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Asphalt
Asphalt, also known as bitumen (UK: /ˈbɪtʃəmən/, US: /bɪˈtjuːmən, baɪ-/),[1] is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum. It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product, and is classed as a pitch. Before the 20th century, the term asphaltum was also used.[2] The word is derived from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ἄσφαλτος ásphaltos.[3] The primary use (70%) of asphalt is in road construction, where it is used as the glue or binder mixed with aggregate particles to create asphalt concrete. Its other main uses are for bituminous waterproofing products, including production of roofing felt and for sealing flat roofs.[4] The terms "asphalt" and "bitumen" are often used interchangeably to mean both natural and manufactured forms of the substance
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Vanadium
Vanadium
Vanadium
is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23. It is a hard, silvery grey, ductile, and malleable transition metal. The elemental metal is rarely found in nature, but once isolated artificially, the formation of an oxide layer (passivation) stabilizes the free metal somewhat against further oxidation. Andrés Manuel del Río
Andrés Manuel del Río
discovered compounds of vanadium in 1801 in Mexico
Mexico
by analyzing a new lead-bearing mineral he called "brown lead", and presumed its qualities were due to the presence of a new element, which he named erythronium (derived from Greek for "red") since, upon heating, most of the salts turned red. Four years later, however, he was (erroneously) convinced by other scientists that erythronium was identical to chromium
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Dilbit
Dilbit (diluted bitumen) is a bitumen diluted with one or more lighter petroleum products, typically natural-gas condensates such as naphtha. Diluting bitumen makes it much easier to transport, for example in pipelines
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Latinisation (literature)
Latinisation (also spelled Latinization[1]: see spelling differences) is the practice of rendering a non- Latin
Latin
name (or word) in a Latin style.[1] It is commonly found with historical personal names, with toponyms and in the standard binomial nomenclature of the life sciences. It goes further than romanisation, which is the transliteration of a word to the Latin
Latin
alphabet from another script (e.g. Cyrillic). This was often done in the classical to emulate Latin
Latin
authors, or to present a more impressive image. In a scientific context, the main purpose of Latinisation may be to produce a name which is internationally consistent. Latinisation may be carried out by:transforming the name into Latin
Latin
sounds (e.g. Geber for Jabir), or adding Latinate suffixes to the end of a name (e.g
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Herodotus
Herodotus
Herodotus
(/hɪˈrɒdətəs/; Ancient Greek: Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos, Attic Greek
Attic Greek
pronunciation: [hɛː.ró.do.tos]) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (c. 484–c. 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides
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Sanskrit
A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India: 14,135 Indians claimed Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India:[2] Nepal: 1,669 Nepalis
Nepalis
in 2011
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Coniferous
Cordaitales
Cordaitales
† Pinales   Pinaceae   Araucariaceae   Podocarpaceae   Sciadopityaceae   Cupressaceae   Cephalotaxaceae   Taxaceae Vojnovskyales † Voltziales †SynonymsConiferophyta ConiferaeThe Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida. They are gymnosperms, cone-bearing seed plants. All extant conifers are perennial woody plants with secondary growth. The great majority are trees, though a few are shrubs
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Anglo-Saxons
The Anglo- Saxons
Saxons
were a people who inhabited Great Britain
Great Britain
from the 5th century. They comprise people from Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
who migrated to the island from continental Europe, their descendants, and indigenous British groups who adopted some aspects of Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
culture and language. Historically, the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their initial settlement and up until the Norman conquest.[1] The early Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
period includes the creation of an English nation, with many of the aspects that survive today, including regional government of shires and hundreds. During this period, Christianity was established and there was a flowering of literature and language
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Australian English
Australian English
Australian English
(AuE, en-AU)[3] is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia. Although English has no official status in the Constitution, Australian English
Australian English
is the country's national and de facto official language as it is the first language of the majority of the population. Australian English
Australian English
began to diverge from British English
British English
after the founding of the Colony of New South Wales
Colony of New South Wales
in 1788 and was recognised as being different from British English
British English
by 1820
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Canadian English
Canadian English
Canadian English
(CanE, CE, en-CA[3]) is the set of varieties of the English language
English language
native to Canada
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Naphtha
Naphtha
Naphtha
(/ˈnæpθə/ or /ˈnæfθə/) is a flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixture. Mixtures labelled naphtha have been produced from natural gas condensates, petroleum distillates, and the distillation of coal tar and peat. In different industries and regions naphtha may also be crude oil or refined products such as kerosene. Mineral spirits, also historically known as "naptha", are not the same chemical.Contents1 Etymology 2 Types 3 Health and safety considerations 4 See also 5 ReferencesEtymology[edit]White gas, exemplified by Coleman Camp Fuel, is a common naphtha-based fuel used in many lanterns and torchesThe word naphtha is from Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
(νάφθα), derived from Middle Persian
Middle Persian
naft ("wet", "naphtha").[1][2] In Ancient Greek, it was used to refer to any sort of petroleum or pitch
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Synthetic Crude
Synthetic crude is the output from a bitumen/extra heavy oil upgrader facility used in connection with oil sand production. It may also refer to shale oil, an output from an oil shale pyrolysis. The properties of the synthetic crude depend on the processes used in the upgrading. Typically, it is low in sulfur and has an API gravity of around 30. It is also known as "upgraded crude". Synthetic crude is an intermediate product produced when an extra-heavy or unconventional oil source is upgraded into a transportable form. Synthetic crude is then shipped to oil refineries where it is further upgraded into finished products
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England
England
England
is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.[6][7][8] It shares land borders with Scotland
Scotland
to the north and Wales
Wales
to the west. The Irish Sea
Irish Sea
lies northwest of England
England
and the Celtic Sea
Celtic Sea
lies to the southwest. England
England
is separated from continental Europe
Europe
by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel
English Channel
to the south
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Naphthalene
Naphthalene
Naphthalene
is an organic compound with formula C 10H 8. It is the simplest polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and is a white crystalline solid with a characteristic odor that is detectable at concentrations as low as 0.08 ppm by mass.[13] As an aromatic hydrocarbon, naphthalene's structure consists of a fused pair of benzene rings
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Molecular Weight
Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule. It is calculated as the sum of the atomic weights of each constituent element multiplied by the number of atoms of that element in the molecular formula. The molecular mass of small to medium size molecules, measured by mass spectrometry, determines stoichiometry. For large molecules such as proteins, methods based on viscosity and light-scattering can be used to determine molecular mass when crystallographic data are not available.Contents1 Definitions 2 Determination2.1 Mass spectrometry 2.2 Hydrodynamic methods 2.3 Static light scattering3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDefinitions[edit] Both atomic and molecular masses are usually obtained relative to the mass of the isotope 12C (carbon 12), which by definition[1] is equal to 12
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Phenols
In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (—OH) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. The simplest of the class is phenol, which is also called carbolic acid C 6H 5OH. Phenolic compounds are classified as simple phenols or polyphenols based on the number of phenol units in the molecule.[1][2][3] Phenol
Phenol
- the simplest of the phenols.Chemical structure of Salicylic acid
Salicylic acid
the active metabolite of Aspirin.Chemical structure of Aloe emodin
Aloe emodin
a diphenol.Quercetin, a typical flavonoid, is a polyphenol.Tannic acid, a typical polyphenol of indeterminate structure.Lignin, is around 25% of the composition of wood
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