdistricts .

POLITICS

Main articles: Politics of Tianjin and List of provincial leaders of the People\'s Republic of China
China

The politics of Tianjin
Tianjin
is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in the mainland China
China
.

The Mayor of Tianjin is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Tianjin. Since Tianjin
Tianjin
is a municipality, the Communist Party of China
China
Municipal Committee Secretary is colloquially termed the " Tianjin
Tianjin
CPC Party chief ".

ECONOMY

Then Premier Wen Jiabao
Wen Jiabao
, himself a Tianjin
Tianjin
native, and Klaus Schwab at the Annual Meeting of the New Champions of World Economic Forum in Tianjin, 2010

Tianjin's GDP reached 1.572 trillion yuan in 2014, an increase of 10.0 percent over 2013. The city of Tianjin
Tianjin
recorded China's highest per-capita GDP with $17,126, followed by Beijing
Beijing
with $16,278 and Shanghai
Shanghai
with $15,847.

The municipality recorded a 16.5% increase in GDP in 2009, second only to the 16.9% rate in resource-rich Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
, and nearly double the national growth rate. In the short term, infrastructure spending will buoy Tianjin's economy. There are substantial projects under way to extend the metro system and improve road and rail links with the nearby national capital, Beijing
Beijing
.

Although the international financial crisis spread rapidly and the speed of world economy growth is slowing down, Tianjin
Tianjin
economy still maintains at a steady and fast growing speed. In 2008, Tianjin's total output value was RMB 635.438 billion, an increase of 16.5%, say RMB 130.398 billion increase over last year, the first time with an increase of exceeding RMB 100 billion. The total output value per capita in Tianjin
Tianjin
was US$7,800, nearing the level of middle developed countries. Tianjin
Tianjin
had realized a directly contracted foreign investment of up to $13.256 billion, an increase of 15.1%, and actual contributed capital of $7.420, increasing 40.6% year on year. So far Tianjin
Tianjin
has had 21,048 companies with foreign investment, with accumulated foreign investment of $47.2 billion.

At the same time, Tianjin
Tianjin
is actively developing financial reform and innovation. The China
China
Bohai Bank , the first national commercial bank limited by shares with headquarters in Tianjin, had set up six branches and 14 offices open to the public by the end of 2008. In March 2008, the national non-listed public companies equity exchange market (OTC) was established in Tianjin
Tianjin
upon approval of the State Council . Tianjin
Tianjin
has become the pilot city with the most industrial investment funds in China. The China
China
National Private Equity Forum was held in Tianjin
Tianjin
again, with approx. 500 investment companies and private fund institutions as well as about 2,000 growing enterprises involving in global capital circulation through this Capital Connection in Tianjin. Supported by the strong actual goods exchange, Tianjin
Tianjin
takes futures industry development as a key part of its financial reform and innovation. In July 2008, the Yide Futures Broker Co. moved its headquarters to Tianjin. Tianjin
Tianjin
Finance Town Project, North Jiefang Road as its axle, has been initiated. It will be built into a comprehensive, open and intellectual finance service area within ten years.

Tianjin
Tianjin
is transforming into a hub city for international shipping and logistics, modern manufacturing and research and development. Nominal GDP of Tianjin
Tianjin
has swelled by 2.8 times from 184 RMB billion in 2001 to 505 RMB billion in 2007. Tianjin
Tianjin
pillar industries are electronic information technology, automotive, biotechnology and pharmaceuticals, metallurgy and petrochemicals industries. The new coastal area, consisting of Tianjin
Tianjin
Port, Tianjin
Tianjin
Economic and Technology Development Area and Tianjin
Tianjin
Bonded area, has attracted numerous world-famous businesses like Motorola, Toyota and Samsung. Globalization and opening up of the economy to the rest of the world have brought about remarkable benefits to the economic growth of Tianjin.

Government finance revenue of Tianjin
Tianjin
increased by more than threefold from 16 RMB billion in 2001 to 54 RMB billion in 2007. As revenue rose, expenditure on science and technology, education, culture, health and sports followed suit as well, reaching 10 billion RMB in 2004, constituting to 30.7% of the city's financial expenditure. Revenue has also been used in the building of infrastructure such as new roads, new bridges and commercial houses. One of the development objectives in the 11th Five year Plan is to have financial revenue growing at the rate of 16% annually. Tianjin
Tianjin
city center

SKYSCRAPERS IN TIANJIN METERS FEET

Goldin Finance 117
Goldin Finance 117
597.00 1,958.66

Tianjin World Financial Center 336.9 1,105.32

Yujiapu Administrative Services Center 299.45 982.45

Powerlong Center 289 948.16

Bohai Bank Tower 270 885.83

5 Taian Dao 253.40 831.36

Tianjin
Tianjin
total investments in fixed assets have increased from 62 RMB billion in 2001 to 239 RMB billion in 2007, representing a 3.9 times surge over a period of six years. Tianjin
Tianjin
has built up its competitive advantages in the investment landscape such as: convenient port transportation services, an open market, advanced logistic services, alluring preferential policies and having efficient government services. By the end of 2004, more than 118 countries and regions invested in Tianjin, setting up approximately 16,000 enterprises. Currently, Tianjin
Tianjin
is developing itself into an eco-city, thus, bringing multiple prospects for investments in fixed assets in the subsequent time periods.

INDUSTRY

The manufacturing sector was the largest (54.8%) and fastest-growing (18.2%) sector of Tianjin's economy in 2009. Major industries include petrochemical industries, textiles, car manufacturing, mechanical industries, and metalworking . EADS
EADS
Airbus is an important manufacturer, and has opened an assembly plant for its Airbus A320 series airliners, operational since 2009. Tianjin
Tianjin
also hit the news in 2010, as the current fastest supercomputer in the world, Tianhe-1A , is located at the National Supercomputing Center in Tianjin. GDP in 2009 hit ¥750.1 billion, with a per capita of RMB¥62,403.

INDUSTRIAL COMPLEXES IN TIANJIN DETAILS

Tianjin Airport International Logistics Zone Tianjin Airport International Logistics Zone is jointly invested by Tianjin
Tianjin
Port Free Trade Zone and Tianjin
Tianjin
Binhai International Airport. It is located inside the airfreight area of Tianjin
Tianjin
Binhai International Airport. It has domestic and foreign excellent airfreight logistics enterprises engaged in sorting, warehousing, distribution, processing, exhibition. It is in the process of constructing the largest airfreight base in northern China.

Tianjin
Tianjin
Economic "> Tianjin
Tianjin
Economic and Technological Development Area As one of the first state-level economic and technological development zones, TEDA was founded on December 6, 1984, with the approval of the State Council. It enjoys relevant state preferential policies with the major task to attract domestic and foreign investment to develop high and new technology oriented modern industries. As an affiliated organ of the Tianjin
Tianjin
Municipal Government, the Administrative Commission of Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area exercises unified administration of TEDA on behalf of the Tianjin
Tianjin
Municipal Government and enjoys provincial-level administrative and economic management rights.

Tianjin
Tianjin
Baodi Economic and Technological Development Area

Tianjin
Tianjin
Export Processing Zone Tianjin
Tianjin
Export Processing Zone is one of the first 15 export processing zones approved by the State Council on April 27, 2000. This is a special enclosed zone where the Customs conduct 24-hour administration on commodities transported into and out of the zone and relevant places. The central government granted this special economic zone special preferential policies to attract enterprises in the business of processing and trade to invest in the zone. Tianjin
Tianjin
Export Processing Zone is located to the northeast of TEDA with a planned area of 2.54 km2 (0.98 sq mi). The area developed in the first phase is 1 m2. A permanent wall is built to separate export processing zone and non-export processing zone.

TEDA Western Zone Land expansion is being carried out in Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area. The newly expanded area-the Western Zone of TEDA is located in the western part of TEDA between Tianjin
Tianjin
Port and Tianjin
Tianjin
International Airport. It covers an area of approximately 48 km2 (19 sq mi)

Tianjin
Tianjin
Port Free Trade Zone ] Tianjin
Tianjin
Port Free Trade Zone is the largest free trade zone in northern China
China
as well as the only free trade zone in northern China. The zone was approved to be established in 1991 by State Council. It is 30 km (19 mi) from Tianjin
Tianjin
city proper, less than 1 km (0.62 mi) away from the wharf and only 38 km (24 mi) away from Tianjin
Tianjin
Binhai International Airport.

Tianjin
Tianjin
Tanggu National Marine High-Tech Development Area Tianjin
Tianjin
Tanggu Marine High-Tech Development Area was established in 1992, and was upgraded to the national-level high-tech development area by the State Council in 1995, it is the only national-level high-tech development area specializing in developing the marine Hi-Tech industry. By the end of 2008, the zone has 2068 corporations and has 5 industries there including new materials, oil manufacturing, modern machinery manufacturing, and electronic information.

Huayuan Area Industrial Development Park

Wuqing Development Area

Micro-Electronic Industry Park (Jinnan) In 2003, TEDA cooperated with Jinnan District of Tianjin
Tianjin
and build up the Science & Technology Park of TEDA, which is the extension of TEDA with new functions in space, industry, management, culture and service. Tianjin
Tianjin
TEDA Scientific Technology Industrial Park Development & Construction Co. Ltd (TTSTIPDC) was established in October, 2003, supported by Tianjin
Tianjin
TEDA Investment & Holding Co. Ltd and Tianjin
Tianjin
Jinnan District Town Construction Integrative Investment Co. Ltd. The company is funded by 200 million RMB. It works at investing and managing land, energy an important part of the "dual-city, dual-harbor"space development strategy of Tianjin, a world-class demonstration zone of circular economy. The total planned area of Nangang Industrial Zone is 200 km2 (77 sq mi), of which the terrestrial area is 162 km2 (63 sq mi).

AGRICULTURE

Farmland takes up about 40% of Tianjin
Tianjin
Municipality's total area. Wheat, rice, and maize are the most important crops. Fishing is important along the coast. Tianjin
Tianjin
Binhai New Area CBD

RESOURCES

Tianjin
Tianjin
Municipality also has deposits of about 1 billion tonnes of petroleum, with Dagang District containing important oilfields . Salt production is also important, with Changlu Yanqu being one of China's most important salt production areas. Geothermal energy is another resource of Tianjin. Deposits of manganese and boron under Tianjin were the first to be found in China.

BINHAI NEW AREA

Tianjin
Tianjin
Binhai New Area (TBNA) is located in the juncture of the Beijing- Tianjin
Tianjin
City Belt and the Circum-Bohai City Belt. It is the gateway to North China, Northeast China, and Northwest China. Lying in the center of Northeast Asia, it is the nearest point of departure of the Eurasian Continental Bridge.

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1953 2,693,831 —

1982 7,764,141 +188.2%

1990 8,785,402 +13.2%

2000 9,848,731 +12.1%

2010 12,938,224 +31.4%

2013 14,720,000 +13.8%

Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions.

At the end of 2009, the population of Tianjin
Tianjin
Municipality was 12.28 million, of which 9.8 million were residential holders of Tianjin _hukou _ (permanent residence). Among Tianjin
Tianjin
permanent residents, 5.99 million were urban, and 3.81 million were rural. Tianjin
Tianjin
has recently shifted to rapid population growth, its population has reached 14.72 million as of 2013 end.

The majority of Tianjin
Tianjin
residents are Han Chinese . There are also 51 out of the 55 minor Chinese ethnic groups living in Tianjin. Major minorities include Hui , Koreans
Koreans
, Manchus , and Mongols
Mongols
. Old Guanyinhao Bank

ETHNIC GROUPS IN TIANJIN, 2000 CENSUS

ETHNICITY POPULATION PERCENTAGE

Han 9,581,775 97.29%

Hui 172,357 1.75%

Manchu 56,548 0.57%

Mongols
Mongols
11,331 0.12%

Korean 11,041 0.11%

Zhuang 4,055 0.041%

Tujia 3,677 0.037%

Excludes members of the People\'s Liberation Army in active service.

MEDIA

Tianjin
Tianjin
People\'s Broadcasting Station is the major radio station in Tianjin. Broadcasting in nine channels, it serves most of North China, part of East and Northeast China, reaching an audience of over 100 million. Tianjin Television , the local television station, broadcasts in nine channels. It also boasts a paid digital channel, featuring home improvement programs. Both the radio and television stations are now branches of the Tianjin
Tianjin
Film, Radio and Television Group, established in October 2002.

Major local newspapers include the Tianjin
Tianjin
Daily and Jin Wan Bao (literally, tonight newspaper), which are the flagship papers of Tianjin
Tianjin
Daily Newspaper Group and Jinwan Mass Media Group , respectively. There are also three English-language magazines: _Jin_, _ Tianjin
Tianjin
Plus_ and _Business Tianjin_, mostly directed at ex-pats resident in the city.

PREVIOUS NEWSPAPERS

The first German newspaper in northern China, _Tageblatt für Nordchina _, was published in Tianjin.

In 1912 Tianjin
Tianjin
had 17 Chinese-language newspapers and 5 daily newspapers in other languages; none of the newspapers in the Tianjin district were trade papers. Of the foreign language newspapers, three were in English and one each was in French and German. Newspapers from Tianjin
Tianjin
published in Tianjin
Tianjin
included _ China
China
Critic _, _Peking and Tientsin Times _, _The China
China
Times _, _Tageblatt für Nordchina_, _L\'Echo de Tientsin _, _ China
China
Tribune _, _ Ta Kung Pao _ (L'Impartial), _Min Hsing Pao _, and _Jih Jih Shin Wen Pao _ (Tsientsin Daily News). Newspapers from Beijing
Beijing
published in Tianjin included _Pei Ching Jih Pao _, _Peking Daily News _, and _Le Journal de Peking _.

In 1930 the newspaper _Deutsch-Mandschurische Nachrichten_ moved from Harbin
Harbin
to Tianjin
Tianjin
and changed its name to the _Deutsch-Chinesische Nachrichten _.

CENSORSHIP CAPITAL

More and more China's leading Internet Information Providers (usually located in Beijing), including social network Sina Weibo
Sina Weibo
, Douban
Douban
and the online video website Sohu
Sohu
, tend to relocate their censorship departments to Tianjin, where labor costs are cheaper than Beijing, as censorship is a kind of labour-intensive work.In fact, Tianjin
Tianjin
has become the Censorship capital of Chinese Internet.

TOURISM

Crosstalk in Tianjin
Tianjin

The city has many sights; its streetscapes – an assemblage of historic nineteenth - and early twentieth-century European architecture , juxtaposed with the concrete and glass monoliths of contemporary China
China
– are its most engrossing attraction. Though wide swaths of the city are being redeveloped, much of the colonial architecture has been placed under protection, and the shopping opportunities, especially for antiques, just about justify a day-trip from the capital, an hour away by train.

In the nineteenth century, the port city caught the attention of the seafaring Western powers, who used the boarding of a British ship by Chinese troops as an excuse to declare war. With well-armed gunboats, they were assured of victory, and the Treaty of Tianjin
Treaty of Tianjin
, signed in 1856, gave the Europeans the right to establish nine concessionary bases on the mainland, from which they could conduct trade and sell opium. These concessions, along the banks of the Hai River
Hai River
, were self-contained European fantasy worlds: the French built elegant châteaux and towers, while the Germans constructed red-tiled Bavarian villas. Tensions between the indigenous population and the foreigners exploded in the Tianjin
Tianjin
Incident of 1870, when a Chinese mob attacked a French-run orphanage, and again during the Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
in 1900, after which the foreigners levelled the walls around the old Chinese city to enable them to keep an eye on its residents.

The dense network of ex-concession streets south and west of the central train station, and south of the Hai River, now constitute the areas of most interest to visitors. Unmistakable are the châteaux of the French concession, which now make up the downtown district just south of the river, and the haughty mansions the British built east of here. Farther east, also south of the river, the architecture of an otherwise unremarkable district has a sprinkling of stern German constructions.

LANDMARKS AND ATTRACTIONS

See also: Major National Historical and Cultural Sites (Tianjin)

* Astor Hotel * Binjiang Avenue shopping street * Drum Tower * Five Main Avenues

* Former Concessions in Tianjin

* Tianjin
Tianjin
Italian Style Town

* Hai River
Hai River
Park * Luzutang Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
Museum * Memorial Hall to Zhou Enlai
Zhou Enlai
and Deng Yingchao * Nanshi Cuisine Street * People\'s Park * St. Joseph\'s Cathedral of Tianjin
Tianjin
* Temple of Confucius
Temple of Confucius
Wen Miao * Temple of Great Compassion * Century Clock

* Tianjin Ancient Culture Street

* Yuhuangge Taoist Temple

* Tianjin Eye * Tianjin Museum * Tianjin
Tianjin
Library * Tianjin
Tianjin
Art Gallery * Tianjin
Tianjin
Natural History Museum * Tianjin Olympic Center Stadium , also known as "The Water Drop" * Tianjin Radio and Television Tower * Tianjin Water Park * Tianjin World Financial Center * Tianjin Zoo * Yangliuqing (including Shi Family Grand Courtyard) * Porcelain House * Nankai University
Nankai University
* Nankai Middle School * Tianjin University

Sights outside the old city urban core area, but within the municipality, including Binhai/TEDA :

* Huangya Pass , a section of the Great Wall of China
China
* Mount Panshan * Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city * Soviet Aircraft Carrier Kiev * Taku Forts * TEDA Football Stadium , home stadium of Chinese Super League team Tianjin Teda F.C.

CULTURE

Ancient Culture Street A traditional Tianjin
Tianjin
lunch of Goubuli Baozi Traditional Opera in Tianjin
Tianjin

People from Tianjin
Tianjin
speak the Tianjin dialect of Mandarin , from which it is derived. Despite its proximity to Beijing, the Tianjin dialect sounds quite different from the Beijing
Beijing
dialect , which provides the basis for Putonghua
Putonghua
, the official spoken language of the People's Republic of China.

Tianjin
Tianjin
is a respected home base of Beijing
Beijing
opera , one of the most prestigious forms of Chinese opera . _ "Jingwei Tries to Fill the Sea "_, the Dome Mural of Tianjin Railway Station

Tianjin
Tianjin
is famous for its stand up comedy and comedians including Guo Degang and Ma Sanli . Ma Sanli (马三立) (1914–2003), an ethnic Hui and longtime resident of Tianjin, is renowned for his _xiangsheng _ (相声), a hugely popular form of Chinese entertainment similar to comedy. Ma Sanli delivered some of his _xiangsheng_ in the Tianjin dialect . Tianjin, along with Beijing, is a center for the art of xiangsheng. Tianjin's patented brand of stand-up also includes the use of rhythmic bamboo clappers "Kuaiban".

Yangliuqing (Green Willows), a town about 15 km (9.3 mi) west of Tianjin's urban area and the seat of Xiqing District , is famous for its popular Chinese New Year
Chinese New Year
-themed, traditional-style, colourful wash paintings (杨柳青年画). Tianjin
Tianjin
is also famous for Zhang\'s clay figurines which are a type of colourful figurine depicting a variety of vivid characters, and Tianjin's Wei\'s kites , which can be folded to a fraction of their full sizes, are noted for portability.

On September 28, 2015, the Juilliard School
Juilliard School
in New York City announced a major expansion into Tianjin
Tianjin
during a visit by China's first lady, Peng Liyuan , the institution's first such full-scale foray outside the United States, with plans to offer a master\'s degree program.

CUISINE

Tianjin cuisine places a heavy focus on seafood, due to Tianjin's proximity to the sea. It can be further classified into several varieties, including the rough (Chinese: 粗; pinyin: _cū_), smooth (simplified Chinese: 细; traditional Chinese: 細; pinyin: _xì_), and high (Chinese: 高; pinyin: _gāo_). Prominent menus include the Eight Great Bowls (Chinese: 八大碗; pinyin: _Bādà wǎn_), a combination of eight mainly meat dishes, and the Four Great Stews (Chinese: 四大扒; pinyin: _sì dà bā_), actually referring to a very large number of stews, including chicken, duck, seafood, beef, and mutton .

The four delicacies of Tianjin
Tianjin
include Goubuli baozi , Guifaxiang Shibajie Mahua (Chinese: 十八街麻花; pinyin: _shíbā jiē máhuā_), Erduoyan Zhagao (Chinese: 耳朵眼炸糕; pinyin: _erduoyǎn zhà gāo_) and Maobuwen Jiaozi
Jiaozi
(Chinese: 猫不闻饺子; pinyin: _māo bù wén jiǎozi_). Well-known foods include Caoji donkey meat, Bazhen sheep-leg mutton of Guanshengyuan, Luji Tangmian Zhagao, Baiji Shuijiao, Gaogan of Zhilanzhai, Guobacai of Dafulai, Kansubao of Shitoumen and Xiaobao chestnut. These famous snacks are available in Nanshi Food Street, which was a famous calling-card of Tianjin
Tianjin
in the aspect of cuisine.

TRANSPORT

Main article: Transport in Tianjin

*

Beijing–Tianjin Intercity Railway *

Translohr tram serving in Binhai New Area *

Port of Tianjin pilot boat berth *

Tianjin Airport Terminal

PORT OF TIANJIN

Tianjin port is the world's top-level and China's largest artificial deep water harbor, and the throughput capacity ranks fifth in the world. Located in Binhai Economic Zone, a national new economic zone of China, Tianjin
Tianjin
harbor is the port of call of international cruises visiting the wider area, including Beijing
Beijing
.

TRAMS

Main articles: Trams in Tianjin and TEDA Modern Guided Rail Tram

Tianjin's harbor area of Binhai/TEDA has a modern, high speed rubber tired tram system, which is the first of its kind in China
China
"> Tianjin Railway Station

There are several railway stations in the city, Tianjin
Tianjin
Railway Station being the principal one. It was built in 1888. The station was initially located at Wangdaozhuang (simplified Chinese: 旺道庄; traditional Chinese: 旺道莊; pinyin: _Wàngdàozhuāng_). The station was later moved to Laolongtou (simplified Chinese: 老龙头; traditional Chinese: 老龍頭; pinyin: _Lǎolóngtóu_) on the banks of the Hai He River in 1892, so the station was renamed Laolongtou Railway Station . The station was rebuilt from scratch in 1988. The rebuilding work began on April 15, 1987 and was finished on October 1, 1988. The Tianjin Railway Station is also locally called the 'East Station', due to its geographical position. In January 2007, the station began another long-term restructuring project to modernize the facility and as part of the larger Tianjin
Tianjin
transport hub project involving Tianjin Metro
Tianjin Metro
lines 2, 3, and 9 as well as the Tianjin- Beijing
Beijing
High-speed rail.

Tianjin West Railway Station and Tianjin
Tianjin
North Railway Station are also major railway stations in Tianjin. There is also Tanggu Railway Station is located in the important port area of Tanggu District , and Binhai Railway Station and Binhai North Railway Station located in TEDA , to the north of Tanggu. There are several other railway stations in the city that do not handle passenger traffic. Construction on a Beijing-Tianjin high-speed rail began on July 4, 2005 and was completed by August 2008.

The following rail lines go through Tianjin:

* Jingshan Railway , from Beijing
Beijing
to Shanhai Pass * Jinpu Railway , from Tianjin
Tianjin
to Pukou District , Nanjing
Nanjing
* Jinji Railway , from Tianjin
Tianjin
urban area to Ji County , Tianjin * Jinba Railway , from Tianjin
Tianjin
to Bazhou , Hebei

Tianjin West Railway Station

The inter-city trains between Beijing
Beijing
and Tianjin
Tianjin
will adopt a new numbering system: Cxxxx (C stands for interCity.). The train numbers range between C2001~C2298:

* C2001~C2198: From Beijing
Beijing
South Station to Tianjin, non-stop. * C2201~C2268: From Beijing
Beijing
South Station to Tianjin, with stops at Wuqing Station (武清站); * C2271~C2298: From Beijing
Beijing
South Station to Yujiapu Railway Station of Tianjin.

The new C trains take only 30 min between Beijing
Beijing
and Tianjin, cutting the previous D train time by more than a half. The ticket price as of Aug. 15, 08 is 69 RMB for the first-class seat and 58 RMB for the second-class seat.

BUS

Tianjin
Tianjin
Bus Route 606

There were over 900 bus lines in the city as of 2005 .

ROADS AND EXPRESSWAYS

Some roads and bridges have retained names that hark back to the Republic of China
China
era (1912-1949) such as Minquan Gate and Beiyang Road. Like with most cities in China, many roads in Tianjin
Tianjin
are named after Chinese provinces and cities. Also, Tianjin
Tianjin
is unlike Beijing, in that very few roads run parallel to the major four cardinal directions .

Tianjin
Tianjin
has three ring roads. The Inner and Middle Ring Roads are not closed, traffic-controlled roadways and some often have traffic light intersections. The Outer Ring Road is the closest thing to a highway-level ring road, although traffic is often chaotic.

* Inner Ring Road _(neihuan)_ * Middle Ring Road _(zhonghuan)_ * Outer Ring Road _(waihuan)_

Tianjin's roads often finish in _dao_ (Chinese: 道; literally: "avenue"), _xian_ (simplified Chinese: 线; traditional Chinese: 線; literally: "line"). These are most often used for highways and through routes. The terms _lu_ (Chinese: 路; literally: "road"). _Jie_ (Chinese: 街; literally: "street") are rare. As Tianjin's roads are rarely in a cardinal compass direction, _jing_ (simplified Chinese: 经; traditional Chinese: 經; literally: "avenue") roads and _wei_ (simplified Chinese: 纬; traditional Chinese: 緯; literally: "avenue") roads often appear, which attempt to run more directly north-south and east-west, respectively.

The following seven expressways of China
China
run in or through Tianjin:

* Jingjintang Expressway , from Beijing, through Tianjin's urban area, to Tanggu District / TEDA * Jinghu Expressway , from Jinjing Gonglu Bridge to Shanghai (together with Jingjintang Expressway , this is the expressway from Beijing
Beijing
to Shanghai) * Jingshen Expressway , through Baodi District on its way from Beijing
Beijing
to Shenyang * Tangjin Expressway , from Tanggu District , Tianjin, to Tangshan
Tangshan
, Hebei_—known in Tianjin
Tianjin
as the Jintang Expressway_ * Baojin Expressway , from Beichen District , Tianjin, to Baoding
Baoding
, Hebei_—known in Tianjin
Tianjin
as the Jinbao Expressway_ * Jinbin Expressway , from Zhangguizhuang Bridge to Hujiayuan Bridge, both within Tianjin * Jinji Expressway , from central Tianjin
Tianjin
to Jixian County

The following six China
China
National Highways pass through Tianjin:

* China
China
National Highway 102 , through Ji County, Tianjin on its way from Beijing
Beijing
to Harbin
Harbin
* China
China
National Highway 103 , from Beijing, through Tianjin's urban area, to Tanggu District * China
China
National Highway 104 , from Beijing, through Tianjin Municipality, to Fuzhou
Fuzhou
* China
China
National Highway 105 , from Beijing, through Tianjin Municipality, to Macau
Macau
* China
China
National Highway 112 , circular highway around Beijing, passes through Tianjin
Tianjin
Municipality * China
China
National Highway 205 , from Shanhaiguan , Hebei, through Tianjin
Tianjin
Municipality, to Guangzhou
Guangzhou

AIRPORT

Tianjin
Tianjin
Binhai International Airport (ZBTJ) is located in Dongli District roughly 13 km (8 mi) away from downtown area. The city will also be served by the new Beijing
Beijing
Daxing International Airport in Beijing
Beijing
, currently under construction and to be completed by 2017.

Tianjin
Tianjin
Binhai International Airport now has a terminal building which covers an area of 25,000 m2 (269,000 sq ft), a merchandise warehouse which covers an area of 29,500 m2 (318,000 sq ft) and runways measuring 3.6 km (2.2 mi) in total. It has a grade 4E airstrip, which all kinds of large aircraft can take off from and land safely on. Tianjin
Tianjin
Binhai International Airport has 59 flight routes, connecting 48 cities, including 30 domestic cities and 17 foreign cities. Airline companies like Japan
Japan
Airlines, All Nippon Airways, Korean Air, Asiana Airlines, Singapore
Singapore
Airlines Cargo and Martinair Holland all have flights to Tianjin
Tianjin
Binhai International Airport.

RELIGION

Residents of Tianjin
Tianjin
participate in indigenous religions, such as the veneration of the goddess Mazu . In addition, Tianjin
Tianjin
has a Buddhist Temple of Great Compassion , a Catholic St. Joseph\'s Cathedral (Laoxikai Church) , a Catholic Our Lady of Victory Church (Wanghailou Church) . A Roman Catholic Diocese of Tianjin exists. According to the Chinese General Social Survey of 2009, Christians constitute 1.51% of the city's population. Tianjin
Tianjin
has been described as a historically "strong center" of Islam in China
China
. Northwestern Tianjin is traditionally the location of the Muslim quarter of the city, where they have lived for centuries near the city's huge Great Mosque, _ Qingzhen si _, founded in 1703. Other mosques include the Dahuoxiang Mosque. A Mazu Temple in Tianjin. House decorated by more than Seven hundred million pieces of ceramic. Tianjin Eye . Tianjin Museum . Tianjin Italian Town .

SPORTS

Sports teams based in Tianjin
Tianjin
include: Chinese Super League

* Tianjin Teda F.C.

Chinese Super League

* Tianjin Quanjian F.C.

China
China
Baseball League

* Tianjin Lions

China
China
Women Volleyball League

* Tianjin
Tianjin
Bridgestone Women Volleyball Team

Tianjin Olympic Center Stadium , Nankai District

The 1995 World Table Tennis Championships were played in town.

MARTIAL ARTS

Together with Beijing, Tianjin
Tianjin
had been for many centuries considered a center for traditional Chinese martial arts. Many past and present masters of arts such as Bajiquan , Pigua Zhang , Xing Yi Quan , Bagua Zhang and others lived or are living in the city. The districts most famous for martial arts in the city are Hong Qiao and Nankai, and martial artists abound in public green spaces such as Xigu Park and the Tianjin Water Park .

EDUCATION

See also: List of universities and colleges in Tianjin

COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

Tianjin University and Nankai University
Nankai University
Joint Research Building Tianjin Normal University

Under the National Ministry of Education:

* Tianjin University (founded 1895, oldest university in China) * Nankai University
Nankai University
(founded 1919,one of the most prestigious universities in China)

Under the municipal government:

* Tianjin Polytechnic University * Tianjin Medical University * Tianjin Normal University * Tianjin University of Science & Technology * Tianjin University of Technology * Tianjin University of Finance & Economics * Tianjin University of Commerce * Tianjin Academy of Fine Arts * Tianjin Agricultural College * Tianjin Conservatory of Music * Tianjin Foreign Studies University * Tianjin Institute of Physical Education * Tianjin University of Technology and Education * Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine * Tianjin Urban Construction Institute

Under the national Civil Aviation Authority:

* Civil Aviation University of China
China

Under the government of Hebei
Hebei
Province:

* Hebei
Hebei
University of Technology (founded 1903, the earliest institute of technology in China)

Foreign institutions:

* The Florida International University Tianjin
Tianjin
Center , opened in 2006 as a cooperative venture between the municipal government and the Miami-based university. * The Great Wall MBA Program Oklahoma City University Meinders School of Business , established in 1986 on the campus of Tianjin University of Finance max-width:204px"> _ Yaohua High School Tianjin No.20 High School Tianjin
Tianjin
Shiyan
Shiyan
High School

* Tianjin Nankai High School (天津市南开中学)was founded 1904, and one of the most prestigious in China * Tianjin
Tianjin
No.1 High School (天津市第一中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
Yaohua High School (天津市耀华中学) was founded 1927. * Tianjin Xinhua High School (天津市新华中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
Exprimental High School (天津市实验中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
Tianjin
Tianjin
High School (天津市天津中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
Fuxing High School (天津市复兴中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
Ruijing High School (天津市瑞景中学) * The Foreign Languages School Affiliated to Tianjin
Tianjin
Foreign Studies University (TFLS) (天津外国语学院附属外国语学校) * Tianjin No.20 High School (天津市第二十中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
No.4 High School (天津市第四中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
Yangcun No.1 High School (天津市杨村第一中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
Ji No.1 High School (天津市蓟县第一中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
Dagang No.1 High School (天津市大港第一中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
Second Nankai High School (天津市第二南开中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
Tanggu No.1 High School (天津市塘沽第一中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
No.42 High School (天津市第四十二中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
Baodi No.1 High School (天津市宝坻第一中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
Dagang Oilfield
Oilfield
Exprimental High School (天津市大港油田实验中学) * Tianjin No.47 High School (天津市第四十七中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
No.7 High School (天津市第七中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
Jinghai No.1 High School (天津市静海第一中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
Haihe High School (天津市海河中学) * Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area No. 1 High School (天津经济技术开发区第一中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
No.55 High School (天津市第五十五中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
High School Affiliated to Beijing
Beijing
Normal University (北京师范大学天津附属中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
No.21 High School (天津市第二十一中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
Xianshuigu No.1 High School (天津市咸水沽第一中学) * The High School Affiliated to Nankai University (南开大学附属中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
No.41 High School (天津市第四十一中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
Lutai No.1 High School (天津市芦台第一中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
No.2 High School (天津市第二中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
No.3 High School (天津市第三中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
Huiwen High School (天津市汇文中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
Chonghua High School (天津市崇化中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
No.100 High School (天津市第一〇〇中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
Hangu No.1 High School (天津市汉沽第一中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
Ziyun High School (天津市紫云中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
No.102 High School (天津市第一〇二中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
No.45 High School (天津市第四十五中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
No.25 High School (天津市第二十五中学) * The High School Affiliated to Tianjin
Tianjin
University (天津大学附属中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
No.5 High School (天津市第五中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
Yangliuqing No. 1 High School (天津市杨柳青第一中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
No.14 High School (天津市第十四中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
National High School (天津市民族中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
No.54 High School (天津市第五十四中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
No.43 High School (天津市第四十三中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
Ironworks No.2 High School (天津铁厂第二中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
No.9 High School (天津市第九中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
No.57 High School (天津市第五十七中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
No.51 High School (天津市第五十一中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
Fulun High School (天津市扶轮中学) * Tianjin
Tianjin
Bohai Petroleum No.1 High School (天津市渤海石油第一中学)

NOTABLE PEOPLE FROM TIANJIN

* Peng Shuai (1986–), is a Chinese professional female tennis player. * Adeline Yen Mah (1937–), Chinese-born American author of _Falling Leaves_ and _Chinese Cinderella: The Secret Story of an Unwanted Daughter_. * Gao Lingwen (1862–1945), founder of Tianjin's first public school. * Harry Kingman (1892–1982), the only major league baseball player born in China. * Huo Yuanjia
Huo Yuanjia
(1868–1910), famous Chinese martial artist and a co-founder of the Chin Woo Athletic Association . * Wen Jiabao
Wen Jiabao
(1942–), former premier of China
China
2003–2013. * Eric Liddell
Eric Liddell
(1902–1945), Olympic gold medalist

TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES

* Kobe
Kobe
, Japan * Chiba , Japan
Japan
* Philadelphia
Philadelphia
, United States * Melbourne
Melbourne
, Australia * Bangkok
Bangkok
, Thailand * Phnom Penh
Phnom Penh
, Cambodia
Cambodia
* Nampo , North Korea * Pyongyang
Pyongyang
, North Korea * Sarajevo
Sarajevo
, Bosnia and Herzegovina * Abidjan
Abidjan
, Côte d'Ivoire * Groningen , the Netherlands
Netherlands
(since 1985) * Rishon Lezion , Israel * İzmir , Turkey * Singapore
Singapore
, Singapore * Mar del Plata
Mar del Plata
, Argentina
Argentina
(since 2001) * Larnaca , Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
(since 2007) * Jönköping , Sweden
Sweden
(since 1993)

SEE ALSO

* Tianjin
Tianjin
is also the name of an asterism in the Chinese constellation of Girl Mansion * List of twin towns and sister cities in China
China

* China
China
portal

REFERENCES

NOTES

* ^ A number of alternative etymologies are sometimes given; see the names section.

CITATIONS

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Tianjin
during the Liberal Epoch, 1902-1922, _The Historical Journal_, Cambridge University Press, 2016, available on CJO2016, doi:10.1017/S0018246X15000461. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ John King Fairbank (1978). _The Cambridge History of China_. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-22029-3 . :266–267 * ^ Michael Lackner, Ph.D.; Natascha Vittinghoff (January 2004). _Mapping Meanings: The Field of New Learning in Late Qing China
China
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China
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Tianjin
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Tianjin
kill at least 17 and injure hundreds". _The Guardian _. Retrieved 12 August 2015. * ^ "Huge explosions in China\'s Tianjin port area kill 17, hurt 400". Yahoo! News. 13 August 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2015. * ^ " Tianjin
Tianjin
explosion: China
China
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Tianjin
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China
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Beijing
Shi: Zhongguo tong ji chu ban she. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2 . * ^ 《中国民政统计年鉴2012》 * ^ "Statistical Communiqué of the People\'s Republic of China
China
on the 2013 National Economic and Social Development". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 24 February 2014. * ^ " Tianjin Airport International Logistics Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2011-03-15. * ^ " Tianjin
Tianjin
Export Processing Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2011-03-15. * ^ " Tianjin
Tianjin
Port Free Trade Zone China
China
Industrial Space". Rightsite.asia. Retrieved 2012-12-11. * ^ " Tianjin
Tianjin
Tanggu National Marine High-Tech Development Area China
China
Industrial Space". Rightsite.asia. Retrieved 2012-12-11. * ^ "第二次湖南R&D资源清查主要数据公报(第四号)". Stats.gov.cn. 2011-02-21. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2011-03-15. * ^ "天津市年末总人口控制在1535万人以下-新闻中心-北方网". _enorth.com.cn_. * ^ Source: Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (國家統計局人口和社會科技統計司) and Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (國家民族事務委員會經濟發展司), eds. _Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China_ (《2000年人口普查中國民族人口資料》). 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House (民族出版社), 2003. * ^ 天津人民广播电台 (IN CHINESE). RADIOTJ.COM. 2010-12-22. RETRIEVED 2011-03-15. * ^ (in Chinese) * ^ (in Chinese) * ^ "_Jin_". Jinmagazine.com.cn. 2011-08-16. Archived from the original on July 16, 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-11. * ^ Tianjin
Tianjin
Plus. "_ Tianjin
Tianjin
Plus_". Tianjinplus.com. Retrieved 2012-12-11. * ^ "_Business Tianjin_". Businesstianjin.com. Archived from the original on June 8, 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-11. * ^ Walravens, p. 90. * ^ _A_ _B_ United States
United States
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
, p. 187. * ^ United States
United States
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
, p. 188. * ^ Hille, Kathrin (November 4, 2012). "China\'s ‘Manhattan’ becomes censorship capital". _Financial Times_. Retrieved 29 January 2016. * ^ Walravens, p. 91. * ^ Hille, Kathrin (November 4, 2012). "China\'s ‘Manhattan’ becomes censorship capital". _Financial Times_. Retrieved 29 January 2016. * ^ "At Sina Weibo\'s censorship hub, China\'s Little Brothers cleanse online chatter". _Reuters_. 11 September 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2016. * ^ McDougall, Bonnie S. (1984). _Popular Chinese literature and performing arts in the People's Republic of China, 1949–1979_. University of California Press. p. 84. * ^ Michael Cooper (September 28, 2015). "Juilliard\'s China
China
Plans Move Forward". _The New York Times_. Retrieved February 3, 2016. * ^ "New Beijing- Tianjin
Tianjin
intercity train numbering system". Shike.org.cn. 2008-07-31. Archived from the original on 2011-07-20. Retrieved 2011-03-15. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 4, 2010. Retrieved January 25, 2010. Tianjin
Tianjin
Bus Company official website. (in Chinese) * ^ Moore, Malcolm (September 9, 2011). " China
China
to build world\'s biggest airport". _The Daily Telegraph_. London. * ^ " Tianjin
Tianjin
Binhai Airport - Map, Airport China, China
China
Airport, Tianjing Binhai International Airport". Airport-china.com. 1950-05-01. Archived from the original on December 9, 2013. Retrieved 2012-12-11. * ^ "Refugee Review Tribunal Australia
Australia
- RRT Research Response". 2007-04-16. Retrieved 2014-01-08. * ^ China
China
General Social Survey (CGSS) 2009. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) Archived September 25, 2015, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Raphael Israeli (2002). _Islam in China: Religion, Ethnicity, Culture, and Politics_. Lexington Books. p. 105. ISBN 9780739103753 . * ^ Ruth Rogaski (2004). _Hygienic Modernity: Meanings of Health and Disease in Treaty-Port China_. University of California Press. pp. 56, 171, 245. ISBN 9780520930605 . * ^ Bloom, Jonathan; Blair, Sheila S., eds. (2009). _The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture_. Oxford University Press. p. 484. ISBN 9780195309911 . * ^ Steinhardt, Nancy Shatzman, ed. (2002). _Chinese Architecture_ (illustrated ed.). Yale University Press. p. 36. ISBN 9780300095593 . * ^ "Cook Ding\'s Kitchen: The World of Martial Arts That Has Long Since Passed". _cookdingskitchen.blogspot.co.il_. * ^ "Cook Ding\'s Kitchen: Master Zhou: The Man, The Artist, The Teacher". _cookdingskitchen.blogspot.co.il_. * ^ "The Martial Spirit of Tianjin
Tianjin
– An Interview with Nitzan Oren By Jonathan Bluestein. - Masters of the IMA". _Masters of the IMA_. * ^ "Great Wall MBA Program". Okcu.edu. Archived from the original on 2010-06-10. Retrieved 2012-12-11. * ^ " Tianjin
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Tianjin
Xinhua High School". Xinhuaedu.cn. Retrieved 2012-12-11. * ^ Tianjin
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Shiyan
Shiyan
High School Archived August 15, 2015, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ " Tianjin
Tianjin
Foreign Languages School (TFLS)". Tjfls.cn. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved 2012-12-11. * ^ " Tianjin
Tianjin
No. 4 High School". Tj4z.cn. 2012-03-28. Retrieved 2012-12-11. * ^ " Tianjin
Tianjin
Second Nankai High School". Tj.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 2012-12-11. * ^ " Tianjin
Tianjin
No. 47 High School". Tj47zx.org. * ^ " Tianjin
Tianjin
No. 7 High School". Tjqz.org. Retrieved 2012-12-11. * ^ " Tianjin
Tianjin
No. 5 High School". Tj5ms.cn. Archived from the original on December 31, 2010. Retrieved December 11, 2012. * ^ "International Exchange". _List of Affiliation Partners within Prefectures_. Council of Local Authorities for International Relations (CLAIR). Retrieved 21 November 2015. * ^ "Twinnings". _www.larnaka.org.cy_. Retrieved 2017-04-07. * ^ "jonkoping.se".

WORKS CITED

* _Miscellaneous series, Issues 7-11_. United States
United States
Department of Commerce , Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
, 1912. * Walravens, Hartmut. "German Influence on the Press in China." - In: _Newspapers in International Librarianship: Papers Presented by the Newspaper Section at IFLA General Conferences_. Walter de Gruyter , January 1, 2003. ISBN 3110962799 , 9783110962796. * Also available at (Archive) the website of the Queens Library - This version does not include the footnotes visible in the Walter de Gruyter version * Also available in Walravens, Hartmut and Edmund King. _Newspapers in international librarianship: papers presented by the newspapers section at IFLA General Conferences_. K.G. Saur , 2003. ISBN 3598218370 , 9783598218378.

FURTHER READING

* O. D. Rasmussen (1925). _Tientsin: An Illustrated Outline History_. University of Michigan: Tientsin Press. OCLC
OCLC
2594229 . * Sabina Donati, Italy\'s Informal Imperialism in Tianjin
Tianjin
during the Liberal Epoch, 1902-1922, _The Historical Journal_, Cambridge University Press, 2016, available on CJO2016, doi:10.1017/S0018246X15000461. * Maurizio Marinelli, Giovanni Andornino, _Italy's Encounter with Modern China: Imperial dreams, strategic ambitions_, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014. * Maurizio Marinelli, "The Triumph of the Uncanny: Italians and Italian Architecture in Tianjin", In _Cultural Studies Review_, Vol. 19, 2, 2013, 70-98. * Maurizio Marinelli, "The Genesis of the Italian Concession in Tianjin: A Combination of Wishful Thinking and Realpolitik". _Journal of Modern Italian Studies_, 15 (4), 2010: 536-556.

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: TIANJIN _ (category)

_ Wikivoyage has a travel guide for TIANJIN _.

* Tianjin
Tianjin
Government website * Economic profile for Tianjin
Tianjin
at HKTDC * Official Tianjin
Tianjin
Media Gateway * Historic US Army map of Tianjin, 1945 * Official promotional video of Tianjin
Tianjin
City * _ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Tientsin". Encyclopædia Britannica _ (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

‹ The template below (_Geographic location _) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. ›

_ Langfang (Hebei) and Beijing Chengde (Hebei) Tangshan
Tangshan
(Hebei)

Langfang (Hebei)

Bohai Gulf_

_ TIANJIN

Cangzhou
Cangzhou
(Hebei) Cangzhou
Cangzhou
(Hebei) Bohai Gulf_

LINKS TO RELATED ARTICLES

* v * t * e

Municipality of Tianjin
Tianjin

* History * Politics * Economy * Transport * TEDA * FTZ

DISTRICTS

* Heping * Hexi * Hebei
Hebei
* Nankai * Hedong * Hongqiao

* Binhai

* Tianjin Free-Trade Zone

* Jinnan * Dongli * Xiqing * Beichen * Baodi * Wuqing * Jinghai * Ninghe * Jizhou

_

DEFUNCT DIVISIONS

* Dagang * Hangu * Tanggu

See also: List of administrative divisions of Tianjin

* v * t * e

ROADS and EXPRESSWAYS of TIANJIN

RING ROADS

* Inner Ring Road * Middle Ring Road * Outer Ring Road

EXPRESSWAYS

* Jingjintang Expressway * Jinghu Expressway * Jingshen Expressway * Tangjin Expressway * Baojin Expressway * Jinbin Expressway * Jinji Expressway

CHINA NATIONAL HIGHWAYS

* G102 * G103 * G104 * G105 * G112 * G205

* v * t * e

Landmarks in Tianjin
Tianjin

BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES

* Luzutang * Tianjin Radio and Television Tower * Wuda Dao * Shijia Dayuan * Tianhougong * Fort Dagukou * Huangyaguan Great Wall

NATURE

.