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Armenians
Armenians
Armenians
(Armenian: հայեր, hayer [hɑˈjɛɾ]) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands. Armenians
Armenians
constitute the main population of Armenia
Armenia
and the de facto independent Artsakh. There is a wide-ranging diaspora of around 5 million people of full or partial Armenian ancestry living outside modern Armenia. The largest Armenian populations today exist in Russia, the United States, France, Georgia, Iran, Germany, Ukraine, Lebanon, Brazil and Syria. With the exceptions of Iran
Iran
and the former Soviet states, the present-day Armenian diaspora
Armenian diaspora
was formed mainly as a result of the Armenian Genocide.[25] Most Armenians
Armenians
adhere to the Armenian Apostolic Church, a non-Chalcedonian church, which is also the world's oldest national church
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Circa
Circa
Circa
(from Latin, meaning 'around, about'), usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.[1] Circa
Circa
is widely used in historical writing when the dates of events are not accurately known. When used in date ranges, circa is applied before each approximate date, while dates without circa immediately preceding them are generally assumed to be known with certainty
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Old Persian Language
Western Iranian languages Old Persian
Old Persian
(c. 525 – 300 BCE) Old Persian
Old Persian
cuneiform Middle Persian
Middle Persian
(c. 300 BCE – 800 CE) Pahlavi scripts
Pahlavi scripts
Manichaean alphabet
Manichaean alphabet
Avestan
Avestan
alphabet Modern Persian
Modern Persian
(from 800) Persian alphabet
Persian alphabet
• Tajiki Cyrillic alphabet Old Persian
Old Persian
is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan). Old Persian
Old Persian
appears primarily in the inscriptions, clay tablets and seals of the Achaemenid era (c. 600 BCE to 300 BCE)
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St. Bartholomew
Bartholomew (Ancient Greek: Βαρθολομαῖος, translit. Bartholomaîos, Latin: Bartholomaeus, Coptic: ⲃⲁⲣⲑⲟⲗⲟⲙⲉⲟⲥ) was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. He has been identified with Nathanael or Nathaniel,[1] who appears in the Gospel of John
Gospel of John
as being introduced to Jesus
Jesus
by Philip (who would also become an apostle),[Jn 1:43-51] although some modern commentators reject the identification of Nathanael with Bartholomew.[2] According to the Synaxarium
Synaxarium
of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, his martyrdom is commemorated on the first day of the Coptic calendar
Coptic calendar
(i.e. the first day of the month of Thout), which currently falls on September 11 (corresponding to August 29 in the Julian calendar)
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Exonym And Endonym
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect. It is a common name used only outside the place, group, or linguistic community in question. An endonym or autonym is an internal name for a geographical place, or a group of people, or a language or dialect
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Behistun Inscription
The Behistun Inscription
Behistun Inscription
(also Bisotun, Bistun or Bisutun; Persian: بیستون‎, Old Persian: Bagastana, meaning "the place of god") is a multilingual inscription and large rock relief on a cliff at Mount Behistun
Mount Behistun
in the Kermanshah Province
Kermanshah Province
of Iran, near the city of Kermanshah
Kermanshah
in western Iran. It was crucial to the decipherment of cuneiform script. Authored by Darius the Great
Darius the Great
sometime between his coronation as king of the Persian Empire in the summer of 522 BC and his death in autumn of 486 BC, the inscription begins with a brief autobiography of Darius, including his ancestry and lineage
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Non-Chalcedonian
Non-Chalcedonianism
Non-Chalcedonianism
is a religious doctrine of those Christian churches that do not accept the Confession of Chalcedon as defined at the ecumenical Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
in 451. The doctrine contrasts with Chalcedonian Christianity, which accepts the doctrines of the first seven Ecumenical Councils. Some Christian
Christian
denominations do not accept the Confession of Chalcedon, for varying reasons, but accept the doctrines of the previous council at the Council of Ephesus
Council of Ephesus
in 431. The most substantial non-Chalcedonian tradition is known as Oriental Orthodoxy
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Romanization Of Armenian
There are various systems of romanization of the Armenian alphabet.Contents1 Transliteration
Transliteration
systems1.1 Hübschmann-Meillet (1913) 1.2 BGN/PCGN (1981) 1.3 ISO 9985 (1996) 1.4 ALA-LC (1997) 1.5 ASCII-only input methods2 Transliteration
Transliteration
tables 3 See also 4 References 5 External links Transliteration
Transliteration
systems[edit] Hübschmann-Meillet (1913)[edit] In linguistic literature on Classical Armenian, the commonly used transliteration is that of Hübschmann-Meillet (1913). It uses a combining dot above mark U+0307 to express the aspirates, ṫ, cḣ, č̇, ṗ, k̇
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Ancient Greek Language
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BCE), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BCE), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BCE to the 4th century CE). It is antedated in the second millennium BCE by Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Hecataeus Of Miletus
Hecataeus of Miletus
Miletus
(/ˌhɛkəˈtiːəs/; Greek: Ἑκαταῖος ὁ Μιλήσιος; c. 550 BC – c. 476 BC), son of Hegesander,[1] was an early Greek historian and geographer.Contents1 Biography 2 Works2.1 Periodos ges 2.2 Genealogies 2.3 Map3 Summary 4 References 5 Sources 6 External linksBiography[edit] Hailing from a wealthy family, he lived in Miletus, then under Persian rule in the satrapy of Lydia.[2] He was active during the time of the Greco-Persian Wars. After having travelled extensively, he settled in his native city, where he occupied a high position, and devoted his time to the composition of geographical and historical works
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Xenophon
Xenophon
Xenophon
of Athens (/ˈzɛnəfən, -ˌfɒn/; Greek: Ξενοφῶν Greek pronunciation: [ksenopʰɔ̂ːn], Xenophōn; c. 430–354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.[1] As a historian, Xenophon
Xenophon
is known for recording the history of his contemporary time, the late-5th and early-4th centuries BC, in such works as the Hellenica, about the final seven years and the aftermath of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), a thematic continuation of Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War. As one of the Ten Thousand (Greek mercenaries), he also participated in Cyrus the Younger's failed campaign to claim the Persian throne from his brother Artaxerxes II of Persia
Artaxerxes II of Persia
and recounted the events in Anabasis, his most notable history
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Noah
In the Abrahamic religions, Noah[a] (/ˈnoʊ.ə/ NOH-ə)[1][2] was the tenth and last of the pre-Flood Patriarchs. The story of Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
is told in the Bible's Genesis flood narrative. The biblical account is followed by the story of the Curse of Ham. In addition to the Book of Genesis, Noah
Noah
is mentioned in the Old Testament in the First Book of Chronicles, and the books of Tobit, Wisdom, Sirach, Isaiah, Ezekiel, 2 Esdras, 4 Maccabees; in the New Testament, he is mentioned in the gospels of Matthew, and Luke, the Epistle to the Hebrews, 1st Peter and 2nd Peter
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Darius I The Great
Darius I
Darius I
(Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: داریوش‎ Dāryuš; Hebrew: דָּרְיָוֶשׁ‬, Modern Darəyaveš, Tiberian Dāreyāwéš; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire
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St. Thaddeus
Jude, also known as Judas Thaddaeus (Coptic: ⲑⲁⲇⲇⲉⲟⲥ),[4] was one of the Twelve Apostles
Twelve Apostles
of Jesus. He is generally identified with Thaddeus, and is also variously called Jude of James, Jude Thaddaeus, Judas Thaddaeus or Lebbaeus. He is sometimes identified with Jude, the brother of Jesus, but is clearly distinguished from Judas Iscariot, the apostle who betrayed Jesus prior to his crucifixion
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Ethnic Group
An ethnic group or ethnicity is a category of people who identify with each other, usually on the basis of a presumed common genealogy or ancestry or on similarities such as common language or dialect, history, society, culture or nation.[1][2] Ethnicity is often used synonymously with the term nation, particularly in cases of ethnic nationalism, and is separate from but related to the concept of races. Ethnicity is usually an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage, ancestry, origin myth, history, homeland, language or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing style, art or physical appearance. Ethnic groups often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool
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Persian People
The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.[3][2] They share a common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language,[4][5][6] as well as closely related languages.[7][8] The ancient Persians were a nomadic branch of the ancient Iranian population that entered modern-day Iran
Iran
by the early 10th century BC.[9][10] Together with their compatriot allies, they established and ruled some of the world's most powerful empires,[11][12] well-recognized for their massive cultural, political, and social influence covering much of the territory
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