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Asphalt
ASPHALT (/ˈæsˌfɔːlt, -ˌfɑːlt/ ), also known as BITUMEN (UK English: /ˈbɪtʃəmən, ˈbɪtjʊmən/ , US English: /bɪˈt(j)uːmən, baɪˈt(j)uːmən/ ) is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum . It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product, and is classed as a pitch . Before the 20th century, the term ASPHALTUM was also used. The word is derived from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ἄσφαλτος ásphaltos. The primary use (70%) of asphalt is in road construction, where it is used as the glue or binder mixed with aggregate particles to create asphalt concrete . Its other main uses are for bituminous waterproofing products, including production of roofing felt and for sealing flat roofs. The terms "asphalt" and "bitumen" are often used interchangeably to mean both natural and manufactured forms of the substance
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British English
BRITISH ENGLISH is the English language
English language
as spoken and written in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland
Ireland
, and occasionally Yorkshire , whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, so a uniform concept of British English
British English
is more difficult to apply to the spoken language
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Australian English
AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH (AUE, EN-AU ) is a major variety of the English language , used throughout Australia
Australia
. Although English has no official status in the Constitution , Australian English
Australian English
is the country's national and de facto official language as it is the first language of the majority of the population . Australian English
Australian English
began to diverge from British English
British English
after the founding of the Colony of New South Wales in 1788 and was recognised as being different from British English
British English
by 1820. It arose from the intermingling of early settlers from a great variety of mutually intelligible dialectal regions of the British Isles
British Isles
and quickly developed into a distinct variety of English
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Canadian English
CANADIAN ENGLISH (CANE, CE, EN-CA ) is the set of varieties of the English language
English language
native to Canada
Canada
. According to the 2011 census, English was the first language of approximately 19 million Canadians
Canadians
, or 57% of the population; the remainder of the population were native speakers of Canadian French (22%) or other languages (allophones , 21%). A larger number, 28 million people, reported using English as their dominant language. 82% of Canadians
Canadians
outside the province of Quebec
Quebec
reported speaking English natively, but within Quebec
Quebec
the figure was just 7.7% as most of its residents are native speakers of Quebec
Quebec
French
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Naphtha
NAPHTHA (/ˈnæpθə/ or /ˈnæfθə/ ) is a flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixture. Mixtures labelled naphtha have been produced from natural gas condensates , petroleum distillates , and the distillation of coal tar and peat . In different industries and regions naptha may also be crude oil or refined products such as kerosene . Mineral spirits , also historically known as "naptha", are not the same chemical. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Types * 3 Health and safety considerations * 4 See also * 5 References ETYMOLOGYThe word naphtha is from Latin and Ancient Greek (νάφθα), derived from Middle Persian naft ("wet", "naphtha"), from Old Persian 𐎴𐎳𐎫. In Ancient Greek, it was used to refer to any sort of petroleum or pitch
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Anglo-Saxons
The ANGLO-SAXONS were a people who inhabited Great Britain
Great Britain
from the 5th century . They comprise people from Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
who migrated to the island from continental Europe
Europe
, their descendants, and indigenous British groups who adopted some aspects of Anglo-Saxon culture and language. Historically, the Anglo-Saxon period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their initial settlement and up until the Norman conquest . The early Anglo-Saxon period includes the creation of an English nation , with many of the aspects that survive today, including regional government of shires and hundreds . During this period, Christianity was re-established and there was a flowering of literature and language. Charters and law were also established
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Coniferous
Cordaitales Pinales Pinaceae Araucariaceae Podocarpaceae Sciadopityaceae Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae
Cephalotaxaceae Taxaceae Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † SYNONYMS * Coniferophyta * ConiferaeThe PINOPHYTA, also known as CONIFEROPHYTA or CONIFERAE, or commonly as CONIFERS, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single class , Pinopsida. They are gymnosperms , cone-bearing seed plants . All extant conifers are perennial woody plants with secondary growth . The great majority are trees , though a few are shrubs . Examples include cedars , Douglas firs , cypresses , firs , junipers , kauri , larches , pines , hemlocks , redwoods , spruces , and yews . As of 1998, the division Pinophyta was estimated to contain eight families, 68 genera, and 629 living species
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Latinisation (literature)
LATINISATION (also spelled LATINIZATION : see spelling differences ) is the practice of rendering a non- Latin
Latin
name (or word) in a Latin style . It is commonly found with historical personal names , with toponyms , and in the standard binomial nomenclature of the life sciences. It goes further than romanisation , which is the transliteration of a word to the Latin
Latin
alphabet from another script (e.g. Cyrillic
Cyrillic
). This was often done in the classical era for much the same reason as English-speaking cultures produce English versions of some foreign names. In the case of personal names in the post-Roman era this may be done to emulate Latin
Latin
authors, or to present a more impressive image. In a scientific context, the main purpose of Latinisation may be to produce a name which is internationally consistent
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Sanskrit
A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India
India
: 14,135 Indians claimed Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India
India
: Nepal
Nepal
: 1,669 Nepalis in 2011 Nepal census reported Sanskrit
Sanskrit
as their mother tongue. LANGUAGE FAMILY Indo-European * Indo-Iranian * Indo-Aryan * SANSKRIT EARLY FORM Vedic Sanskrit WRITING SYSTEM Devanagari
Devanagari
(official) Also written in various Brahmic scripts
Brahmic scripts

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Synthetic Crude
SYNTHETIC CRUDE is the output from a bitumen/extra heavy oil upgrader facility used in connection with oil sand production. It may also refer to shale oil , an output from an oil shale pyrolysis . The properties of the synthetic crude depend on the processes used in the upgrading. Typically, it is low in sulfur and has an API gravity of around 30. It is also known as "upgraded crude". Synthetic crude is an intermediate product produced when an extra-heavy or unconventional oil source is upgraded into a transportable form. Synthetic crude is then shipped to oil refineries where it is further upgraded into finished products. Synthetic crude may also be mixed, as a diluent, with heavy oil to create synbit . Synbit is more viscous than synthetic crude, but can be a less expensive alternative for transporting heavy oil to a conventional refinery. Syncrude Canada , Suncor Energy Inc
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Alberta, Canada
ALBERTA (/ælˈbɜːrtə/ ( listen )) is a western province of Canada . With an estimated population of 4,067,175 as of 2016 census , it is Canada\'s fourth-most populous province and the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces . Its area is about 660,000 square kilometres (250,000 sq mi). Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1, 1905. The premier has been Rachel Notley since May 2015. Alberta is bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, and the U.S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to border only a single U.S. state and one of only two landlocked provinces
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Heterocyclic Compound
A HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUND or RING STRUCTURE is a cyclic compound that has atoms of at least two different elements as members of its ring(s). HETEROCYCLIC CHEMISTRY is the branch of organic chemistry dealing with the synthesis, properties, and applications of these HETEROCYCLES. Examples of heterocyclic compounds include all of the nucleic acids, the majority of drugs, most biomass (cellulose and related materials), and many natural and synthetic dyes. CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 3-membered rings * 3 4-membered rings * 4 5-membered rings * 5 6-membered rings * 6 7-membered rings * 7 8-membered rings * 8 9-membered rings * 9 Images * 10 Fused rings * 11 History of heterocyclic chemistry * 12 Uses * 13 References * 14 External links CLASSIFICATIONAlthough heterocyclic compounds may be inorganic , most contain at least one carbon
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Organosulfur Compound
ORGANOSULFUR COMPOUNDS are organic compounds that contain sulfur . They are often associated with foul odors, but many of the sweetest compounds known are organosulfur derivatives, e.g., saccharin . Nature abounds with organosulfur compounds—sulfur is essential for life. Of the 20 common amino acids , two (cysteine and methionine ) are organosulfur compounds, and the antibiotics penicillin (pictured below) and sulfa drugs both contain sulfur. While sulfur-containing antibiotics save many lives, sulfur mustard is a deadly chemical warfare agent. Fossil fuels, coal , petroleum , and natural gas , which are derived from ancient organisms, necessarily contain organosulfur compounds, the removal of which is a major focus of oil refineries . Sulfur
Sulfur
shares the chalcogen group with oxygen , selenium , and tellurium , and it is expected that organosulfur compounds have similarities with carbon–oxygen, carbon–selenium, and carbon–tellurium compounds
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Nickel
NICKEL is a chemical element with symbol NI and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile . Pure nickel, powdered to maximize the reactive surface area , shows a significant chemical activity, but larger pieces are slow to react with air under standard conditions because an oxide layer forms on the surface and prevents further corrosion (passivation ). Even so, pure native nickel is found in Earth's crust only in tiny amounts, usually in ultramafic rocks , and in the interiors of larger nickel–iron meteorites that were not exposed to oxygen when outside Earth's atmosphere. Meteoric nickel is found in combination with iron , a reflection of the origin of those elements as major end products of supernova nucleosynthesis . An iron–nickel mixture is thought to compose Earth's inner core
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Vanadium
VANADIUM is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23. It is a hard, silvery grey, ductile , and malleable transition metal . The elemental metal is rarely found in nature, but once isolated artificially, the formation of an oxide layer (passivation ) stabilizes the free metal somewhat against further oxidation . Andrés Manuel del Río discovered compounds of vanadium in 1801 in Mexico
Mexico
by analyzing a new lead -bearing mineral he called "brown lead", and presumed its qualities were due to the presence of a new element, which he named erythronium (derived from Greek for "red") since, upon heating, most of the salts turned red. Four years later, however, he was (erroneously) convinced by other scientists that erythronium was identical to chromium
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