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Asphalt
ASPHALT /ˈæsˌfɔːlt, -ˌfɑːlt/ , also known as BITUMEN /ˈbɪtʃəmᵻn, bᵻˈtuːmᵻn/ , is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum . It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product, and is classed as a pitch . Before the 20th century, the term ASPHALTUM was also used. The word is derived from the Ancient Greek ἄσφαλτος _ásphaltos_. The primary use (70%) of asphalt is in road construction, where it is used as the glue or binder mixed with aggregate particles to create asphalt concrete . Its other main uses are for bituminous waterproofing products, including production of roofing felt and for sealing flat roofs. The terms "asphalt" and "bitumen" are often used interchangeably to mean both natural and manufactured forms of the substance
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Oil Sands
OIL SANDS, also known as TAR SANDS, or more technically BITUMINOUS SANDS, are a type of unconventional petroleum deposit . Oil sands
Oil sands
are either loose sands or partially consolidated sandstone containing a naturally occurring mixture of sand , clay , and water, saturated with a dense and extremely viscous form of petroleum technically referred to as bitumen (or colloquially as tar due to its superficially similar appearance). Natural bitumen deposits are reported in many countries, but in particular are found in extremely large quantities in Canada
Canada
. Other large reserves are located in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, Russia
Russia
, and Venezuela
Venezuela
. The estimated worldwide deposits of oil are more than 2 trillion barrels (320 billion cubic metres); the estimates include deposits that have not been discovered
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Asphalt (other)
ASPHALT is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid that is present in most crude petroleums
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Asphalt Concrete
ASPHALT CONCRETE (commonly called ASPHALT, BLACKTOP, or PAVEMENT in North America, and TARMAC or BITUMEN MACADAM in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland ) is a composite material commonly used to surface roads , parking lots , airports , as well as the core of embankment dams . It consists of mineral aggregate bound together with asphalt , laid in layers, and compacted. The process was refined and enhanced by Belgian inventor and U.S. immigrant Edward de Smedt . The terms "asphalt (or asphaltic) concrete", "bituminous asphalt concrete", and "bituminous mixture" are typically used only in engineering and construction documents, which define concrete as any composite material composed of mineral aggregate adhered with a binder. The abbreviation "AC" is sometimes used for "asphalt concrete" but can also denote "asphalt content" or "asphalt cement", referring to the liquid asphalt portion of the composite material
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Dead Sea
The DEAD SEA (Hebrew : יָם הַמֶּלַח‎ _ Yam ha-Melah_ lit. SALT SEA, Arabic : البحر الميت‎‎ _ Al-Bahr al-Mayyit_ ), is a salt lake bordered by Jordan
Jordan
to the east and Israel
Israel
and Palestine to the west. Its surface and shores are 430.5 metres (1,412 ft) below sea level , Earth's lowest elevation on land. The Dead Sea
Sea
is 304 m (997 ft) deep, the deepest hypersaline lake in the world. With a salinity of 342 g/kg, or 34.2%, (in 2011), it is 9.6 times as salty as the ocean , and one of the world\'s saltiest bodies of water . This salinity makes for a harsh environment in which plants and animals cannot flourish, hence its name. The Dead Sea
Sea
is 50 kilometres (31 mi) long and 15 kilometres (9 mi) wide at its widest point. It lies in the Jordan
Jordan
Rift Valley and its main tributary is the Jordan
Jordan
River
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Pitch Drop Experiment
The PITCH DROP EXPERIMENT is a long-term experiment that measures the flow of a piece of pitch over many years. Pitch is the name for any of a number of highly viscous liquids that appear solid, most commonly bitumen . At room temperature, tar pitch flows at a very low rate, taking several years to form a single drop. CONTENTS* 1 University of Queensland
University of Queensland
experiment * 1.1 Timeline * 2 Trinity College Dublin experiment * 3 Experiment
Experiment
at Aberystwyth University in Wales * 4 Demonstrations of Lord Kelvin * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND EXPERIMENT The University of Queensland
University of Queensland
pitch drop experiment, featuring its then-current custodian, Professor John Mainstone (taken in 1990, two years after the seventh drop and 10 years before the eighth drop fell)
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Viscosity
The VISCOSITY of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress . For liquids, it corresponds to the informal concept of "thickness"; for example, honey has a much higher viscosity than water . Viscosity is a property of the fluid which opposes the relative motion between the two surfaces of the fluid in a fluid that are moving at different velocities . When the fluid is forced through a tube, the particles which compose the fluid generally move more quickly near the tube's axis and more slowly near its walls; therefore some stress (such as a pressure difference between the two ends of the tube) is needed to overcome the friction between particle layers to keep the fluid moving. For a given velocity pattern, the stress required is proportional to the fluid's viscosity. A fluid that has no resistance to shear stress is known as an _ideal_ or _inviscid_ fluid
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Petroleum
PETROLEUM (from Greek : petra: "rock" + _oleum_: "oil". ) is a naturally occurring , yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth 's surface. It is commonly refined into various types of fuels . Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation . It consists of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other organic compounds . The name _petroleum_ covers both naturally occurring unprocessed CRUDE OIL and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel , petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton and algae , are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both intense heat and pressure. Petroleum has mostly been recovered by oil drilling (natural petroleum springs are rare)
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Pitch (resin)
PITCH is a name for any of a number of viscoelastic polymers . Pitch can be natural or manufactured, derived from petroleum , coal tar or plants. Various forms of pitch may also be called tar , bitumen or asphalt . Pitch produced from plants is also known as resin . Some products made from plant resin are also known as rosin . Pitch was traditionally used to help caulk the seams of wooden sailing vessels (see shipbuilding ). Pitch may also be used to waterproof wooden containers and in the making of torches . Petroleum-derived pitch is black in colour, hence the adjectival phrase, "pitch-black". CONTENTS * 1 Viscoelastic properties * 2 Production * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIESNaturally occurring asphalt /bitumen, a type of pitch, is a viscoelastic polymer
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Ancient Greek
ANCIENT GREEK includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period (3rd century BC to the 6th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek . The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek . Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects . Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians, playwrights, and philosophers
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Construction Aggregate
CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATE, or simply "aggregate ", is a broad category of coarse to medium grained particulate material used in construction , including sand , gravel , crushed stone , slag , recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates. Aggregates are the most mined materials in the world. Aggregates are a component of composite materials such as concrete and asphalt concrete ; the aggregate serves as reinforcement to add strength to the overall composite material. Due to the relatively high hydraulic conductivity value as compared to most soils, aggregates are widely used in drainage applications such as foundation and French drains
French drains
, septic drain fields, retaining wall drains, and road side edge drains. Aggregates are also used as base material under foundations, roads, and railroads . In other words, aggregates are used as a stable foundation or road/rail base with predictable, uniform properties (e.g
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Bituminous Waterproofing
BITUMINOUS WATERPROOFING systems are designed to protect residential and commercial buildings. Bitumen
Bitumen
(asphalt or coal-tar pitch) is a mixed substance made up of organic liquids that are highly sticky, viscous , and waterproof. These systems are sometimes used to construct roofs , in the form of roofing felt or roll roofing products. CONTENTS* 1 Roofing felt * 1.1 Weights and grades * 1.2 Manufacturing process * 1.3 Felt paper standards * 2 Roll roofing components * 3 Composition * 4 Reasons to use a roofing underlayment * 5 Negative aspects * 6 Malthoid * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links ROOFING FELT Felt paper on a wall exposed by tornado damage in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
. Roofing felt (similar to tar paper ) is the base material used to make roof shingles and roll roofing
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Roofing Felt
BITUMINOUS WATERPROOFING systems are designed to protect residential and commercial buildings. Bitumen
Bitumen
(asphalt or coal-tar pitch) is a mixed substance made up of organic liquids that are highly sticky, viscous , and waterproof. These systems are sometimes used to construct roofs , in the form of roofing felt or roll roofing products. CONTENTS* 1 Roofing felt * 1.1 Weights and grades * 1.2 Manufacturing process * 1.3 Felt paper standards * 2 Roll roofing components * 3 Composition * 4 Reasons to use a roofing underlayment * 5 Negative aspects * 6 Malthoid * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links ROOFING FELT Felt paper on a wall exposed by tornado damage in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
. Roofing felt (similar to tar paper ) is the base material used to make roof shingles and roll roofing
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American English
AMERICAN ENGLISH (AME, AE, AMENG, USENG, EN-US ), sometimes called UNITED STATES ENGLISH or U.S. ENGLISH, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States . English is the most widely spoken language in the United States and is the common language used by the federal government, considered the _de facto _ language of the country because of its widespread use. English has been given official status by 32 of the 50 state governments. As an example, while both Spanish and English have equivalent status in the local courts of Puerto Rico , under federal law, English is the official language for any matters being referred to the United States district court for the territory. The use of English in the United States is a result of British colonization of the Americas
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Distillation
DISTILLATION is the process of separating the component or substances from a liquid mixture by selective evaporation and condensation . Distillation may result in essentially complete separation (nearly pure components), or it may be a partial separation that increases the concentration of selected components of the mixture. In either case the process exploits differences in the volatility of the mixture's components. In industrial chemistry , distillation is a unit operation of practically universal importance, but it is a physical separation process and not a chemical reaction . Commercially, distillation has many applications
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Tar
TAR is a dark brown or black viscous liquid of hydrocarbons and free carbon , obtained from a wide variety of organic materials through destructive distillation . Tar
Tar
can be produced from coal , wood , petroleum , or peat . Production and trade in pine-derived tar was a major contributor in the economies of Northern Europe and Colonial America . Its main use was in preserving wooden sailing vessels against rot. The largest user was the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
. Demand for tar declined with the advent of iron and steel ships. Tar-like products can also be produced from other forms of organic matter , such as peat . Mineral products resembling tar can be produced from fossil hydrocarbons , such as petroleum. Coal
Coal
tar is produced from coal as a byproduct of coke production. Bitumen is a term used for natural deposits of oil "tar", such as at the La Brea Tar
Tar
Pits
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