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Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis
is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.[7] Initially, there are generally no symptoms.[1] When severe, it can result in coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, or kidney problems depending on the arteries affected.[1] Symptoms, if they occur, generally do not begin until middle age.[3] The exact cause is not known.[1] Risk factors include high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, obesity, family history, and an unhealthy diet.[3] Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other
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Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a non-surgical procedure used to treat narrowing (stenosis) of the coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary artery disease. After accessing the blood stream through the femoral or radial artery, the procedure uses coronary catheterization to visualise the blood vessels on X-ray imaging. After this, an interventional cardiologist can perform a coronary angioplasty, using a balloon catheter in which a deflated balloon is advanced into the obstructed artery and inflated to relieve the narrowing; certain devices such as stents can be deployed to keep the blood vessel open. Various other procedures can also be performed. Primary PCI is the very urgent use of PCI in people with acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), especially where there is evidence of severe heart damage on the electrocardiogram (ST elevation MI)
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Obesity
Obesity
Obesity
is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.[1] People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height, is over 7002294199500000000♠30 kg/m2, with the range 7002245166250000000♠25–30 kg/m2 defined as overweight.[1] Some East Asian countries use lower values.[8]
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Specialty (medicine)
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a medical specialist.[1]Contents1 History of medical specialization 2 Classification of medical specialization 3 Specialties that are common worldwide 4 List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area 5 List of North American medical specialties and others 6 Physician
Physician
compensation 7 Specialties by country7.1 Australia and New Zealand 7.2 Canada 7.3 Germany 7.4 India 7.5 United States 7.6 Specialty and Physician
Physician
Location8 Other uses 9 Training 10 Satisfaction 11 See also 12 ReferencesHistory of medical specialization[edit] To a certain extent, medical practitioners have always been specialized
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Blood Pressure Medication
Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).[1] Antihypertensive
Antihypertensive
therapy seeks to prevent the complications of high blood pressure, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. Evidence suggests that reduction of the blood pressure by 5 mmHg can decrease the risk of stroke by 34%, of ischaemic heart disease by 21%, and reduce the likelihood of dementia, heart failure, and mortality from cardiovascular disease.[2] There are many classes of antihypertensives, which lower blood pressure by different means. Among the most important and most widely used drugs are thiazide diuretics, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs), and beta blockers. Which type of medication to use initially for hypertension has been the subject of several large studies and resulting national guidelines
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Electrocardiogram
Electrocardiography
Electrocardiography
(ECG or EKG[a]) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin. These electrodes detect the tiny electrical changes on the skin that arise from the heart muscle's electrophysiologic pattern of depolarizing and repolarizing during each heartbeat. It is a very commonly performed cardiology test. In a conventional 12-lead ECG, ten electrodes are placed on the patient's limbs and on the surface of the chest. The overall magnitude of the heart's electrical potential is then measured from twelve different angles ("leads") and is recorded over a period of time (usually ten seconds)
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Calcium
Calcium
Calcium
is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20. An alkaline earth metal, calcium is a reactive pale yellow metal that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer when exposed to air. Its physical and chemical properties are most similar to its heavier homologues strontium and barium. It is the fifth most abundant element in Earth's crust and the third most abundant metal, after iron and aluminium. The most common calcium compound on Earth is calcium carbonate, found in limestone and the fossilised remnants of early sea life; gypsum, anhydrite, fluorite, and apatite are also sources of calcium. The name derives from Latin calx "lime", which was obtained from heating limestone. Its compounds were known to the ancients, though their chemistry was unknown until the seventeenth century. It was isolated by Humphry Davy
Humphry Davy
in 1808 via electrolysis of its oxide, who named the element
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Sudden Cardiac Death
Cardiac arrest
Cardiac arrest
is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.[9] Symptoms include loss of consciousness and abnormal or absent breathing.[1][2] Some individuals may experience chest pain, shortness of breath, or nausea before cardiac arrest.[2] If not treated within minutes, it usually leads to death.[9] The most
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Lumen (anatomy)
In biology, a lumen (plural lumina) is the inside space of a tubular structure, such as an artery or intestine.[1] It comes from Latin lumen, meaning 'an opening'. It can refer to:The interior of a vessel, such as the central space in an artery or vein through which blood flows. The interior of the gastrointestinal tract[2] The pathways of the bronchi in the lungs The interior of renal tubules and urinary collecting ducts The pathways of the female genital tract, starting with a single pathway of the vagina, splitting up in two lumina in the uterus, both of which continue through the fallopian tubesIn cell biology, a lumen is a membrane-defined space that is found inside several organelles, cellular components, or structures:thylakoid, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosome, mitochondrion, or microtubuleTransluminal procedures[edit] Transluminal procedures are procedures occurring through lumina, including:
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Aspirin
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.[4] Specific inflammatory conditions in which aspirin is used include Kawasaki disease, pericarditis, and rheumatic fever.[4] Aspirin
Aspirin
given shortly after a heart attack decreases the risk of death.[4] Aspirin
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High Blood Pressure Medication
Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).[1] Antihypertensive
Antihypertensive
therapy seeks to prevent the complications of high blood pressure, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. Evidence suggests that reduction of the blood pressure by 5 mmHg can decrease the risk of stroke by 34%, of ischaemic heart disease by 21%, and reduce the likelihood of dementia, heart failure, and mortality from cardiovascular disease.[2] There are many classes of antihypertensives, which lower blood pressure by different means. Among the most important and most widely used drugs are thiazide diuretics, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs), and beta blockers. Which type of medication to use initially for hypertension has been the subject of several large studies and resulting national guidelines
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά elliniká) is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus
Cyprus
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records.[3] Its writing system has been the
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World War II
Pacific WarChina Pacific Ocean South-East Asia South West Pacific Japan Manchuria & North Korea Mediterranean and Middle EastNorth Africa East Africa Mediterranean Sea Adriatic Malta Yugoslavia Iraq Syria–Lebanon Iran Italy Dodecanese Southern France Other campaignsAtlantic Arctic Strategic bombing Americas French West Africa Indian Ocean Madagascar Contemporaneous warsSoviet–Japanese border conflicts Franco-Thai War Ecuadorian–Peruvian War Ili Rebellion World War II Alphabetical indices A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 0–9Navigation CampaignsCountriesEquipment TimelineOutlineLists PortalCategoryBibliography vte World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis
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Smoking
Smoking
Smoking
is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream. Most commonly the substance is the dried leaves of the tobacco plant which have been rolled into a small square of rice paper to create a small, round cylinder called a "cigarette". Smoking
Smoking
is primarily practiced as a route of administration for recreational drug use because the combustion of the dried plant leaves vaporizes and delivers active substances into the lungs where they are rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream and reach bodily tissue
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Tobacco Use
Tobacco
Tobacco
smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases). (A more broad definition may include simply taking tobacco smoke into the mouth, and then releasing it, as is done by some with tobacco pipes and cigars.) The practice is believed to have begun as early as 5000–3000 BC in Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
and South America.[1] Tobacco
Tobacco
was introduced to Eurasia
Eurasia
in the late 17th century by European colonists, where it followed common trade routes
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Tobacco Smoking
Tobacco
Tobacco
smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases). (A more broad definition may include simply taking tobacco smoke into the mouth, and then releasing it, as is done by some with tobacco pipes and cigars.) The practice is believed to have begun as early as 5000–3000 BC in Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
and South America.[1] Tobacco
Tobacco
was introduced to Eurasia
Eurasia
in the late 17th century by European colonists, where it followed common trade routes
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