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Aspen
ASPEN is a common name for certain tree species; some, but not all, are classified by botanists in the section Populus
Populus
, of the Populus genus . CONTENTS * 1 Species * 2 Habitat and longevity * 3 Image gallery * 4 Uses * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links SPECIESThese species are called aspens: * Populus
Populus
adenopoda – Chinese aspen (China, south of P. tremula) * Populus
Populus
davidiana – Korean aspen (Eastern Asia) * Populus
Populus
grandidentata – Bigtooth aspen (eastern North America, south of P
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Larvae
A LARVA (plural larvae /ˈlɑːrviː/ ) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults . Animals with indirect development such as insects , amphibians , or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle . The larva's appearance is generally very different from the adult form (e.g. caterpillars and butterflies ). A larva often has unique structures and organs that do not occur in the adult form. Their diet may also be considerably different. Larvae are frequently adapted to environments separate from adults. For example, some larvae such as tadpoles live almost exclusively in aquatic environments, but can live outside water as adult frogs . By living in a distinct environment, larvae may be given shelter from predators and reduce competition for resources with the adult population. Animals in the larval stage will consume food to fuel their transition into the adult form
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Lepidoptera
Aglossata Glossata Heterobathmiina Zeugloptera LEPIDOPTERA (/ˌlɛpɪˈdɒptərə/ lep-i-DOP-tər-ə ) is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths (both are called LEPIDOPTERANS). About 180,000 species of the Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
are described, in 126 families and 46 superfamilies , 10% of the total described species of living organisms. It is one of the most widespread and widely recognizable insect orders in the world. The Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
show many variations of the basic body structure that have evolved to gain advantages in lifestyle and distribution. Recent estimates suggest the order may have more species than earlier thought, and is among the four most speciose orders, along with the Hymenoptera , Diptera
Diptera
, and Coleoptera
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European Hare
The EUROPEAN HARE ( Lepus europaeus), also known as the BROWN HARE, is a species of hare native to Europe
Europe
and parts of Asia. It is among the largest hare species and is adapted to temperate, open country. Hares are herbivorous and feed mainly on grasses and herbs, supplementing these with twigs, buds, bark and field crops, particularly in winter. Their natural predators include large birds of prey , canids and felids . They rely on high-speed endurance running to escape from their enemies; having long, powerful limbs and large nostrils. Generally nocturnal and shy in nature, hares change their behaviour in the spring, when they can be seen in broad daylight chasing one another around in fields. During this spring frenzy, they sometimes strike one another with their paws ("boxing"). This is usually not competition between males, but a female hitting a male, either to show she is not yet ready to mate or as a test of his determination
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European Beaver
The EURASIAN BEAVER or EUROPEAN BEAVER (Castor fiber) is a species of beaver which was once widespread in Eurasia. It was hunted to near-extinction for both its fur and castoreum ; and by 1900, only 1200 beavers survived in eight relict populations in Europe and Asia. Reintroduced through much of its former range, it now occurs from Great Britain
Great Britain
to China
China
and Mongolia
Mongolia
, although it is absent from Italy , Portugal
Portugal
, the southern Balkans
Balkans
, and the Middle East
Middle East

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Bryophytes
BRYOPHYTES are an informal group consisting of three divisions of non-vascular land plants (embryophytes ), the liverworts , hornworts and mosses . They are characteristically limited in size and prefer moist habitats although they can survive in drier environments. The bryophytes consist of about 20,000 plant species. Bryophytes produce enclosed reproductive structures (gametangia and sporangia), but they do not produce flowers or seeds . They reproduce via spores . Bryophytes are usually considered to be a paraphyletic group and not a monophyletic group, although some studies have produced contrary results. Regardless of their status, the name is convenient and remains in use as an informal collective term. The term "bryophyte" comes from Greek βρύον, bryon "tree-moss, oyster-green" + φυτόν – phyton "plant"
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Bark
BARK is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants . Plants with bark include trees , woody vines , and shrubs . Bark refers to all the tissues outside of the vascular cambium and is a nontechnical term. It overlays the wood and consists of the inner bark and the outer bark. The inner bark, which in older stems is living tissue, includes the innermost area of the PERIDERM. The outer bark in older stems includes the dead tissue on the surface of the stems, along with parts of the innermost periderm and all the tissues on the outer side of the periderm. The outer bark on trees which lies external to the last formed periderm is also called the RHYTIDOME. Products derived from bark include: bark shingle siding and wall coverings, spices and other flavorings, tanbark for tannin, resin , latex , medicines, poisons, various hallucinogenic chemicals and cork
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Wildfire
A WILDFIRE or WILDLAND FIRE is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or rural area . Depending on the type of vegetation where it occurs, a wildfire can also be classified more specifically as a BRUSH FIRE, BUSH FIRE, DESERT FIRE, FOREST FIRE, GRASS FIRE, HILL FIRE, PEAT FIRE, VEGETATION FIRE, or VELD FIRE. Fossil charcoal indicates that wildfires began soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants 420 million years ago. Wildfire’s occurrence throughout the history of terrestrial life invites conjecture that fire must have had pronounced evolutionary effects on most ecosystems' flora and fauna. Earth is an intrinsically flammable planet owing to its cover of carbon-rich vegetation, seasonally dry climates, atmospheric oxygen, and widespread lightning and volcano ignitions. Wildfires can be characterized in terms of the cause of ignition, their physical properties, the combustible material present, and the effect of weather on the fire
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Reforestation
REFORESTATION is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands that have been depleted, usually through deforestation . Reforestation
Reforestation
can be used to rectify or improve the quality of human life by soaking up pollution and dust from the air, rebuild natural habitats and ecosystems , mitigate global warming since forests facilitate biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide , and harvest for resources, particularly timber , but also non-timber forest products . The term reforestation is similar to afforestation , the process of restoring and recreating areas of woodlands or forests that may have existed long ago but were deforested or otherwise removed at some point in the past. Sometimes the term re-afforestation is used to distinguish between the original forest cover and the later re-growth of forest to an area. FORESTATION is the establishment of forest growth on areas that either had forest or lacked it
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Climate Change
Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry (category) METEOROLOGY Weather
Weather
(category) · (portal) Tropical cyclone
Tropical cyclone
(category) CLIMATOLOGY Climate
Climate
(category) Climate
Climate
change (category) Global warming
Global warming
(category) · (portal) * v * t * e CLIMATE CHANGE is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years). Climate
Climate
change may refer to a change in average weather conditions, or in the time variation of weather within the context of longer-term average conditions
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Deer
Capreolinae
Capreolinae
Cervinae Hydropotinae
Hydropotinae
Combined native range of all species of deerDEER (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family CERVIDAE. The two main groups are the Cervinae , including the muntjac , the fallow deer and the chital , and the Capreolinae
Capreolinae
, including the elk , reindeer (caribou), the Western roe deer , and the Eurasian elk (moose) . Female reindeer, and male deer of all species (except the Chinese water deer ), grow and shed new antlers each year. In this they differ from permanently horned antelope , which are in the same order, Artiodactyla
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Moose
The MOOSE (North America) or ELK (Eurasia), Alces alces, is the largest extant species in the deer family . Moose
Moose
are distinguished by the broad, flat (or palmate) antlers of the males; other members of the family have antlers with a dendritic ("twig-like") configuration. Moose
Moose
typically inhabit boreal forests and temperate broadleaf and mixed forests of the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
in temperate to subarctic climates . Hunting
Hunting
and other human activities have caused a reduction in the size of the moose's range over time. Moose
Moose
have been reintroduced to some of their former habitats
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Sauna
A SAUNA (/ˈsɔːnə/ or /ˈsaʊnə/ ; Finnish pronunciation: ), or SUDATORY, is a small room or building designed as a place to experience dry or wet heat sessions, or an establishment with one or more of these facilities. The steam and high heat make the bathers perspire. Infrared therapy is often referred to as a type of sauna, but according to the Finnish sauna
Finnish sauna
organizations, infrared is not a sauna
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National Park Service
The NATIONAL PARK SERVICE (NPS) is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks , many national monuments , and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior
United States Department of the Interior
. The NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while also making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2017 , the NPS employs approximately 27,000 employees who oversee 417 units , of which 59 are designated national parks
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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Respiratory System
The RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (also RESPIRATORY APPARATUS, VENTILATORY SYSTEM) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants . The anatomy and physiology that make this happen varies greatly, depending on the size of the organism, the environment in which it lives and its evolutionary history. In land animals the respiratory surface is internalized as linings of the lungs . Gas exchange
Gas exchange
in the lungs occurs in millions of small air sacs called alveoli in mammals and reptiles, but atria in birds. These microscopic air sacs have a very rich blood supply, thus bringing the air into close contact with the blood. These air sacs communicate with the external environment via a system of airways, or hollow tubes, of which the largest is the trachea , which branches in the middle of the chest into the two main bronchi
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