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Bacillus Subtilis
Bacillus
Bacillus
subtilis, known also as the hay bacillus or grass bacillus, is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium, found in soil and the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants and humans. A member of the genus Bacillus, B. subtilis is rod-shaped, and can form a tough, protective endospore, allowing it to tolerate extreme environmental conditions. B. subtilis has historically been classified as an obligate aerobe, though evidence exists that it is a facultative anaerobe. B. subtilis is considered the best studied Gram-positive
Gram-positive
bacterium and a model organism to study bacterial chromosome replication and cell differentiation
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Transmission Electron Microscopy
Transmission electron microscopy
Transmission electron microscopy
(TEM, also sometimes conventional transmission electron microscopy or CTEM) is a microscopy technique in which a beam of electrons is transmitted through a specimen to form an image. The specimen is most often an ultrathin section less than 100 nm thick or a suspension on a grid. An image is formed from the interaction of the electrons with the sample as the beam is transmitted through the specimen. The image is then magnified and focused onto an imaging device, such as a fluorescent screen, a layer of photographic film, or a sensor such as a charge-coupled device. Transmission electron microscopes are capable of imaging at a significantly higher resolution than light microscopes, owing to the smaller de Broglie wavelength of electrons
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Motility
Motility
Motility
is the ability of an organism to move independently, using metabolic energy.[3][4] This is in contrast to mobility, which describes the ability of an object to be moved. Motility
Motility
is genetically determined,[5] but may be affected by environmental factors. For instance, muscles give animals motility but the consumption of hydrogen cyanide (the environmental factor in this case) would adversely affect muscle physiology causing them to stiffen leading to rigor mortis.[6][7][8] In addition to animal locomotion, most animals are motile (some move by passive locomotion) – the term applies to bacteria and other microorganisms, and to some multicellular organisms, as well as to some mechanisms of fluid flow in multicellular organs and tissue
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Cellular Differentiation
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.[2][3] Most commonly the cell changes to a more specialized type. Differentiation occurs numerous times during the development of a multicellular organism as it changes from a simple zygote to a complex system of tissues and cell types. Differentiation continues in adulthood as adult stem cells divide and create fully differentiated daughter cells during tissue repair and during normal cell turnover. Some differentiation occurs in response to antigen exposure. Differentiation dramatically changes a cell's size, shape, membrane potential, metabolic activity, and responsiveness to signals. These changes are largely due to highly controlled modifications in gene expression and are the study of epigenetics. With a few exceptions, cellular differentiation almost never involves a change in the DNA sequence itself
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Escherichia Coli
Bacillus coli
Bacillus coli
communis Escherich 1885 Escherichia
Escherichia
coli (/ˌɛʃɪˈrɪkiə ˈkoʊlaɪ/;[1] also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia
Escherichia
that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).[2][3] Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls due to food contamination.[4][5] The harmless strains are part of the normal flora of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2,[6] and preventing colonization of the intestine with pathogenic bacteria, having a symbiotic relationship.[7][8] E. coli is expelled into the environment within fecal matter
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Gram-negative
Gram-negative bacteria
Gram-negative bacteria
are a group of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.[1] They are characterized by their cell envelopes, which are composed of a thin peptidoglycan cell wall sandwiched between an inner cytoplasmic cell membrane and a bacterial outer membrane. Gram-negative bacteria
Gram-negative bacteria
are found everywhere, in virtually all environments on Earth
Earth
that support life. The gram-negative bacteria include the model organism Escherichia coli, as well as many pathogenic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas
Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Yersinia pestis
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Gut Flora
Gut flora, gut microbiota or gastrointestinal microbiota is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects
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Daughter Cell
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.[1] Cell division usually occurs as part of a larger cell cycle. In eukaryotes, there are two distinct types of cell division: a vegetative division, whereby each daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell (mitosis),[2] and a reproductive cell division, whereby the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells is reduced by half to produce haploid gametes (meiosis). Meiosis results in four haploid daughter cells by undergoing one round of DNA replication followed by two divisions. Homologous chromosomes are separated in the first division, and sister chromatids are separated in the second division. Both of these cell division cycles are used in the process of sexual reproduction at some point in their life cycle. Both are believed to be present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor
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Drought
A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water. A drought can last for months or years, or may be declared after as few as 15 days.[1] It can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region[2] and harm to the local economy.[3] Annual dry seasons in the tropics significantly increase the chances of a drought developing and subsequent bush fires. Periods of heat can significantly worsen drought conditions by hastening evaporation of water vapour. Many plant species, such as those in the family Cactaceae (or cacti), have drought tolerance adaptations like reduced leaf area and waxy cuticles to enhance their ability to tolerate drought. Some others survive dry periods as buried seeds
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Salinity
Salinity
Salinity
is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity). This is usually measured in g   salt k g   sea   water displaystyle frac g textrm salt kg textrm sea textrm water (note that this is technically dimensionless)
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Radiation
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.[1][2] This includes:electromagnetic radiation, such as radio waves, microwaves, visible light, x-rays, and gamma radiation (γ) particle radiation, such as alpha radiation (α), beta radiation (β), and neutron radiation (particles of non-zero rest energy) acoustic radiation, such as ultrasound, sound, and seismic waves (dependent on a physical transmission medium) gravitational radiation, radiation that takes the form of gravitational waves, or ripples in the curvature of spacetime. Radiation
Radiation
is often categorized as either ionizing or non-ionizing depending on the energy of the radiated particles. Ionizing radiation carries more than 10 eV, which is enough to ionize atoms and molecules, and break chemical bonds. This is an important distinction due to the large difference in harmfulness to living organisms
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Solvent
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution. A solvent is usually a liquid but can also be a solid, a gas, or a supercritical fluid. The quantity of solute that can dissolve in a specific volume of solvent varies with temperature. Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning (e.g. tetrachloroethylene), as paint thinners (e.g. toluene, turpentine), as nail polish removers and glue solvents (acetone, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate), in spot removers (e.g. hexane, petrol ether), in detergents (citrus terpenes) and in perfumes (ethanol). Water is a solvent for polar molecules and the most common solvent used by living things; all the ions and proteins in a cell are dissolved in water within a cell
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Flagella
A flagellum (/fləˈdʒɛləm/; plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells. The similar structure in the archaea functions in the same way but is structurally different and has been termed the archaellum (as of 2012).[1] The word flagellum in Latin
Latin
means whip. The primary role of the flagellum is locomotion, but it also often has function as a sensory organelle, being sensitive to chemicals and temperatures outside the cell.[2][3][4][5] Flagella are organelles defined by function rather than structure. Large differences occur between different types of flagella; the prokaryotic and eukaryotic flagella differ greatly in protein composition, structure, and mechanism of propulsion
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Genetic Manipulation
Genetic may refer to:Genetics, in biology, the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organismsGenetic, used as an adjective, refers to genesGenetic disorder, any disorder caused by a genetic mutation, whether inherited or de novo Genetic mutation, a change in a geneHeredity, genes and their mutations being passed from parents to offspringGenetic recombination, refers to the recombining of alleles resulting in a new molecule of DNAGenetic (linguistics), in linguistics, a relationship between two languages with a common ancestor language Genetic algorithm, in computer science, a kind of search technique modeled on evolutionary biologyThis disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Genetic. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the
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Antibiotic
Antibiotics
Antibiotics
(from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called antibacterials, are a type of antimicrobial[1] drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.[2][3] They may either kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria
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Circular Chromosome
A circular bacterial chromosome is a bacterial chromosome in the form of a molecule of circular DNA. Unlike the linear DNA of most eukaryotes, typical bacterial chromosomes are circular. Most bacterial chromosomes contain a circular DNA molecule – there are no free ends to the DNA. Free ends would otherwise create significant challenges to cells with respect to DNA replication and stability. Cells that do contain chromosomes with DNA ends, or telomeres (most eukaryotes), have acquired elaborate mechanisms to overcome these challenges. However, a circular chromosome can provide other challenges for cells
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