HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1500] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

Asphalt
ASPHALT /ˈæsˌfɔːlt, -ˌfɑːlt/ , also known as BITUMEN /ˈbɪtʃəmᵻn, bᵻˈtuːmᵻn/ , is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum . It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product, and is classed as a pitch . Before the 20th century, the term ASPHALTUM was also used. The word is derived from the Ancient Greek ἄσφαλτος _ásphaltos_. The primary use (70%) of asphalt is in road construction, where it is used as the glue or binder mixed with aggregate particles to create asphalt concrete . Its other main uses are for bituminous waterproofing products, including production of roofing felt and for sealing flat roofs. The terms "asphalt" and "bitumen" are often used interchangeably to mean both natural and manufactured forms of the substance. In American English , "asphalt" (or "asphalt cement") is commonly used for a refined residue from the distillation process of selected crude oils. Outside the United States, the product is often called "bitumen", and geologists worldwide often prefer the term for the naturally occurring variety. Common colloquial usage often refers to various forms of asphalt as "tar ", as in the name of the La Brea Tar Pits . Naturally occurring asphalt is sometimes specified by the term "crude bitumen"
[...More...]

"Asphalt" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Oil Sands
OIL SANDS, also known as TAR SANDS, or more technically BITUMINOUS SANDS, are a type of unconventional petroleum deposit . Oil sands are either loose sands or partially consolidated sandstone containing a naturally occurring mixture of sand , clay , and water, saturated with a dense and extremely viscous form of petroleum technically referred to as bitumen (or colloquially as tar due to its superficially similar appearance). Natural bitumen deposits are reported in many countries, but in particular are found in extremely large quantities in Canada . Other large reserves are located in Kazakhstan , Russia , and Venezuela . The estimated worldwide deposits of oil are more than 2 trillion barrels (320 billion cubic metres); the estimates include deposits that have not been discovered. Proven reserves of bitumen contain approximately 100 billion barrels, and total natural bitumen reserves are estimated at 249.67 Gbbl (39.694×10^9 m3) worldwide, of which 176.8 Gbbl (28.11×10^9 m3), or 70.8%, are in Alberta, Canada. Oil sands reserves have only recently been considered to be part of the world's oil reserves , as higher oil prices and new technology enable profitable extraction and processing. Oil produced from bitumen sands is often referred to as unconventional oil or crude bitumen, to distinguish it from liquid hydrocarbons produced from traditional oil wells
[...More...]

"Oil Sands" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Asphalt (other)
ASPHALT is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid that is present in most crude petroleums. ASPHALT may also refer to: * Asphalt concrete or asphalt, a composite of the petroleum material with minerals, often used for surfacing * Asphalt (1929 film) , a German silent film by Joe May * Asphalt (1964 film) , a South Korean film by Kim Ki-young * Asphalt (novel) , an American novel by Carl Hancock Rux * Asphalt (series) , a racing game series produced by Gameloft * Asphalt, Kentucky * USS Asphalt (IX-153) , a Trefoil-class concrete bargeSEE ALSO * Asphaltum, Indiana * Shilajit
Shilajit
or black asphaltum, an organic-based clay This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title ASPHALT. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Asphalt_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
[...More...]

"Asphalt (other)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Asphalt Concrete
ASPHALT CONCRETE (commonly called ASPHALT, BLACKTOP, or PAVEMENT in North America, and TARMAC or BITUMEN MACADAM in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland ) is a composite material commonly used to surface roads , parking lots , airports , as well as the core of embankment dams . It consists of mineral aggregate bound together with asphalt , laid in layers, and compacted. The process was refined and enhanced by Belgian inventor and U.S. immigrant Edward de Smedt . The terms "asphalt (or asphaltic) concrete", "bituminous asphalt concrete", and "bituminous mixture" are typically used only in engineering and construction documents, which define concrete as any composite material composed of mineral aggregate adhered with a binder. The abbreviation "AC" is sometimes used for "asphalt concrete" but can also denote "asphalt content" or "asphalt cement", referring to the liquid asphalt portion of the composite material. CONTENTS * 1 Mixture formulations * 2 Performance characteristics * 3 Asphalt concrete degradation and restoration * 3.1 Prevention and repair of degradation * 4 Recycling * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links MIXTURE FORMULATIONS As shown in this cross-section, many older roadways are smoothed by applying a thin layer of asphalt concrete to the existing portland cement concrete , creating a composite pavement
[...More...]

"Asphalt Concrete" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Dead Sea
The DEAD SEA (Hebrew : יָם הַמֶּלַח‎ _ Yam ha-Melah_ lit. SALT SEA, Arabic : البحر الميت‎‎ _ Al-Bahr al-Mayyit_ ), is a salt lake bordered by Jordan
Jordan
to the east and Israel
Israel
and Palestine to the west. Its surface and shores are 430.5 metres (1,412 ft) below sea level , Earth's lowest elevation on land. The Dead Sea
Sea
is 304 m (997 ft) deep, the deepest hypersaline lake in the world. With a salinity of 342 g/kg, or 34.2%, (in 2011), it is 9.6 times as salty as the ocean , and one of the world\'s saltiest bodies of water . This salinity makes for a harsh environment in which plants and animals cannot flourish, hence its name. The Dead Sea
Sea
is 50 kilometres (31 mi) long and 15 kilometres (9 mi) wide at its widest point. It lies in the Jordan
Jordan
Rift Valley and its main tributary is the Jordan
Jordan
River . The Dead Sea
Sea
has attracted visitors from around the Mediterranean basin for thousands of years. It was one of the world's first health resorts (for Herod the Great
Herod the Great
), and it has been the supplier of a wide variety of products, from asphalt for Egyptian mummification to potash for fertilizers . People also use the salt and the minerals from the Dead Sea
Sea
to create cosmetics and herbal sachets
[...More...]

"Dead Sea" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Pitch Drop Experiment
The PITCH DROP EXPERIMENT is a long-term experiment that measures the flow of a piece of pitch over many years. Pitch is the name for any of a number of highly viscous liquids that appear solid, most commonly bitumen . At room temperature, tar pitch flows at a very low rate, taking several years to form a single drop. CONTENTS* 1 University of Queensland
University of Queensland
experiment * 1.1 Timeline * 2 Trinity College Dublin experiment * 3 Experiment
Experiment
at Aberystwyth University in Wales * 4 Demonstrations of Lord Kelvin * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND EXPERIMENT The University of Queensland
University of Queensland
pitch drop experiment, featuring its then-current custodian, Professor John Mainstone (taken in 1990, two years after the seventh drop and 10 years before the eighth drop fell). The best known version of the experiment was started in 1927 by Professor Thomas Parnell of the University of Queensland
University of Queensland
in Brisbane
Brisbane
, Australia, to demonstrate to students that some substances that appear solid are, in fact, very-high-viscosity fluids. Parnell poured a heated sample of pitch into a sealed funnel and allowed it to settle for three years
[...More...]

"Pitch Drop Experiment" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Viscosity
The VISCOSITY of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress . For liquids, it corresponds to the informal concept of "thickness"; for example, honey has a much higher viscosity than water . Viscosity is a property of the fluid which opposes the relative motion between the two surfaces of the fluid in a fluid that are moving at different velocities . When the fluid is forced through a tube, the particles which compose the fluid generally move more quickly near the tube's axis and more slowly near its walls; therefore some stress (such as a pressure difference between the two ends of the tube) is needed to overcome the friction between particle layers to keep the fluid moving. For a given velocity pattern, the stress required is proportional to the fluid's viscosity. A fluid that has no resistance to shear stress is known as an _ideal_ or _inviscid_ fluid. Zero viscosity is observed only at very low temperatures in superfluids . Otherwise, all fluids have positive viscosity, and are technically said to be viscous or viscid. In common parlance, however, a liquid is said to be _viscous_ if its viscosity is substantially greater than that of water, and may be described as _mobile_ if the viscosity is noticeably less than water. A fluid with a relatively high viscosity, such as pitch , may appear to be a solid
[...More...]

"Viscosity" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Petroleum
PETROLEUM (from Greek : petra: "rock" + _oleum_: "oil". ) is a naturally occurring , yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth 's surface. It is commonly refined into various types of fuels . Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation . It consists of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other organic compounds . The name _petroleum_ covers both naturally occurring unprocessed CRUDE OIL and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel , petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton and algae , are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both intense heat and pressure. Petroleum has mostly been recovered by oil drilling (natural petroleum springs are rare). Drilling is carried out after studies of structural geology (at the reservoir scale), sedimentary basin analysis, and reservoir characterization (mainly in terms of the porosity and permeability of geologic reservoir structures) have been completed. It is refined and separated, most easily by distillation , into a large number of consumer products, from gasoline (petrol) and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals . Petroleum is used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials, and it is estimated that the world consumes about 95 million barrels each day
[...More...]

"Petroleum" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Pitch (resin)
PITCH is a name for any of a number of viscoelastic polymers . Pitch can be natural or manufactured, derived from petroleum , coal tar or plants. Various forms of pitch may also be called tar , bitumen or asphalt . Pitch produced from plants is also known as resin . Some products made from plant resin are also known as rosin . Pitch was traditionally used to help caulk the seams of wooden sailing vessels (see shipbuilding ). Pitch may also be used to waterproof wooden containers and in the making of torches . Petroleum-derived pitch is black in colour, hence the adjectival phrase, "pitch-black". CONTENTS * 1 Viscoelastic properties * 2 Production * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIESNaturally occurring asphalt /bitumen, a type of pitch, is a viscoelastic polymer . This means that even though it seems to be solid at room temperature and can be shattered with a hard impact, it is actually fluid and will flow over time, but extremely slowly. The pitch drop experiment taking place at University of Queensland
University of Queensland
is a long-term experiment which demonstrates the flow of a piece of pitch over many years. For the experiment, pitch was put in a glass funnel and allowed to slowly drip out. Since the pitch was allowed to start dripping in 1930, only nine drops have fallen
[...More...]

"Pitch (resin)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Ancient Greek
ANCIENT GREEK includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period (3rd century BC to the 6th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek . The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek . Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects . Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians, playwrights, and philosophers . It has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance . This article primarily contains information about the Epic and Classical phases of the language
[...More...]

"Ancient Greek" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Construction Aggregate
_ Limestone quarry . 10 mm graded crushed basalt rock or aggregate, for use in concrete, called "blue metal" in Australia. 20 mm graded aggregate. A gravel and sand extraction facility in Međimurje County , Croatia . This article NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2017)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATE, or simply "_aggregate _", is a broad category of coarse particulate material used in construction , including sand , gravel , crushed stone , slag , recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates. Aggregates are the most mined materials in the world. Aggregates are a component of composite materials such as concrete and asphalt concrete ; the aggregate serves as reinforcement to add strength to the overall composite material. Due to the relatively high hydraulic conductivity value as compared to most soils, aggregates are widely used in drainage applications such as foundation and French drains , septic drain fields, retaining wall drains, and road side edge drains. Aggregates are also used as base material under foundations, roads, and railroads . In other words, aggregates are used as a stable foundation or road/rail base with predictable, uniform properties (e.g
[...More...]

"Construction Aggregate" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Bituminous Waterproofing
BITUMINOUS WATERPROOFING systems are designed to protect residential and commercial buildings. Bitumen (asphalt or coal-tar pitch) is a mixed substance made up of organic liquids that are highly sticky, viscous , and waterproof. These systems are sometimes used to construct roofs , in the form of roofing felt or roll roofing products. CONTENTS* 1 Roofing felt * 1.1 Weights and grades * 1.2 Manufacturing process * 1.3 Felt
Felt
paper standards * 2 Roll roofing components * 3 Composition * 4 Reasons to use a roofing underlayment * 5 Negative aspects * 6 Malthoid * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links ROOFING FELT Felt
Felt
paper on a wall exposed by tornado damage in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
. Roofing felt (similar to tar paper ) is the base material used to make roof shingles and roll roofing. Used for decades as waterproof coverings in residential and commercial roofs, these bitumen compositional membranes incorporate two layers. The first underside polymer membrane is used as a solid background, often reinforced with glass fibers. Mineral granules make up the self-protective top layer, with a final bituminous mixture encapsulating them both
[...More...]

"Bituminous Waterproofing" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Roofing Felt
BITUMINOUS WATERPROOFING systems are designed to protect residential and commercial buildings. Bitumen
Bitumen
(asphalt or coal-tar pitch) is a mixed substance made up of organic liquids that are highly sticky, viscous , and waterproof. These systems are sometimes used to construct roofs , in the form of roofing felt or roll roofing products. CONTENTS* 1 Roofing felt * 1.1 Weights and grades * 1.2 Manufacturing process * 1.3 Felt
Felt
paper standards * 2 Roll roofing components * 3 Composition * 4 Reasons to use a roofing underlayment * 5 Negative aspects * 6 Malthoid * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links ROOFING FELT Felt
Felt
paper on a wall exposed by tornado damage in Oklahoma
Oklahoma
. Roofing felt (similar to tar paper ) is the base material used to make roof shingles and roll roofing. Used for decades as waterproof coverings in residential and commercial roofs, these bitumen compositional membranes incorporate two layers. The first underside polymer membrane is used as a solid background, often reinforced with glass fibers. Mineral granules make up the self-protective top layer, with a final bituminous mixture encapsulating them both
[...More...]

"Roofing Felt" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

American English
AMERICAN ENGLISH (AME, AE, AMENG, USENG, EN-US ), sometimes called UNITED STATES ENGLISH or U.S. ENGLISH, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States . English is the most widely spoken language in the United States and is the common language used by the federal government, considered the _de facto _ language of the country because of its widespread use. English has been given official status by 32 of the 50 state governments. As an example, while both Spanish and English have equivalent status in the local courts of Puerto Rico , under federal law, English is the official language for any matters being referred to the United States district court for the territory. The use of English in the United States is a result of British colonization of the Americas . The first wave of English-speaking settlers arrived in North America during the 17th century, followed by further migrations in the 18th and 19th centuries. Since then, American English has developed into new dialects, in some cases under the influence of West African and Native American languages , German , Dutch , Irish , Spanish , and other languages of successive waves of immigrants to the United States
[...More...]

"American English" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Distillation
DISTILLATION is the process of separating the component or substances from a liquid mixture by selective evaporation and condensation . Distillation may result in essentially complete separation (nearly pure components), or it may be a partial separation that increases the concentration of selected components of the mixture. In either case the process exploits differences in the volatility of the mixture's components. In industrial chemistry , distillation is a unit operation of practically universal importance, but it is a physical separation process and not a chemical reaction . Commercially, distillation has many applications. For example: * In the fossil fuel industry distillation is a major class of operation in obtaining materials from crude oil for fuels and for chemical feed stocks . * Distillation permits separation of air into its components — notably oxygen , nitrogen , and argon — for industrial use . * In the field of industrial chemistry, large amounts of crude liquid products of chemical synthesis are distilled to separate them, either from other products, or from impurities, or from unreacted starting materials. * Distillation of fermented products produces distilled beverages with a high alcohol content, or separates out other fermentation products of commercial value.An in