HOME
The Info List - Armenia


--- Advertisement ---



Coordinates: 40°N 45°E / 40°N 45°E / 40; 45 Armenia
Armenia
(/ɑːrˈmiːniə/ ( listen);[20] Armenian: Հայաստան, translit. Hayastan, IPA: [hɑjɑsˈtɑn]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Armenia
Armenia
(Armenian: Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, translit. Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun, IPA: [hɑjɑstɑˈni hɑnɾɑpɛtutʰˈjun]), is a country in the South Caucasus
South Caucasus
region of Eurasia. Located in West Asia[21][22] on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey
Turkey
to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic
Republic
of Artsakh and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
to the east, and Iran
Iran
and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south.[23] Armenia
Armenia
is a unitary, multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu
Urartu
was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia. The Kingdom of Armenia
Armenia
reached its height under Tigranes the Great
Tigranes the Great
in the 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity
Christianity
as its official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD.[24][25][26] The official date of state adoption of Christianity
Christianity
is 301.[27] The ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the kingdom fell in 1045 and Armenia
Armenia
was soon after invaded by the Seljuk Turks. An Armenian principality and later a kingdom Cilician Armenia
Armenia
was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries. Between the 16th century and 19th century, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia
Western Armenia
came under the rule of the Ottoman and Iranian empires, repeatedly ruled by either of the two over the centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia
Armenia
had been conquered by the Russian Empire, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule. During World War I, Armenians
Armenians
living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. In 1918, following the Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic
Republic
of Armenia. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, and in 1922 became a founding member of the Soviet Union. In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic
Republic
of Armenia
Armenia
became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Armenia
Armenia
recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment.[28][29] The unique Armenian alphabet
Armenian alphabet
was invented by Mesrop Mashtots
Mesrop Mashtots
in 405 AD. Armenia
Armenia
is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe
Europe
and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Republic
Republic
of Artsakh, which was proclaimed in 1991.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Antiquity 2.2 Middle Ages 2.3 Early Modern era 2.4 World War I
World War I
and the Armenian Genocide 2.5 First Republic
Republic
of Armenia 2.6 Soviet Armenia 2.7 Restoration of independence

3 Geography

3.1 Topography 3.2 Climate 3.3 Environment protection

4 Government and politics

4.1 Foreign relations 4.2 Human rights 4.3 Military 4.4 Administrative divisions

5 Economy 6 Science, technology and education

6.1 Science and technology 6.2 Education

6.2.1 History of Education in Armenia 6.2.2 Regulation 6.2.3 Schools for children 6.2.4 Major universities 6.2.5 American University of Armenia 6.2.6 Yerevan
Yerevan
State Medical University 6.2.7 Statistics

7 Demographics

7.1 Ethnic groups 7.2 Languages 7.3 Cities 7.4 Religion 7.5 Health

8 Culture

8.1 Media 8.2 Music and dance 8.3 Art 8.4 Cinema 8.5 Sport 8.6 Cuisine

9 See also 10 Notes 11 Sources 12 References 13 External links

Etymology Main article: Name of Armenia The original native Armenian name for the country was Հայք (Hayk’), however it is currently rarely used. The contemporary name Հայաստան (Hayastan) became popular in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
by addition of the Persian suffix -stan
-stan
(place).[citation needed]. However the origins of the name Hayastan trace back to much earlier dates and were first attested in circa 5th century in the works of Agathangelos,[30][31] Faustus of Byzantium,[32][33] Ghazar Parpetsi,[34] Koryun,[35] and Sebeos.[36] The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk
Hayk
(Հայկ), the legendary patriarch of the Armenians
Armenians
and a great-great-grandson of Noah, who, according to the 5th-century AD author Moses of Chorene, defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region.[37] The further origin of the name is uncertain. It is also further postulated[38][39] that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi (1600–1200 BC). The exonym Armenia
Armenia
is attested in the Old Persian
Old Persian
Behistun Inscription (515 BC) as Armina ( ). The Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
terms Ἀρμενία (Armenía) and Ἀρμένιοι (Arménioi, "Armenians") are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus
Hecataeus of Miletus
(c. 550 BC – c. 476 BC).[40] Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC. He relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians.[41] According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene
Moses of Chorene
and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a lineal descendant of Hayk.[42][43] The Table of Nations
Table of Nations
lists Aram as the son of Shem, to whom the Book of Jubilees attests, "And for Aram there came forth the fourth portion, all the land of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates to the north of the Chaldees to the border of the mountains of Asshur and the land of 'Arara."[44] The lands attested to Aram, in the Book
Book
of Jubilees, roughly translate to the Geographical regions of Ancient Armenia. Historian Flavius Josephus states in his Antiquities of the Jews, "Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks
Greeks
called Syrians;... Of the four sons of Aram, Uz founded Trachonitis
Trachonitis
and Damascus: this country lies between Palestine and Celesyria. Ul founded Armenia; and Gather the Bactrians; and Mesa the Mesaneans; it is now called Charax Spasini."[45]

Historical Armenia, 150 BC

History Main article: History of Armenia Antiquity Main articles: Prehistoric Armenia, Prehistory of the Armenians, Satrapy of Armenia, Kingdom of Armenia
Armenia
(antiquity), Roman Armenia, Sasanian Armenia, and Lesser Armenia

A reconstruction of Herodotus' world map c. 450 BC, with Armenia
Armenia
shown in the centre

The Kingdom of Armenia
Armenia
at its greatest extent under Tigranes the Great, who reigned between 95 and 66 BC

Armenia
Armenia
lies in the highlands surrounding the mountains of Ararat. There is evidence of an early civilisation in Armenia
Armenia
in the Bronze Age and earlier, dating to about 4000 BC. Archaeological surveys in 2010 and 2011 at the Areni-1 cave complex
Areni-1 cave complex
have resulted in the discovery of the world's earliest known leather shoe,[46] skirt,[47] and wine-producing facility.[48] Several Bronze Age
Bronze Age
states flourished in the area of Greater Armenia, including the Hittites
Hittites
(at the height of their power), Mitanni (southwestern historical Armenia), and Hayasa-Azzi (1500–1200 BC). The Nairi people (12th to 9th centuries BC) and Urartu
Urartu
(1000–600 BC) successively established their sovereignty over the Armenian Highlands. Each of the aforementioned nations and tribes participated in the ethnogenesis of the Armenians.[49][50][51][52] A large cuneiform lapidary inscription found in Yerevan
Yerevan
established that the modern capital of Armenia
Armenia
was founded in the summer of 782 BC by King Argishti I. Yerevan
Yerevan
is the world's oldest city to have documented the exact date of its foundation. During the late 6th century BC, the first geographical entity that was called Armenia
Armenia
by neighbouring populations was established under the Orontid Dynasty
Orontid Dynasty
within the Achaemenid Empire, as part of the latters' territories. The kingdom became fully sovereign from the sphere of influence of the Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
in 190 BC under King Artaxias I
Artaxias I
and begun the rule of the Artaxiad dynasty. Armenia
Armenia
reached its height between 95 and 66 BC under Tigranes the Great, becoming the most powerful kingdom of its time east of the Roman Republic. In the next centuries, Armenia
Armenia
was in the Persian Empire's sphere of influence during the reign of Tiridates I, the founder of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia, which itself was a branch of the Parthian Empire. Throughout its history, the kingdom of Armenia
Armenia
enjoyed both periods of independence and periods of autonomy subject to contemporary empires. Its strategic location between two continents has subjected it to invasions by many peoples, including Assyria
Assyria
(under Ashurbanipal, at around 669–627 BC, the boundaries of Assyria
Assyria
reached as far as Armenia
Armenia
and the Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains),[53] Medes, Achaemenid Empire, Greeks, Parthians, Romans, Sasanian Empire, Byzantine Empire, Arabs, Seljuk Empire, Mongols, Ottoman Empire, the successive Safavid, Afsharid, and Qajar dynasties of Iran, and the Russians.

The pagan Garni Temple, probably built in the first century, is the only "Greco-Roman colonnaded building" in the post-Soviet states.[54]

Religion in ancient Armenia
Armenia
was historically related to a set of beliefs which, in Persia, led to the emergence of Zoroastrianism. It particularly focused on the worship of Mithra
Mithra
and also included a pantheon of gods such as Aramazd, Vahagn, Anahit, and Astghik. The country used the solar Armenian calendar, which consisted of 12 months. Christianity
Christianity
spread into the country as early as AD 40. Tiridates III of Armenia
Armenia
(238–314) made Christianity
Christianity
the state religion in 301,[55][56] partly, in defiance of the Sasanian Empire, it seems,[57] becoming the first officially Christian state, ten years before the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
granted Christianity
Christianity
an official toleration under Galerius, and 36 years before Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
was baptised. Prior to this, during the latter part of the Parthian period, Armenia was a predominantly Zoroastrian.[57] After the fall of the Kingdom of Armenia
Armenia
in 428, most of Armenia
Armenia
was incorporated as a marzpanate within the Sasanian Empire. Following the Battle of Avarayr
Battle of Avarayr
in 451, Christian Armenians
Armenians
maintained their religion and Armenia
Armenia
gained autonomy. Middle Ages

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Main article: Medieval Armenia

The Etchmiadzin Cathedral, Armenia's Mother Church traditionally dated 303 AD, is considered the oldest cathedral in the world.[58][59][60]

After the Sasanian period (428–636), Armenia
Armenia
emerged as Arminiya, an autonomous principality under the Umayyad Caliphate, reuniting Armenian lands previously taken by the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
as well. The principality was ruled by the Prince of Armenia, and recognised by the Caliph and the Byzantine Emperor. It was part of the administrative division/emirate Arminiya
Arminiya
created by the Arabs, which also included parts of Georgia and Caucasian Albania, and had its centre in the Armenian city, Dvin. Arminiya
Arminiya
lasted until 884, when it regained its independence from the weakened Abbasid Caliphate
Caliphate
under Ashot I of Armenia. The reemergent Armenian kingdom was ruled by the Bagratuni dynasty
Bagratuni dynasty
and lasted until 1045. In time, several areas of the Bagratid Armenia separated as independent kingdoms and principalities such as the Kingdom of Vaspurakan
Vaspurakan
ruled by the House of Artsruni
Artsruni
in the south, Kingdom of Syunik in the east, or Kingdom of Artsakh
Kingdom of Artsakh
on the territory of modern Nagorno-Karabakh, while still recognising the supremacy of the Bagratid kings.

The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, 1198–1375

In 1045, the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
conquered Bagratid Armenia. Soon, the other Armenian states fell under Byzantine control as well. The Byzantine rule was short lived, as in 1071 the Seljuk Empire
Seljuk Empire
defeated the Byzantines and conquered Armenia
Armenia
at the Battle of Manzikert, establishing the Seljuk Empire.[61] To escape death or servitude at the hands of those who had assassinated his relative, Gagik II of Armenia, King of Ani, an Armenian named Ruben I, Prince of Armenia, went with some of his countrymen into the gorges of the Taurus Mountains and then into Tarsus of Cilicia. The Byzantine governor of the palace gave them shelter where the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
was eventually established on 6 January 1198 under Leo I, King of Armenia, a descendant of Prince Ruben. Cilicia
Cilicia
was a strong ally of the European Crusaders, and saw itself as a bastion of Christendom in the East. Cilicia's significance in Armenian history and statehood is also attested by the transfer of the seat of the Catholicos of the Armenian Apostolic Church, the spiritual leader of the Armenian people, to the region. The Seljuk Empire
Seljuk Empire
soon started to collapse. In the early 12th century, Armenian princes of the Zakarid family drove out the Seljuk Turks and established a semi-independent principality in northern and eastern Armenia
Armenia
known as Zakarid Armenia, which lasted under the patronage of the Georgian Kingdom. The Orbelian Dynasty
Orbelian Dynasty
shared control with the Zakarids in various parts of the country, especially in Syunik and Vayots Dzor, while the House of Hasan-Jalalyan
House of Hasan-Jalalyan
controlled provinces of Artsakh and Utik
Utik
as the Kingdom of Artsakh. Early Modern era Further information: Iranian Armenia
Armenia
(1502–1828), Armenians
Armenians
in the Ottoman Empire, and Russian Armenia During the 1230s, the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
conquered Zakarid Armenia
Zakarid Armenia
and then the remainder of Armenia. The Mongolian invasions were soon followed by those of other Central Asian tribes such as the Kara Koyunlu, Timurid dynasty and Ağ Qoyunlu, which continued from the 13th century until the 15th century. After incessant invasions, each bringing destruction to the country, with time Armenia
Armenia
became weakened. In the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and the Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
of Iran
Iran
divided Armenia. From the early 16th century, both Western Armenia
Armenia
and Eastern Armenia fell to the Safavid Empire.[62][63] Owing to the century long Turco-Iranian geopolitical rivalry that would last in Western Asia, significant parts of the region were frequently fought over between the two rivalling empires. From the mid 16th century with the Peace of Amasya, and decisively from the first half of the 17th century with the Treaty of Zuhab until the first half of the 19th century,[64] Eastern Armenia was ruled by the successive Safavid, Afsharid and Qajar empires, while Western Armenia
Western Armenia
remained under Ottoman rule. From 1604 Abbas I of Iran
Iran
implemented a "scorched earth" policy in the region to protect his north-western frontier against any invading Ottoman forces, a policy which involved a forced resettlement of masses of Armenians
Armenians
outside of their homelands.[65]

Capture of Erivan
Capture of Erivan
fortress by Russian troops in 1827 during the Russo-Persian War (1826–28)
Russo-Persian War (1826–28)
by Franz Roubaud

In the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan
Treaty of Gulistan
and the 1828 Treaty of Turkmenchay, following the Russo-Persian War (1804–13)
Russo-Persian War (1804–13)
and the Russo-Persian War (1826–28), respectively, the Qajar dynasty
Qajar dynasty
of Iran
Iran
was forced to irrevocably cede Eastern Armenia, consisting of the Erivan and Karabakh Khanates, to Imperial Russia.[66][67] While Western Armenia
Western Armenia
still remained under Ottoman rule, the Armenians were granted considerable autonomy within their own enclaves and lived in relative harmony with other groups in the empire (including the ruling Turks). However, as Christians under a strict Muslim social structure, Armenians
Armenians
faced pervasive discrimination. When they began pushing for more rights within the Ottoman Empire, Sultan Abdul Hamid II, in response, organised state-sponsored massacres against the Armenians
Armenians
between 1894 and 1896, resulting in an estimated death toll of 80,000 to 300,000 people. The Hamidian massacres, as they came to be known, gave Hamid international infamy as the "Red Sultan" or "Bloody Sultan."[68] This period is known as Russian Armenia. During the 1890s, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation, commonly known as Dashnaktsutyun, became active within the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
with the aim of unifying the various small groups in the empire that were advocating for reform and defending Armenian villages from massacres that were widespread in some of the Armenian-populated areas of the empire. Dashnaktsutyun members also formed Armenian fedayi
Armenian fedayi
groups that defended Armenian civilians through armed resistance. The Dashnaks also worked for the wider goal of creating a "free, independent and unified" Armenia, although they sometimes set aside this goal in favour of a more realistic approach, such as advocating autonomy. The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
began to collapse, and in 1908, the Young Turk Revolution overthrew the government of Sultan Hamid. In April 1909, the Adana massacre
Adana massacre
occurred in the Adana Vilayet
Adana Vilayet
of the Ottoman Empire resulting in the deaths of as many as 20,000–30,000 Armenians. The Armenians
Armenians
living in the empire hoped that the Committee of Union and Progress would change their second-class status. Armenian reform package (1914) was presented as a solution by appointing an inspector general over Armenian issues.[69] World War I
World War I
and the Armenian Genocide Main article: Armenian Genocide

Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
victims in 1915

When World War I
World War I
broke out leading to confrontation between the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in the Caucasus
Caucasus
and Persian Campaigns, the new government in Istanbul
Istanbul
began to look on the Armenians
Armenians
with distrust and suspicion. This was because the Imperial Russian Army contained a contingent of Armenian volunteers. On 24 April 1915, Armenian intellectuals were arrested by Ottoman authorities and, with the Tehcir Law
Tehcir Law
(29 May 1915), eventually a large proportion of Armenians
Armenians
living in Anatolia
Anatolia
perished in what has become known as the Armenian Genocide. The genocide was implemented in two phases: the wholesale killing of the able-bodied male population through massacre and subjection of army conscripts to forced labour, followed by the deportation of women, children, the elderly and infirm on death marches leading to the Syrian desert. Driven forward by military escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to periodic robbery, rape, and massacre.[70][71] There was local Armenian resistance in the region, developed against the activities of the Ottoman Empire. The events of 1915 to 1917 are regarded by Armenians
Armenians
and the vast majority of Western historians to have been state-sponsored mass killings, or genocide.[72] Turkish authorities deny the genocide took place to this day. The Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
is acknowledged to have been one of the first modern genocides.[73][74] According to the research conducted by Arnold J. Toynbee, an estimated 600,000 Armenians
Armenians
died during deportation from 1915–16. This figure, however, accounts for solely the first year of the Genocide
Genocide
and does not take into account those who died or were killed after the report was compiled on 24 May 1916.[75] The International Association of Genocide
Genocide
Scholars places the death toll at "more than a million".[76] The total number of people killed has been most widely estimated at between 1 and 1.5 million.[77] Armenia
Armenia
and the Armenian diaspora
Armenian diaspora
have been campaigning for official recognition of the events as genocide for over 30 years. These events are traditionally commemorated yearly on 24 April, the Armenian Martyr Day, or the Day of the Armenian Genocide. First Republic
Republic
of Armenia Main article: First Republic
Republic
of Armenia

The greatest extent of the Russian occupation of Turkish Armenia during WWI, September 1917.

The Government house of the First Republic
Republic
of Armenia
Armenia
(1918–1920)

Although the Russian Caucasus
Caucasus
Army of Imperial forces commanded by Nikolai Yudenich
Nikolai Yudenich
and Armenians
Armenians
in volunteer units and Armenian militia led by Andranik Ozanian
Andranik Ozanian
and Tovmas Nazarbekian
Tovmas Nazarbekian
succeeded in gaining most of Ottoman Armenia
Armenia
during World War I, their gains were lost with the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917.[citation needed] At the time, Russian-controlled Eastern Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
attempted to bond together in the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. This federation, however, lasted from only February to May 1918, when all three parties decided to dissolve it. As a result, the Dashnaktsutyun government of Eastern Armenia declared its independence on 28 May as the First Republic
Republic
of Armenia
Armenia
under the leadership of Aram Manukian. The First Republic's short-lived independence was fraught with war, territorial disputes, and a mass influx of refugees from Ottoman Armenia, bringing with them disease and starvation. The Entente Powers, appalled by the actions of the Ottoman government, sought to help the newly founded Armenian state through relief funds and other forms of support. At the end of the war, the victorious powers sought to divide up the Ottoman Empire. Signed between the Allied and Associated Powers and Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
at Sèvres
Sèvres
on 10 August 1920, the Treaty of Sèvres promised to maintain the existence of the Armenian republic and to attach the former territories of Ottoman Armenia
Armenia
to it. Because the new borders of Armenia
Armenia
were to be drawn by United States
United States
President Woodrow Wilson, Ottoman Armenia
Armenia
was also referred to as "Wilsonian Armenia." In addition, just days prior, on 5 August 1920, Mihran Damadian of the Armenian National Union, the de facto Armenian administration in Cilicia, declared the independence of Cilicia
Cilicia
as an Armenian autonomous republic under French protectorate.[78] There was even consideration of possibly making Armenia
Armenia
a mandate under the protection of the United States. The treaty, however, was rejected by the Turkish National Movement, and never came into effect. The movement used the treaty as the occasion to declare itself the rightful government of Turkey, replacing the monarchy based in Istanbul
Istanbul
with a republic based in Ankara.

Advance of the 11th Red Army
Red Army
into the city of Yerevan

In 1920, Turkish nationalist forces invaded the fledgling Armenian republic from the east. Turkish forces under the command of Kazım Karabekir captured Armenian territories that Russia
Russia
had annexed in the aftermath of the 1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War and occupied the old city of Alexandropol (present-day Gyumri). The violent conflict finally concluded with the Treaty of Alexandropol on 2 December 1920. The treaty forced Armenia
Armenia
to disarm most of its military forces, cede all former Ottoman territory granted to it by the Treaty of Sèvres, and to give up all the "Wilsonian Armenia" granted to it at the Sèvres
Sèvres
treaty. Simultaneously, the Soviet Eleventh Army, under the command of Grigoriy Ordzhonikidze, invaded Armenia
Armenia
at Karavansarai (present-day Ijevan) on 29 November. By 4 December, Ordzhonikidze's forces entered Yerevan
Yerevan
and the short-lived Armenian republic collapsed. After the fall of the republic, the February Uprising
February Uprising
soon took place in 1921, and led to the establishment of the Republic
Republic
of Mountainous Armenia
Armenia
by Armenian forces under command of Garegin Nzhdeh
Garegin Nzhdeh
on 26 April, which fought off both Soviet and Turkish intrusions in the Zangezur region of southern Armenia. After Soviet agreements to include the Syunik Province
Syunik Province
in Armenia's borders, the rebellion ended and the Red Army
Red Army
took control of the region on 13 July. Soviet Armenia Main article: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic

The coat of arms of Soviet Armenia
Armenia
depicting Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
in the centre

Armenia
Armenia
was annexed by Bolshevist Russia
Russia
and along with Georgia and Azerbaijan, it was incorporated into the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as part of the Transcaucasian SFSR
Transcaucasian SFSR
(TSFSR) on 4 March 1922.[79][80] With this annexation, the Treaty of Alexandropol was superseded by the Turkish-Soviet Treaty of Kars. In the agreement, Turkey
Turkey
allowed the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to assume control over Adjara
Adjara
with the port city of Batumi
Batumi
in return for sovereignty over the cities of Kars, Ardahan, and Iğdır, all of which were part of Russian Armenia.[79][80] The TSFSR existed from 1922 to 1936, when it was divided up into three separate entities (Armenian SSR, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
SSR, and Georgian SSR). Armenians
Armenians
enjoyed a period of relative stability under Soviet rule. They received medicine, food, and other provisions from Moscow, and communist rule proved to be a soothing balm in contrast to the turbulent final years of the Ottoman Empire. The situation was difficult for the church, which struggled under Soviet rule. After the death of Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
took the reins of power and began an era of renewed fear and terror for Armenians.[81] Armenia
Armenia
was not the scene of any battles in World War II. An estimated 500,000 Armenians
Armenians
(nearly a third of the population) served in the military during the war, and 175,000 died.[82] Fears decreased when Stalin died in 1953 and Nikita Khruschev emerged as the Soviet Union's new leader. Soon, life in Soviet Armenia
Armenia
began to see rapid improvement. The church, which suffered greatly under Stalin, was revived when Catholicos Vazgen I
Vazgen I
assumed the duties of his office in 1955. In 1967, a memorial to the victims of the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
was built at the Tsitsernakaberd
Tsitsernakaberd
hill above the Hrazdan
Hrazdan
gorge in Yerevan. This occurred after mass demonstrations took place on the tragic event's fiftieth anniversary in 1965.

Armenians
Armenians
gather at Theater Square in central Yerevan
Yerevan
to claim unification of Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Autonomous Oblast with the Armenian SSR.

During the Gorbachev era of the 1980s, with the reforms of Glasnost and Perestroika, Armenians
Armenians
began to demand better environmental care for their country, opposing the pollution that Soviet-built factories brought. Tensions also developed between Soviet Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and its autonomous district of Nagorno-Karabakh, a majority-Armenian region. About 484,000 Armenians
Armenians
lived in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
in 1970.[83] The Armenians of Karabakh demanded unification with Soviet Armenia. Peaceful protests in Yerevan
Yerevan
supporting the Karabakh Armenians
Armenians
were met with anti-Armenian pogroms in the Azerbaijani city of Sumgait. Compounding Armenia's problems was a devastating earthquake in 1988 with a moment magnitude of 7.2.[84] Gorbachev's inability to alleviate any of Armenia's problems created disillusionment among the Armenians
Armenians
and fed a growing hunger for independence. In May 1990, the New Armenian Army
Armenian Army
(NAA) was established, serving as a defence force separate from the Soviet Red Army. Clashes soon broke out between the NAA and Soviet Internal Security Forces (MVD) troops based in Yerevan
Yerevan
when Armenians
Armenians
decided to commemorate the establishment of the 1918 First Republic
Republic
of Armenia. The violence resulted in the deaths of five Armenians
Armenians
killed in a shootout with the MVD at the railway station. Witnesses there claimed that the MVD used excessive force and that they had instigated the fighting. Further firefights between Armenian militiamen and Soviet troops occurred in Sovetashen, near the capital and resulted in the deaths of over 26 people, mostly Armenians. The pogrom of Armenians
Armenians
in Baku
Baku
in January 1990 forced almost all of the 200,000 Armenians
Armenians
in the Azerbaijani capital Baku
Baku
to flee to Armenia.[85] On 23 August 1990, Armenia
Armenia
declared its sovereignty on its territory. On 17 March 1991, Armenia, along with the Baltic states, Georgia and Moldova, boycotted a nationwide referendum in which 78% of all voters voted for the retention of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in a reformed form.[86] Restoration of independence Main article: History of Armenia
History of Armenia
§ Independent Armenia (1991-today)

Armenian soldiers during the Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
War

On 21 September 1991, Armenia
Armenia
officially declared its independence after the failed August coup in Moscow. Levon Ter-Petrosyan
Levon Ter-Petrosyan
was popularly elected the first President of the newly independent Republic
Republic
of Armenia
Armenia
on 16 October 1991. He had risen to prominence by leading the Karabakh movement
Karabakh movement
for the unification of the Armenian-populated Nagorno-Karabakh.[87] On 26 December 1991, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
ceased to exist and Armenia's independence was recognised. Ter-Petrosyan led Armenia
Armenia
alongside Defense Minister Vazgen Sargsyan through the Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
War with neighbouring Azerbaijan. The initial post-Soviet years were marred by economic difficulties, which had their roots early in the Karabakh conflict when the Azerbaijani Popular Front managed to pressure the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
SSR to instigate a railway and air blockade against Armenia. This move effectively crippled Armenia's economy as 85% of its cargo and goods arrived through rail traffic.[87] In 1993, Turkey
Turkey
joined the blockade against Armenia
Armenia
in support of Azerbaijan.[88]

The 21 September 2011 parade in Yerevan, marking the 20th anniversary of Armenia's re-independence

The Karabakh war ended after a Russian-brokered cease-fire was put in place in 1994. The war was a success for the Karabakh Armenian forces who managed to capture 16% of Azerbaijan's internationally recognised territory including Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
itself.[89] Since then, Armenia and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
have held peace talks, mediated by the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe
Europe
(OSCE). The status of Karabakh has yet to be determined. The economies of both countries have been hurt in the absence of a complete resolution and Armenia's borders with Turkey
Turkey
and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
remain closed. By the time both Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Armenia
Armenia
had finally agreed to a ceasefire in 1994, an estimated 30,000 people had been killed and over a million had been displaced.[90] As it enters the 21st century, Armenia
Armenia
faces many hardships. It has made a full switch to a market economy. One study ranks it the 41st most "economically free" nation in the world, as of 2014[update].[91] Its relations with Europe, the Middle East, and the Commonwealth of Independent States have allowed Armenia
Armenia
to increase trade.[92][93] Gas, oil, and other supplies come through two vital routes: Iran
Iran
and Georgia. Armenia
Armenia
maintains cordial relations with both countries.[94]

Armenia
Armenia
and neighbouring countries

Geography Main article: Geography of Armenia Armenia
Armenia
is a landlocked country in the geopolitical Transcaucasus (South Caucasus) region, that is located in the Southern Caucasus Mountains and their lowlands between the Black Sea
Black Sea
and Caspian Sea, and northeast of the Armenian Highlands. Armenia
Armenia
is bordered on the north by Georgia, the east by Azerbaijan; the south by Iran; and the southwest and west by Turkey. Armenia
Armenia
lies between latitudes 38° and 42° N, and meridians 43° and 47° E. Topography

Armenia's mountainous and volcanic topography

The Republic
Republic
of Armenia
Armenia
has a territorial area of 29,743 square kilometres (11,484 sq mi). The terrain is mostly mountainous, with fast flowing rivers, and few forests. The land rises to 4,090 metres (13,419 feet) above sea level at Mount Aragats, and no point is below 390 metres (1,280 ft) above sea level.[95] Average elevation of the country area is 10th highest in the world.

Mount Ararat

Mount Ararat, which was historically part of Armenia, is the highest mountain in the region. Now located in Turkey, but clearly visible from Armenia, it is regarded by the Armenians
Armenians
as a symbol of their land. Because of this, the mountain is present on the Armenian national emblem today.[96][97][98] Climate Main article: Climate of Armenia The climate in Armenia
Armenia
is markedly highland continental. Summers are dry and sunny, lasting from June to mid-September. The temperature fluctuates between 22 and 36 °C (72 and 97 °F). However, the low humidity level mitigates the effect of high temperatures. Evening breezes blowing down the mountains provide a welcome refreshing and cooling effect. Springs are short, while autumns are long. Autumns are known for their vibrant and colourful foliage. Winters are quite cold with plenty of snow, with temperatures ranging between −10 and −5 °C (14 and 23 °F). Winter sports enthusiasts enjoy skiing down the hills of Tsakhkadzor, located thirty minutes outside Yerevan. Lake Sevan, nestled up in the Armenian highlands, is the second largest lake in the world relative to its altitude, at 1,900 metres (6,234 ft) above sea level. Environment protection

Carbon dioxide emissions in metric tons per capita in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia, Germany, Italy, USA in 2000–2012. World Bank data.

Armenia
Armenia
ranked 63rd out of 180 countries on Environmental Performance Index (EPI) in 2018. Its rank on subindex Environmental Health (which is weighted at 40% in EPI) is 109, while Armenia's rank on subindex of Ecosystem Vitality (weighted at 60% in EPI) is 27th best in the world.[99] This suggests that main environmental issues in Armenia
Armenia
are with population health, while environment vitality is of lesser concern. Out of sub-subindices contributing to Environmental Health subindex ranking on Air Quality to which population is exposed is particularly unsatisfying. Waste management in Armenia
Waste management in Armenia
is underdeveloped, as no waste sorting or recycling takes place at Armenia's 60 landfills. A waste processing plant is scheduled for construction near Hrazdan
Hrazdan
city, which will allow for closure of 10 waste dumps.[100] Despite the availability of abundant renewable energy sources in Armenia
Armenia
(especially hydroelectric and wind power) and calls from EU officials to shut down the nuclear power plant at Metsamor,[101] the Armenian Government is exploring the possibilities of installing new small modular nuclear reactors. In 2018 existing nuclear plant is scheduled for modernization to enhance its safety and increase power production by about 10%.[102][103] Armenian Ministry of Nature Protection introduced taxes for air and water pollution and solid-waste disposal, whose revenues are used for environmental protection activities. Government and politics Main articles: Government of Armenia
Government of Armenia
and Politics of Armenia

The National Assembly in Yerevan

Politics of Armenia
Politics of Armenia
takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic. According to the Constitution of Armenia, the President is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the President and the Government. Legislative power is vested in both the Government and the Parliament.[5][6][7] The unicameral parliament (also called the Azgayin Zhoghov or National Assembly) is controlled by a coalition of four political parties: the conservative Republican party, the Prosperous Armenia
Prosperous Armenia
party, the Rule of Law party and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation. The main opposition party is Raffi Hovannisian's Heritage party, which favours eventual Armenian membership in the European Union
European Union
and NATO. The Armenian government's stated aim is to build a Western-style parliamentary democracy as the basis of its form of government. It has universal suffrage above the age of eighteen. International observers of Council of Europe
Council of Europe
and US Department of State have questioned the fairness of Armenia's parliamentary and presidential elections and constitutional referendum since 1995, citing polling deficiencies, lack of co-operation by the Electoral Commission, and poor maintenance of electoral lists and polling places. Freedom House
Freedom House
categorised Armenia
Armenia
in its 2008 report as a "Semi-consolidated Authoritarian Regime" (along with Moldova, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia) and ranked Armenia
Armenia
20th among 29 nations in transition, with a Democracy Score of 5.21 out of 7 (7 represents the lowest democratic progress).[104] Freedom House
Freedom House
ranked Armenia
Armenia
as "partly free" in its 2007 report, though it did not categorise Armenia as an "electoral democracy", indicating an absence of relatively free and competitive elections.[105] However, significant progress seems to have been made and the 2008 Armenian presidential election was hailed as largely democratic by OSCE and Western monitors.[106] Foreign relations Main articles: Foreign relations of Armenia, Armenia
Armenia
and the European Union, and Armenia– Turkey
Turkey
relations

Embassy of Armenia
Armenia
in Moscow

Armenia
Armenia
presently maintains positive relations with almost every country in the world, with two major exceptions being its immediate neighbours, Turkey
Turkey
and Azerbaijan. Tensions were running high between Armenians
Armenians
and Azerbaijanis
Azerbaijanis
during the final years of the Soviet Union. The Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
War dominated the region's politics throughout the 1990s.[107] To this day, Armenia's borders with Turkey
Turkey
and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
are under severe blockade. In addition, a permanent solution for the Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
conflict has not been reached despite the mediation provided by organizations such as the OSCE. Armenia
Armenia
is a member of more than 40 international organisations, including the United Nations; the Council of Europe; the Asian Development Bank; the Commonwealth of Independent States; the World Trade Organization; World Customs Organization; the Organization of the Black Sea
Black Sea
Economic Cooperation; and La Francophonie. It is a member of the CSTO military alliance, and also participates in NATO's Partnership for Peace
Partnership for Peace
program. Turkey
Turkey
also has a long history of poor relations with Armenia
Armenia
over its refusal to acknowledge the Armenian Genocide, although Turkey
Turkey
was one of the first countries to recognize the Republic
Republic
of Armenia
Armenia
(the 3rd republic) after its independence from the USSR
USSR
in 1991. Despite this, for most of the 20th century and early 21st century, relations remain tense and there are no formal diplomatic relations between the two countries due to Turkey's refusal to establish them for numerous reasons. During the Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
War and citing it as the reason, Turkey
Turkey
illegally closed its border with Armenia
Armenia
in 1993. It has not lifted its blockade despite pressure from the powerful Turkish business lobby interested in Armenian markets.[107] On 10 October 2009, Armenia
Armenia
and Turkey
Turkey
signed protocols on normalisation of relations, which set a timetable for restoring diplomatic ties and reopening their joint border.[108] The ratification of those had to be made in the national parliaments. In Armenia
Armenia
it passed through the legislatively required approval of the Constitutional Court and was sent to parliament for final ratification. The President had made multiple public announcements, both in Armenia
Armenia
and abroad, that as the leader of the political majority of Armenia
Armenia
he assured the ratification of the protocols if Turkey
Turkey
also ratified them. Despite this, the process stopped, as Turkey
Turkey
continuously added more preconditions to its ratification and also "delayed it beyond any reasonable time-period". Due to its position between two unfriendly neighbours, Armenia
Armenia
has close security ties with Russia. At the request of the government of Armenia, Russia
Russia
maintains a military base in the city of Gyumri located in Northwestern Armenia.[109] as a deterrent against Turkey.[citation needed] Despite this, Armenia
Armenia
has also been looking toward Euro-Atlantic structures in recent years. It maintains good relations with the United States
United States
especially through its Armenian diaspora. According to the US Census Bureau, there are 427,822 Armenians
Armenians
living in the country.[110] Because of the illicit border blockades by Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Turkey, Armenia
Armenia
continues to maintain solid relations with its southern neighbour Iran
Iran
especially in the economic sector. Economic projects such a gas pipeline going from Iran
Iran
to Armenia
Armenia
are being developed.

Russian President Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
at Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
memorial in Yerevan

Armenia
Armenia
is also a member of the Council of Europe, maintaining friendly relations with the European Union, especially with its member states such as France
France
and Greece. A 2005 survey reported that 64% of Armenia's population would be in favour of joining the EU.[111] Several Armenian officials have also expressed the desire for their country to eventually become an EU member state,[112] some[who?] predicting that it will make an official bid for membership in a few years.[citation needed] In 2004 its forces joined KFOR, a NATO-led international force in Kosovo. It is also an observer member of the Eurasian Economic Community
Eurasian Economic Community
and the Non-Aligned Movement. A former republic of the Soviet Union, Armenia
Armenia
is an emerging democracy and as of 2011[update] was negotiating with the European Union to become an associate partner. Legally speaking, it has the right to be considered as a prospective EU member provided it meets necessary standards and criteria, although officially such a plan does not exist in Brussels.[113][114][115][116] The Government of Armenia, however, has joined the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Russia[117] and the Eurasian Economic Union.[118][119] Armenia
Armenia
is included in the European Union's European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) which aims at bringing the EU and its neighbours closer. The EU- Armenia
Armenia
Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement (CEPA) was signed on 24 November 2017. Among other goals it aims at improving investment climate.[120] Human rights Main article: Human rights in Armenia Human rights in Armenia
Human rights in Armenia
tend to be better than those in most former Soviet republics and have drawn closer to acceptable standards, especially economically.[citation needed] Still, there are several considerable problems. Overall, the country is classified "partly free" by Freedom House, which gives it a score of 45 in 2018.[121] Military Main article: Armed Forces of Armenia

Armenian Army
Armenian Army
BTR-80s

Armenian soldiers at the 2010 Moscow Victory Day Parade

The Armenian Army, Air Force, Air Defence, and Border Guard comprise the four branches of the Armed Forces of the Republic
Republic
of Armenia. The Armenian military was formed after the collapse of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991 and with the establishment of the Ministry of Defence in 1992. The Commander-in-Chief of the military is the President of Armenia, Serzh Sargsyan. The Ministry of Defence is in charge of political leadership, currently headed by Colonel General Seyran Ohanyan, while military command remains in the hands of the General Staff, headed by the Chief of Staff, who is currently Colonel General Yuri Khatchaturov. Active forces now number about 81,000 soldiers, with an additional reserve of 32,000 troops. Armenian border guards are in charge of patrolling the country's borders with Georgia and Azerbaijan, while Russian troops continue to monitor its borders with Iran
Iran
and Turkey. In the case of an attack, Armenia
Armenia
is able to mobilise every able-bodied man between the age of 15 and 59, with military preparedness. The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, which establishes comprehensive limits on key categories of military equipment, was ratified by the Armenian parliament in July 1992. In March 1993, Armenia
Armenia
signed the multilateral Chemical Weapons Convention, which calls for the eventual elimination of chemical weapons. Armenia acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
(NPT) as a non-nuclear weapons state in July 1993. Armenia
Armenia
is member of Collective Security Treaty Organisation
Collective Security Treaty Organisation
(CSTO) along with Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and Uzbekistan. It participates in NATO's Partnership for Peace
Partnership for Peace
(PiP) program and is in a NATO
NATO
organisation called Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC). Armenia
Armenia
has engaged in a peacekeeping mission in Kosovo
Kosovo
as part of non- NATO
NATO
KFOR troops under Greek command.[122] Armenia
Armenia
also had 46 members of its military peacekeeping forces as a part of the Coalition Forces in Iraq War
Iraq War
until October 2008.[123] Administrative divisions Main article: Administrative divisions of Armenia

Shirak Lori Tavush Aragatsotn Armavir Yerevan Ararat Kotayk Gegharkunik Vayots Dzor Syunik

Geghard
Geghard
monastery, Kotayk Province

Armenia
Armenia
is divided into ten provinces (marzer, singular marz), with the city (kaghak) of Yerevan
Yerevan
(Երևան) having special administrative status as the country's capital. The chief executive in each of the ten provinces is the marzpet (marz governor), appointed by the government of Armenia. In Yerevan, the chief executive is the mayor, appointed by the president. Within each province are communities (hamaynkner, singular hamaynk). Each community is self-governing and consists of one or more settlements (bnakavayrer, singular bnakavayr). Settlements are classified as either towns (kaghakner, singular kaghak) or villages (gyugher, singular gyugh). As of 2007[update], Armenia
Armenia
includes 915 communities, of which 49 are considered urban and 866 are considered rural. The capital, Yerevan, also has the status of a community.[124] Additionally, Yerevan
Yerevan
is divided into twelve semi-autonomous districts.

Province Capital Area (km²) Population †

Aragatsotn Արագածոտն Ashtarak Աշտարակ 2,756 132,925

Ararat Արարատ Artashat Արտաշատ 2,090 260,367

Armavir Արմավիր Armavir Արմավիր 1,242 265,770

Gegharkunik   Գեղարքունիք   Gavar Գավառ 5,349 235,075

Kotayk Կոտայք Hrazdan Հրազդան 2,086 254,397

Lori Լոռի Vanadzor Վանաձոր 3,799 235,537

Shirak Շիրակ Gyumri Գյումրի 2,680 251,941

Syunik Սյունիք Kapan Կապան 4,506 141,771

Tavush Տավուշ Ijevan Իջևան 2,704 128,609

Vayots Dzor Վայոց Ձոր Yeghegnadzor   Եղեգնաձոր   2,308 52,324

Yerevan Երևան – – 223 1,060,138

† 2011 census Sources: Area and population of provinces.[125] Economy Main article: Economy of Armenia The economy relies heavily on investment and support from Armenians abroad.[126] Before independence, Armenia's economy was largely industry-based – chemicals, electronics, machinery, processed food, synthetic rubber, and textile – and highly dependent on outside resources. The republic had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw materials and energy.[55] Recently, the Intel Corporation
Intel Corporation
agreed to open a research centre in Armenia, in addition to other technology companies, signalling the growth of the technology industry in Armenia.[127] Agriculture accounted for less than 20% of both net material product and total employment before the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991. After independence, the importance of agriculture in the economy increased markedly, its share at the end of the 1990s rising to more than 30% of GDP and more than 40% of total employment.[128] This increase in the importance of agriculture was attributable to food security needs of the population in the face of uncertainty during the first phases of transition and the collapse of the non-agricultural sectors of the economy in the early 1990s. As the economic situation stabilised and growth resumed, the share of agriculture in GDP dropped to slightly over 20% (2006 data), although the share of agriculture in employment remained more than 40%.[129]

Yerevan
Yerevan
is the economic and cultural centre of Armenia.

Armenian mines produce copper, zinc, gold, and lead. The vast majority of energy is produced with fuel imported from Russia, including gas and nuclear fuel (for its one nuclear power plant); the main domestic energy source is hydroelectric. Small deposits of coal, gas, and petroleum exist but have not yet been developed. Like other newly independent states of the former Soviet Union, Armenia's economy suffers from the breakdown of former Soviet trading patterns. Soviet investment in and support of Armenian industry has virtually disappeared, so that few major enterprises are still able to function. In addition, the effects of the 1988 Spitak
Spitak
earthquake, which killed more than 25,000 people and made 500,000 homeless, are still being felt. The conflict with Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
over Nagorno-Karabakh has not been resolved. The closure of Azerbaijani and Turkish borders has devastated the economy, because Armenia
Armenia
depends on outside supplies of energy and most raw materials. Land routes through Georgia and Iran
Iran
are inadequate or unreliable. The GDP fell nearly 60% between 1989 and 1993, but then resumed robust growth.[128] The national currency, the dram, suffered hyperinflation for the first years after its introduction in 1993. Nevertheless, the government was able to make wide-ranging economic reforms that paid off in dramatically lower inflation and steady growth. The 1994 cease-fire in the Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
conflict has also helped the economy. Armenia
Armenia
has had strong economic growth since 1995, building on the turnaround that began the previous year, and inflation has been negligible for the past several years. New sectors, such as precious-stone processing and jewelry making, information and communication technology, and even tourism are beginning to supplement more traditional sectors of the economy, such as agriculture.[130]

New buildings in the Ajapnyak District
Ajapnyak District
of Yerevan

This steady economic progress has earned Armenia
Armenia
increasing support from international institutions. The International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and other international financial institutions (IFIs) and foreign countries are extending considerable grants and loans. Loans to Armenia
Armenia
since 1993 exceed $1.1 billion. These loans are targeted at reducing the budget deficit and stabilising the currency; developing private businesses; energy; agriculture; food processing; transportation; the health and education sectors; and ongoing rehabilitation in the earthquake zone. The government joined the World Trade Organization on 5 February 2003. But one of the main sources of foreign direct investments remains the Armenian diaspora, which finances major parts of the reconstruction of infrastructure and other public projects. Being a growing democratic state, Armenia
Armenia
also hopes to get more financial aid from the Western World. A liberal foreign investment law was approved in June 1994, and a law on privatization was adopted in 1997, as well as a program of state property privatization. Continued progress will depend on the ability of the government to strengthen its macroeconomic management, including increasing revenue collection, improving the investment climate, and making strides against corruption. However, unemployment, which was 18.5% in 2015,[131] still remains a major problem due to the influx of thousands of refugees from the Karabakh conflict. Armenia
Armenia
ranked 85th on the 2015 UNDP Human Development Index, the lowest among the Transcaucasian republics.[132] In 2016 estimates it climbed up to 84th position surpassing Ukraine.[133][134] Armenia ranks 47th on inequality-adjusted human development index (IHDI) in 2016 report, ahead of all its neighboring countries with prominence of human inequality lower (i.e. better) than in these.[135] In 2017 Human Freedom Index published by the Cato Institute
Cato Institute
Armenia ranked 29th for economic freedom and 76th for personal freedom among 159 countries.[136][137] Armenia
Armenia
ranks 47th on Doing Business Index in 2018 with 13th rank on "starting business" sub-index.[138] In the 2015 Transparency International
Transparency International
Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), Armenia
Armenia
ranked 95 of 168 countries.[139] In the 2016 Index of Economic Freedom, Armenia
Armenia
ranked 54th, ahead of countries like France, Portugal
Portugal
and Italy.[91] Science, technology and education Science and technology Main article: Science and technology in Armenia Research spending is low in Armenia, averaging 0.25% of GDP over 2010–2013. However, the statistical record of research expenditure is incomplete, as expenditure by privately owned business enterprises is not surveyed in Armenia. The world average for domestic expenditure on research was 1.7% of GDP in 2013.[140]

GERD GDP ratio for the Black Sea
Black Sea
countries, 2001–2013. Source: UNESCO
UNESCO
Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 12.3

The country's Strategy for the Development of Science 2011–2020 envisions that ‘by 2020, Armenia
Armenia
is a country with a knowledge-based economy and is competitive within the European Research Area with its level of basic and applied research.’ It fixes the following targets:[140]

Creation of a system capable of sustaining the development of science and technology; Development of scientific potential, modernization of scientific infrastructure; Promotion of basic and applied research; Creation of a synergistic system of education, science and innovation; and Becoming a prime location for scientific specialization in the European Research Area.

Based on this strategy, the accompanying Action Plan was approved by the government in June 2011. It defines the following targets:[140]

Improve the management system for science and technology and create the requisite conditions for sustainable development; Involve more young, talented people in education and research, while upgrading research infrastructure; Create the requisite conditions for the development of an integrated national innovation system; and Enhance international co-operation in research and development.

GERD in the Black Sea
Black Sea
region by sector of performance, 2005 and 2013. Source: UNESCO
UNESCO
Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 12.5

Although the Strategy clearly pursues a ‘science push’ approach, with public research institutes serving as the key policy target, it nevertheless mentions the goal of establishing an innovation system. However, the main driver of innovation, the business sector, is not mentioned. In between publishing the Strategy and Action Plan, the government issued a resolution in May 2010 on Science and Technology Development Priorities for 2010–2014. These priorities are:[140]

Armenian studies, humanities and social sciences; Life sciences; Renewable energy, new energy sources; Advanced technologies, information technologies; Space, Earth sciences, sustainable use of natural resources; and Basic research promoting essential applied research.

The Law on the National Academy of Sciences was adopted in May 2011. This law is expected to play a key role in shaping the Armenian innovation system. It allows the National Academy of Sciences to extend its business activities to the commercialization of research results and the creation of spin-offs; it also makes provision for restructuring the National Academy of Sciences by combining institutes involved in closely related research areas into a single body. Three of these new centres are particularly relevant: the Centre for Biotechnology, the Centre for Zoology and Hydro-ecology and the Centre for Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry.[140] The government is focusing its support on selected industrial sectors. More than 20 projects have been cofunded by the State Committee of Science in targeted branches: pharmaceuticals, medicine and biotechnology, agricultural mechanization and machine building, electronics, engineering, chemistry and, in particular, the sphere of information technology.[140] Over the past decade, the government has made an effort to encourage science–industry linkages. The Armenian information technology sector has been particularly active: a number of public–private partnerships have been established between companies and universities, in order to give students marketable skills and generate innovative ideas at the interface of science and business. Examples are Synopsys Inc. and the Enterprise Incubator Foundation.[140] Education

Ayb School

UWC Dilijan

Tumo Center for Creative Technologies

American University of Armenia

Main article: Education in Armenia History of Education in Armenia In medieval times University of Gladzor
University of Gladzor
and University of Tatev took an important role for whole Armenia. A literacy rate of 100% was reported as early as 1960.[141] In the communist era, Armenian education followed the standard Soviet model of complete state control (from Moscow) of curricula and teaching methods and close integration of education activities with other aspects of society, such as politics, culture, and the economy.[141] In the 1988–89 school year, 301 students per 10,000 population were in specialized secondary or higher education, a figure slightly lower than the Soviet average.[141] In 1989 some 58% of Armenians
Armenians
over age fifteen had completed their secondary education, and 14% had a higher education.[141] In the 1990–91 school year, the estimated 1,307 primary and secondary schools were attended by 608,800 students.[141] Another seventy specialised secondary institutions had 45,900 students, and 68,400 students were enrolled in a total of ten postsecondary institutions that included universities.[141] In addition, 35% of eligible children attended preschools.[141] In 1992 Armenia's largest institution of higher learning, Yerevan
Yerevan
State University, had eighteen departments, including ones for social sciences, sciences, and law.[141] Its faculty numbered about 1,300 teachers and its student population about 10,000 students.[141] The National Polytechnic University of Armenia
National Polytechnic University of Armenia
is operating since 1933.[141] In the early 1990s, Armenia
Armenia
made substantial changes to the centralised and regimented Soviet system.[141] Because at least 98% of students in higher education were Armenian, curricula began to emphasise Armenian history and culture.[141] Armenian became the dominant language of instruction, and many schools that had taught in Russian closed by the end of 1991.[141] Russian was still widely taught, however, as a second language.[141] In 2014, the National Program for Educational Excellence embarked on creating an internationally competitive and academically rigorous alternative educational program (the Araratian Baccalaureate) for Armenian schools and increase the importance and status of the teacher's role in society.[142][143] Regulation Ministry of Education and Science is responsible for regulation of the sector. Primary and secondary education in Armenia
Armenia
is free, and completion of secondary school is compulsory.[141] High education in Armenia
Armenia
is harmonized with Bologna process. Armenian National Academy of Sciences
Armenian National Academy of Sciences
plays important role in postgraduate education. Schools for children Schooling takes 12 years in Armenia
Armenia
and breaks down into primary (4 years), middle (5 years) and high schooling (3 years). Schools engage 10-grade mark system. Interesting feature of primary and secondary education is obligatory schooling in chess playing. UWC Dilijan, Ayb School
Ayb School
and QSI International School of Yerevan
Yerevan
are private primary and secondary schools. Tumo Center for Creative Technologies
Tumo Center for Creative Technologies
is one of most prominent auxiliary education concepts in Armenia. Armath[144] laboratories are a prominent concept for engaging pupils into studying technical sciences and applied technologies. Teach for Armenia
Armenia
is works towards improvement of primary and secondary education enrollment in regions of Armenia. Government also supports Armenian schools outside of Armenia. Major universities

Yerevan
Yerevan
State University Yerevan
Yerevan
State Medical University Armenian State University of Economics National Polytechnic University of Armenia National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia Yerevan
Yerevan
Brusov State University of Languages and Social Sciences Armenian National Agrarian University Armenian State Pedagogical University American University of Armenia Russian-Armenian (Slavonic) University Fondation Université Française en Arménie

List of universities in Armenia includes many other. American University of Armenia The American University of Armenia
American University of Armenia
has graduate programs in Business and Law, among others. The institution owes its existence to the combined efforts of the Government of Armenia, the Armenian General Benevolent Union, US Agency for International Development, and the University of California. The extension programs and the library at AUA form a new focal point for English-language intellectual life in the city. Armenia
Armenia
also hosts a deployment of One Laptop per Child initiative.[145] Yerevan
Yerevan
State Medical University On the basis of the expansion and development of Yerevan
Yerevan
State University a number of higher educational independent Institutions were formed including Medical Institute separated in 1930 which was set up on the basis of medical faculty. In 1980 Yerevan
Yerevan
State Medical University was awarded one of the main rewards of the former USSR
USSR
– the Order of Labor red Banner for training qualified specialists in health care and valuable service in the development of Medical Science. In 1995 YSMI was renamed to YSMU and since 1989 it has been named after Mkhitar Heratsi, the famous medieval doctor. Mkhitar Heratsi was the founder of Armenian Medical school in Cilician Armenia. The great doctor played the same role in Armenian Medical Science as Hippocrates
Hippocrates
in Western, Galen
Galen
in Roman, Ibn Sīnā in Arabic medicine.

Graduates of the MAB program of the Agribusiness Teaching Center.

Foreign students' department for Armenian diaspora
Armenian diaspora
established in 1957 later was enlarged and the enrollment of foreign students began. Nowadays the YSMU is a Medical Institution corresponding to international requirements, trains medical staff for not only Armenia and neighbour countries, i.e. Iran, Syria, Lebanon, Georgia, but also many other leading countries all over the world. A great number of foreign students from India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, the USA and Russia study together with Armenian students. Nowadays the university is ranked among famous higher Medical Institutions and takes its honourable place in the World Directory of Medical Schools published by the WHO. Statistics Gross enrollment in tertiary education at 44% in 2015 surpassed peer countries of South Caucasus
South Caucasus
but remained below of the average for Europe
Europe
and Central Asia.[146] However public spendings per student in tertiary education in GDP-ratio terms is one of the lowest for post- USSR
USSR
countries (for which data was available).[147]

Demographics Main articles: Demographics of Armenia
Demographics of Armenia
and Armenians Armenia
Armenia
has a population of 2,924,816 (2016 est.)[14] and is the third most densely populated of the former Soviet republics.[148] There has been a problem of population decline due to elevated levels of emigration after the break-up of the USSR.[149] In the past years emigration levels have declined and some population growth is observed since 2012.[150]

The Armenian population around the world

Armenia
Armenia
has a relatively large external diaspora (8 million by some estimates, greatly exceeding the 3 million population of Armenia
Armenia
itself), with communities existing across the globe. The largest Armenian communities outside of Armenia
Armenia
can be found in Russia, France, Iran, the United States, Georgia, Syria, Lebanon, Argentina, Australia, Canada, Greece, Cyprus, Israel, Poland, Ukraine and Brazil. 40,000 to 70,000 Armenians
Armenians
still live in Turkey
Turkey
(mostly in and around Istanbul).[151] About 1,000 Armenians
Armenians
reside in the Armenian Quarter
Armenian Quarter
in the Old City of Jerusalem, a remnant of a once-larger community.[152] Italy
Italy
is home to the San Lazzaro degli Armeni, an island located in the Venetian Lagoon, which is completely occupied by a monastery run by the Mechitarists, an Armenian Catholic congregation.[153] Approximately 139,000 Armenians
Armenians
live in the de facto independent country Republic
Republic
of Artsakh where they form a majority.[154] Ethnic groups

Historical and modern distribution of Armenians.Settlement area of Armenians
Armenians
in early 20th century:   >50%       25–50%       <25%   Armenian settlement area today.

Ethnic Armenians
Armenians
make up 98.1% of the population. Yazidis make up 1.2%, and Russians
Russians
0.4%. Other minorities include Assyrians, Ukrainians, Greeks
Greeks
(usually called Caucasus
Caucasus
Greeks), Kurds, Georgians, Belarusians, and Jews. There are also smaller communities of Vlachs, Mordvins, Ossetians, Udis, and Tats. Minorities of Poles
Poles
and Caucasus Germans also exist though they are heavily Russified.[155] As of 2016[update], there are an estimated 35,000 Yazidis in Armenia.[156] During the Soviet era, Azerbaijanis
Azerbaijanis
were historically the second largest population in the country (forming about 2.5% in 1989).[157] However, due to the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh, virtually all of them emigrated from Armenia
Armenia
to Azerbaijan. Conversely, Armenia received a large influx of Armenian refugees from Azerbaijan, thus giving Armenia
Armenia
a more homogeneous character. According to Gullup research conducted in 2017 Armenia
Armenia
has highest migrant acceptance (welcoming) rate in the region and most of eastern Europe.[158][159] Languages Main article: Languages of Armenia Armenian is the only official language. The main foreign languages that Armenians
Armenians
know are Russian and English. Due to its Soviet past, most of the old population can speak Russian quite well. According to a 2013 survey, 95% of Armenians
Armenians
said they had some knowledge of Russian (24% advanced, 59% intermediate) compared to 40% who said they knew some English (4% advanced, 16% intermediate and 20% beginner). However, more adults (50%) think that English should be taught in public secondary schools than those who prefer Russian (44%).[160] Cities See also: List of municipalities of Armenia

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Armenia Armenia
Armenia
2011 census[161][162][163][164][165][166][167][168][169][170][171]

Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.

Yerevan

Gyumri 1 Yerevan Yerevan 1,060,138 11 Gavar Gegharkunik 20,765

Vanadzor

Vagharshapat

2 Gyumri Shirak 121,976 12 Goris Syunik 20,591

3 Vanadzor Lori 86,199 13 Charentsavan Kotayk 20,363

4 Vagharshapat Armavir 46,540 14 Ararat Ararat 20,235

5 Abovyan Kotayk 43,495 15 Masis Ararat 20,215

6 Kapan Syunik 43,190 16 Ashtarak Aragatsotn 19,615

7 Hrazdan Kotayk 41,875 17 Artik Shirak 19,534

8 Armavir Armavir 29,319 18 Sevan Gegharkunik 19,229

9 Artashat Ararat 22,269 19 Dilijan Tavush 17,712

10 Ijevan Tavush 21,081 20 Sisian Syunik 14,894

Religion See also: Religion in Armenia

The 7th-century Khor Virap
Khor Virap
monastery in the shadow of Mount Ararat, the peak on which Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
is said to have landed during the biblical flood.

Armenia
Armenia
was the first nation to adopt Christianity
Christianity
as a state religion, an event traditionally dated to AD 301.[172][173][174][175] The predominant religion in Armenia
Armenia
is Christianity. The roots of the Armenian Church go back to the 1st century. According to tradition, the Armenian Church was founded by two of Jesus' twelve apostles – Thaddaeus and Bartholomew – who preached Christianity
Christianity
in Armenia between AD 40–60. Because of these two founding apostles, the official name of the Armenian Church is Armenian Apostolic Church. Over 93% of Armenian Christians belong to the Armenian Apostolic Church, a form of Oriental (Non-Chalcedonian) Orthodoxy, which is a very ritualistic, conservative church, roughly comparable to the Coptic and Syriac churches.[176] The Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Apostolic Church
is in communion only with a group of churches within Oriental Orthodoxy. The Armenian Evangelical Church
Armenian Evangelical Church
has a very sizeable and favourable presence among the life of Armenians
Armenians
with over several thousand members throughout the country. It traces its roots back to 1846 which was under patronage of the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople
Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople
the aim of which was to train qualified clergy for the Armenian Apostolic Church. Other Christian denominations practising faith based on Nicene Creed in Armenia
Armenia
are the Pentecostal branches of Protestant community such as the Word of Life, the Armenian Brotherhood Church,[177] the Baptists
Baptists
which are known as of the oldest existing denominations in Armenia
Armenia
and were permitted by the authorities of Soviet Union,[178][179] and Presbyterians.[180] Catholics also exist in Armenia, both Latin rite and Armenian rite Catholics. The Mechitarists
Mechitarists
(also spelled "Mekhitarists" Armenian: Մխիթարեան), are a congregation of Benedictine monks of the Armenian Catholic Church
Armenian Catholic Church
founded in 1712 by Mekhitar of Sebaste. They are best known for their series of scholarly publications of ancient Armenian versions of otherwise lost ancient Greek texts. The Armenian Catholic denomination is headquartered in Bzoummar, Lebanon. Armenia
Armenia
is home to a Russian community of Molokans which practice a form of Spiritual Christianity
Christianity
originated from the Russian Orthodox Church.[181] The Yazidis, who live in the western part of the country, practice Yazidism. As of 2016[update], the world's largest Yazidi
Yazidi
temple is under construction in the small village of Aknalish.[156] There are also Kurds who practice Sunni Islam.[citation needed] There is a Jewish community in Armenia
Armenia
diminished to 750 persons since independence with most emigrants leaving for Israel. There are currently two synagogues in Armenia
Armenia
– in the capital, Yerevan, and in the city of Sevan located near Lake Sevan. Health Vast improvements of health services occurred in the past decade. Such improvements consisted of easier accessibility to health-care services and an Open Enrollment program which allows Armenians
Armenians
to freely choose their healthcare service provider.[182] Certified by World Health Organization
World Health Organization
Armenia
Armenia
was the first[183] in European region and as of October 2017 is one of 10 countries worldwide (7 of which are islands) which proved to have eliminated mother-to-child HIV
HIV
transmission.[184] According to WHO data infant mortality rate nearly halved from 2002 to 2015.[185] Health expenditures at 4.5% of GDP in 2014 were 3rd lowest in post- USSR
USSR
countries and below the average of the region of Europe
Europe
and Central Asia, same as in years 2006–2013.[186] Health expenditures as percentage of government spendings were 4th lowest for the same group in 2008–2014, but beat peers in South Caucasus.[187] Health expenditures in per capita terms (at PPP at constant 2005 USD) were nearly permanently 5th lowest in the above group in years 1999–2014.[188] Out-of-pocket health expenditure were 4th highest in the same group in years 2003–2006 and 2010–2014.[189] In 2014 4.3% of health expenditures came from sources outside of Armenia.[190] Undernourishment at 6.3% in 2014 of population remained nearly unchanged since 2007.[191] Obesity
Obesity
rate is 19.5% in Armenia
Armenia
in 2017, which is lower than in all regional countries and nearly all European countries.[192][193] Tobacco policy in Armenia
Armenia
is as of February 2018 still very permissive with almost no enforcement of any smoke-restricting laws. After significant decline crude in earlier decades crude birth rates remained at 13.0–14.2 per 1000 people nearly constant in years 1998–2015.[194] In the same period crude death rate went from 8.6 to 9.3 per 1000 people.[195] Note that crude rates are not age-adjusted. Life expectancy
Life expectancy
at birth at 74.8 years was 4th highest among post-USSR countries in 2014.[196] Culture Main article: Culture of Armenia

Armenian alphabet

Armenians
Armenians
have their own distinctive alphabet and language. The alphabet was invented in AD 405 by Mesrop Mashtots
Mesrop Mashtots
and consists of thirty-nine letters, three of which were added during the Cilician period. 96% of the people in the country speak Armenian, while 75.8% of the population additionally speaks Russian, although English is becoming increasingly popular. Media Main article: Media of Armenia Television, magazines, and newspapers are all operated by both state-owned and for-profit corporations which depend on advertising, subscription, and other sales-related revenues. The Constitution of Armenia
Armenia
guarantees freedom of speech and Armenia
Armenia
ranks 78th in the 2015 Press Freedom Index
Press Freedom Index
report compiled by Reporters Without Borders, between Lesotho
Lesotho
and Sierra Leone.[197] As a country in transition, Armenia's media system is under transformation.[198] Frequent attacks on journalists of non-state sponsored media is a serious threat to Armenia's press freedom. The number of assaults has recently declined, but the physical integrity of journalists remain at stake.[199] Music and dance Main article: Music of Armenia

Djivan Gasparyan
Djivan Gasparyan
(left), Sirusho
Sirusho
(middle) and Charles Aznavour
Charles Aznavour
(right) are among most popular musicians of Armenia.

Armenian music is a mix of indigenous folk music, perhaps best-represented by Djivan Gasparyan's well-known duduk music, as well as light pop, and extensive Christian music. Instruments like the duduk, the dhol, the zurna, and the kanun are commonly found in Armenian folk music. Artists such as Sayat Nova
Sayat Nova
are famous due to their influence in the development of Armenian folk music. One of the oldest types of Armenian music is the Armenian chant which is the most common kind of religious music in Armenia. Many of these chants are ancient in origin, extending to pre-Christian times, while others are relatively modern, including several composed by Saint Mesrop Mashtots, the inventor of the Armenian alphabet. Whilst under Soviet rule, Armenian classical music composer Aram Khatchaturian became internationally well known for his music, for various ballets and the Sabre Dance
Sabre Dance
from his composition for the ballet Gayane.

Traditional Armenian dance

The Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
caused widespread emigration that led to the settlement of Armenians
Armenians
in various countries in the world. Armenians kept to their traditions and certain diasporans rose to fame with their music. In the post- Genocide
Genocide
Armenian community of the United States, the so-called "kef" style Armenian dance
Armenian dance
music, using Armenian and Middle Eastern folk instruments (often electrified/amplified) and some western instruments, was popular. This style preserved the folk songs and dances of Western Armenia, and many artists also played the contemporary popular songs of Turkey
Turkey
and other Middle Eastern countries from which the Armenians
Armenians
emigrated. Richard Hagopian is perhaps the most famous artist of the traditional "kef" style and the Vosbikian Band was notable in the 1940s and 1950s for developing their own style of "kef music" heavily influenced by the popular American Big Band
Big Band
Jazz of the time. Later, stemming from the Middle Eastern Armenian diaspora
Armenian diaspora
and influenced by Continental European (especially French) pop music, the Armenian pop music genre grew to fame in the 1960s and 1970s with artists such as Adiss Harmandian and Harout Pamboukjian
Harout Pamboukjian
performing to the Armenian diaspora and Armenia; also with artists such as Sirusho, performing pop music combined with Armenian folk music in today's entertainment industry. Other Armenian diasporans that rose to fame in classical or international music circles are world-renowned French-Armenian singer and composer Charles Aznavour, pianist Sahan Arzruni, prominent opera sopranos such as Hasmik Papian
Hasmik Papian
and more recently Isabel Bayrakdarian and Anna Kasyan. Certain Armenians
Armenians
settled to sing non-Armenian tunes such as the heavy metal band System of a Down
System of a Down
(which nonetheless often incorporates traditional Armenian instrumentals and styling into their songs) or pop star Cher. In the Armenian diaspora, Armenian revolutionary songs are popular with the youth. These songs encourage Armenian patriotism and are generally about Armenian history and national heroes. Art Main article: Armenian art See also: List of museums in Armenia

Ancient Armenian Khachkars (cross-stones)

Yerevan
Yerevan
Vernissage (arts and crafts market), close to Republic
Republic
Square, bustles with hundreds of vendors selling a variety of crafts on weekends and Wednesdays (though the selection is much reduced mid-week). The market offers woodcarving, antiques, fine lace, and the hand-knotted wool carpets and kilims that are a Caucasus
Caucasus
speciality. Obsidian, which is found locally, is crafted into assortment of jewellery and ornamental objects. Armenian gold smithery enjoys a long tradition, populating one corner of the market with a selection of gold items. Soviet relics and souvenirs of recent Russian manufacture – nesting dolls, watches, enamel boxes and so on – are also available at the Vernisage.

Queen Zabel’s Return to the Palace, Vardges Sureniants, (1909)

Across from the Opera House, a popular art market fills another city park on the weekends. Armenia’s long history as a crossroads of the ancient world has resulted in a landscape with innumerable fascinating archaeological sites to explore. Medieval, Iron Age, Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and even Stone Age
Stone Age
sites are all within a few hours drive from the city. All but the most spectacular remain virtually undiscovered, allowing visitors to view churches and fortresses in their original settings. The National Art Gallery in Yerevan
Yerevan
has more than 16,000 works that date back to the Middle Ages, which indicate Armenia's rich tales and stories of the times. It houses paintings by many European masters as well. The Modern Art Museum, the Children’s Picture Gallery, and the Martiros Saryan
Martiros Saryan
Museum are only a few of the other noteworthy collections of fine art on display in Yerevan. Moreover, many private galleries are in operation, with many more opening every year, featuring rotating exhibitions and sales. On 13 April 2013, the Armenian government announced a change in law to allow freedom of panorama for 3D works of art.[200]

Cinema Main article: Cinema of Armenia Cinema in Armenia
Armenia
was born on April 16, 1923, when the Armenian State Committee of Cinema was established by a decree of the Soviet Armenian government. However, the first Armenian film with Armenian subject called "Haykakan Sinema" was produced earlier in 1912 in Cairo
Cairo
by Armenian-Egyptian publisher Vahan Zartarian. The film was premiered in Cairo
Cairo
on March 13, 1913.[201] In March 1924, the first Armenian film studio; Armenfilm (Armenian: Հայֆիլմ "Hayfilm," Russian: Арменкино "Armenkino") was established in Yerevan, starting with a documentary film called Soviet Armenia. Namus was the first Armenian silent black-and-white film, directed by Hamo Beknazarian
Hamo Beknazarian
in 1925, based on a play of Alexander Shirvanzade, describing the ill fate of two lovers, who were engaged by their families to each other since childhood, but because of violations of namus (a tradition of honor), the girl was married by her father to another person. The first sound film, Pepo was shot in 1935, director Hamo Beknazarian. Sport Main articles: Sport in Armenia
Sport in Armenia
and Chess in Armenia

The Tsaghkadzor
Tsaghkadzor
Olympic Sports complex

The Armenia national football team
Armenia national football team
in Dublin, Ireland

A wide array of sports are played in Armenia, the most popular among them being wrestling, weightlifting, judo, association football, chess, and boxing. Armenia's mountainous terrain provides great opportunities for the practice of sports like skiing and climbing. Being a landlocked country, water sports can only be practised on lakes, notably Lake Sevan. Competitively, Armenia
Armenia
has been successful in chess, weightlifting and wrestling at the international level. Armenia
Armenia
is also an active member of the international sports community, with full membership in the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) and International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF). It also hosts the Pan-Armenian Games. Prior to 1992, Armenians
Armenians
would participate in the Olympics representing the USSR. As part of the Soviet Union, Armenia
Armenia
was very successful, winning plenty of medals and helping the USSR
USSR
win the medal standings at the Olympics on numerous occasions. The first medal won by an Armenian in modern Olympic history was by Hrant Shahinyan (sometimes spelled as Grant Shaginyan), who won two golds and two silvers in gymnastics at the 1952 Summer Olympics
1952 Summer Olympics
in Helsinki. To highlight the level of success of Armenians
Armenians
in the Olympics, Shahinyan was quoted as saying: "Armenian sportsmen had to outdo their opponents by several notches for the shot at being accepted into any Soviet team. But those difficulties notwithstanding, 90 percent of Armenians
Armenians
athletes on Soviet Olympic teams came back with medals."[202] Armenia
Armenia
first participated at the 1992 Summer Olympics
1992 Summer Olympics
in Barcelona under a unified CIS team, where it was very successful, winning three golds and one silver in weightlifting, wrestling and sharp shooting, despite only having 5 athletes. Since the 1994 Winter Olympics
1994 Winter Olympics
in Lillehammer, Armenia
Armenia
has participated as an independent nation. Armenia
Armenia
participates in the Summer Olympic Games in boxing, wrestling, weightlifting, judo, gymnastics, track and field, diving, swimming and sharp shooting. It also participates in the Winter Olympic Games in alpine skiing, cross-country skiing and figure skating.

Chess Grandmaster Levon Aronian
Levon Aronian
is a FIDE
FIDE
#2 rated player and the fourth highest rated player in history

Football is also popular in Armenia. The most successful team was the FC Ararat Yerevan
Yerevan
team of the 1970s who won the Soviet Cup
Soviet Cup
in 1973 and 1975 and the Soviet Top League in 1973. The latter achievement saw FC Ararat gain entry to the European Cup where – despite a home victory in the second leg – they lost on aggregate at the quarter final stage to eventual winner FC Bayern Munich. Armenia
Armenia
competed internationally as part of the USSR
USSR
national football team until the Armenian national football team
Armenian national football team
was formed in 1992 after the split of the Soviet Union. Armenia
Armenia
have never qualified for a major tournament although recent improvements saw the team to achieve 44th position in the FIFA World Rankings
FIFA World Rankings
in September 2011. The national team is controlled by the Football Federation of Armenia. The Armenian Premier League is the highest level football competition in Armenia, and has been dominated by FC Pyunik
FC Pyunik
in recent seasons. The league currently consists of eight teams and relegates to the Armenian First League. Armenia
Armenia
and the Armenian diaspora
Armenian diaspora
have produced many successful footballers, including Youri Djorkaeff, Alain Boghossian, Andranik Eskandarian, Andranik
Andranik
Teymourian, Edgar Manucharyan
Edgar Manucharyan
and Nikita Simonyan. Djokaeff and Boghossian won the 1998 FIFA World Cup
1998 FIFA World Cup
with France, Andranik Teymourian
Andranik Teymourian
competed in the 2006 World Cup for Iran and Edgar Manucharyan
Edgar Manucharyan
played in the Dutch Eredivisie
Eredivisie
for Ajax. Wrestling
Wrestling
has been a successful sport in the Olympics for Armenia. At the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Armen Nazaryan
Armen Nazaryan
won the gold in the Men's Greco-Roman Flyweight (52 kg) category and Armen Mkrtchyan won the silver in Men's Freestyle Paperweight (48 kg) category, securing Armenia's first two medals in its Olympic history. Traditional Armenian wrestling is called Kokh and practised in traditional garb; it was one of the influences included in the Soviet combat sport of Sambo, which is also very popular.[203] The government of Armenia
Armenia
budgets about $2.8 million annually for sports and gives it to the National Committee of Physical Education and Sports, the body that determines which programs should benefit from the funds.[202] Due to the lack of success lately on the international level, in recent years, Armenia
Armenia
has rebuilt 16 Soviet-era sports schools and furnished them with new equipment for a total cost of $1.9 million. The rebuilding of the regional schools was financed by the Armenian government. $9.3 million has been invested in the resort town of Tsaghkadzor
Tsaghkadzor
to improve the winter sports infrastructure because of dismal performances at recent winter sports events. In 2005, a cycling centre was opened in Yerevan
Yerevan
with the aim of helping produce world class Armenian cyclists. The government has also promised a cash reward of $700,000 to Armenians
Armenians
who win a gold medal at the Olympics.[202] Armenia
Armenia
has also been very successful in chess, winning the World Champion in 2011 and the World Chess Olympiad
Chess Olympiad
on three occasions.[204] Cuisine

Armenian cuisine

Main article: Armenian cuisine Armenian cuisine
Armenian cuisine
is closely related to eastern and Mediterranean cuisine; various spices, vegetables, fish, and fruits combine to present unique dishes. The main characteristics of Armenian cuisine are a reliance on the quality of the ingredients rather than heavily spicing food, the use of herbs, the use of wheat in a variety of forms, of legumes, nuts, and fruit (as a main ingredient as well as to sour food), and the stuffing of a wide variety of leaves. The pomegranate, with its symbolic association with fertility, represents that nation. The apricot is the national fruit.

See also

Armenia
Armenia
portal Asia portal Europe
Europe
portal

Outline of Armenia Index of Armenia-related articles Armenia
Armenia
– book

Notes

Sources

This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0 UNESCO
UNESCO
Science Report: towards 2030, 324–26, UNESCO, UNESCO
UNESCO
Publishing. To learn how to add open-license text to articles, please see:Adding open license text to. For information on reusing text from, please see the terms of use.

References

^ "Constitution of Armenia, Article 20". president.am.  ^ Asatryan, Garnik; Arakelova, Victoria ( Yerevan
Yerevan
2002). The Ethnic Minorities in Armenia. Part of the OSCE. Archived copy at WebCite (16 April 2010). ^ Ministry of Culture of Armenia
Culture of Armenia
"The ethnic minorities in Armenia. Brief information". As per the most recent census in 2011. "National minority". ^ "National Assembly of the Republic
Republic
of Armenia
Armenia
- Official Web Site - parliament.am". www.parliament.am.  ^ a b Shugart, Matthew Søberg (September 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive and Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies. United States: University of California, San Diego. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2008. Retrieved 13 October 2017.  ^ a b Shugart, Matthew Søberg (December 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies, University of California, San Diego. French Politics. London: Palgrave Macmillan
Palgrave Macmillan
UK. 3 (3): 323–351. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200087 . ISSN 1476-3427. OCLC 6895745903. Retrieved 13 October 2017. Table 1 shows that dissolution power as a presidential initiative is rare in the contemporary president-parliamentary systems. In fact, only in Armenia
Armenia
may the president dissolve (once per year) without a trigger (e.g. assembly failure to invest a government).  ^ a b Markarov, Alexander (2016). "Semi-presidentialism in Armenia" (PDF). In Elgie, Robert; Moestrup, Sophia. Semi-Presidentialism in the Caucasus
Caucasus
and Central Asia. London: Palgrave Macmillan
Palgrave Macmillan
UK (published 15 May 2016). pp. 61–90. doi:10.1057/978-1-137-38781-3_3. ISBN 978-1-137-38780-6. LCCN 2016939393. OCLC 6039792321. Retrieved 8 October 2017. Markarov discusses the formation and development of the semi-presidential system in Armenia since its foundation in 1991. The author identifies and compares the formal powers of the president, prime minister, and parliament under the 1995 Constitution as well as the amendments introduced through the Constitutional referendum in 2005. Markarov argues that the highly presidentialized semi-presidential system that was introduced in the early 1990s gradually evolved into a Constitutionally more balanced structure. However, in practice, the president has remained dominant and backed by a presidential majority; the president has thus been able to set the policy agenda and implement his preferred policy.  ^ Lang, David Marshall. Armenia: Cradle of Civilization. London: Allen and Unwin, 1970, p. 114. ISBN 0-04-956007-7. ^ Redgate, Anna Elizabeth. The Armenians. Cornwall: Blackwell, 1998, pp. 16–19, 23, 25, 26 (map), 30–32, 38, 43 ISBN 0-631-22037-2. ^ Redgate, A. E. (2000). The Armenians
Armenians
(Reprint ed.). Oxford: Blackwell. p. 5. ISBN 0-631-22037-2. However, the most easily identifiable ancestors of the later Armenian nation are the Urartians.  ^ de Laet, Sigfried J.; Herrmann, Joachim, eds. (1996). History of Humanity: From the seventh century B.C. to the seventh century A.D. (1st ed.). London: Routledge. p. 128. ISBN 978-92-3-102812-0. The ruler of the part known as Greater Armenia, Artaxias (Artashes), the founder of a new dynasty, managed to unite the country...  ^ Encyclopedia Americana: Ankara
Ankara
to Azusa. Scholastic Library Publishing. 2005. p. 393. It was named for Artaxias, a general of Antiochus the Great, who founded the kingdom of Armenia
Armenia
about 190 B.C.  ^ "The World Fact Book
Book
– Armenia". Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 19 July 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2010.  ^ a b "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations
United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ "Statistical Service of Armenia" (PDF). Armstat. Retrieved 20 February 2014.  ^ " Armenia
Armenia
Population". countrymeters.info.  ^ a b c d "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". World Economic Outlook Database, October 2017. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund. 4 October 2017. Retrieved 17 January 2018.  ^ "Gini index". World Bank. Retrieved 12 May 2016.  ^ " Human Development Report
Human Development Report
2016" (PDF). United Nations. 2016. Retrieved 28 September 2017.  ^ "Armenia." Dictionary.com Unabridged. 2015. ^ Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(2014). The CIA
CIA
World Factbook 2015. Skyhorse Publishing. p. 5241. ISBN 978-1-62914-903-5.  ^ The UN classification of world regions places Armenia
Armenia
in Western Asia; the CIA
CIA
World Factbook "Armenia". The World Factbook. CIA. Archived from the original on 10 October 2010. Retrieved 2 September 2010.  "Armenia". National Geographic. , "Armenia". Encyclopædia Britannica. , Calendario Atlante De Agostini (in Italian) (111 ed.). Novara: Istituto Geografico De Agostini. 2015. p. sub voce. ISBN 9788851124908.  and Oxford Reference Online "Oxford Reference". Oxford Reference Online. doi:10.1093/acref/9780199546091.001.0001/acref-9780199546091-e-652 (inactive 2017-09-23). Retrieved 20 October 2012.  also place Armenia
Armenia
in Asia. ^ The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History. Oxford University Press. 2003. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-19-510507-0.  ^ (Garsoïan, Nina (1997). ed. R.G. Hovannisian, ed. Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 81, Vol. 1. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) ) ^ Stringer, Martin D. (2005). A Sociological History of Christian Worship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 92. ISBN 0-521-81955-5.  ^ Smaller nations that have claimed a prior official adoption of Christianity
Christianity
include Osroene, the Silures, and San Marino. See Timeline of official adoptions of Christianity. ^ Grousset, René (1947). Histoire de l'Arménie (1984 ed.). Payot. p. 122. . Estimated dates vary from 284 to 314. Garsoïan (op.cit. p. 82), following the research of Ananian, favours the latter. ^ The republic has separation of church and state ^ "Constitution of Armenia, Article 18". president.am.  ^ Ագաթանգեղոս §§ 13 (ի Հայաստան աշխարհէս), 16 (Հայաստան աշխարհիս 2x, ի Հայաստան աշխարհիս), 35 (Հայաստան աշխարհին), 160 (Հայաստան աշխարհիս), 249 (Հայաստան աշխարհիս), 715 (Հայաստան աշխարհիս), 776 (Հայաստան աշխարհին), 784 (Հայաստան աշխարհին), 796 (ի մէջ Հայաստան աշխարհի), 808 (հասանէին ի Հայաստան աշխարհն)։ ^ Ագաթանգեղոս § 885 (ի Հայաստան երկրին) ^ Փաւստոս Բուզանդ 1883=1984, էջ 1 (Հայաստան աշխարհին) ^ Փաւստոս Բուզանդ 1883=1984, 4.բ, էջ 56 (Հայաստան երկրին) ^ 904=1985, էջ 2 (Հայաստան աշխարհիս), 110 (կանայս ի Հայաստան աշխարհիս) ^ Կորիւն 1994, էջ 83 (Հայաստան աշխարհի), 93 (Հայաստան աշխարհին), 103 (ի Հայաստան աշխարհին), 120 (ի Հայաստան աշխարհէս) ^ ժը (սեռ. Հայաստանեայց, բացառ. ի Հայաստանեայց), տես Աբգարյան 1979, էջ 66, 90 ^ Razmik Panossian, The Armenians: From Kings And Priests to Merchants And Commissars, Columbia University Press
Columbia University Press
(2006), ISBN 978-0-231-13926-7, p. 106. ^ Rafael Ishkhanyan, "Illustrated History of Armenia," Yerevan, 1989 ^ Elisabeth Bauer. Armenia: Past and Present (1981), p. 49 ^ "Χαλύβοισι πρὸς νότον Ἀρμένιοι ὁμουρέουσι (The Armenians
Armenians
border on the Chalybes
Chalybes
to the south)". Chahin, Mark (2001). The Kingdom of Armenia. London: Routledge. p. fr. 203. ISBN 978-0-7007-1452-0.  ^ Xenophon. Anabasis. pp. IV.v.2–9.  ^ Moses of Chorene,The History of Armenia, Book
Book
1, Ch. 12 (in Russian) ^ History of Armenia
History of Armenia
by Father Michael Chamich from B.C. 2247 to the Year of Christ 1780, or 1229 of the Armenian era, Bishop's College Press, Calcutta, 1827, p. 19: "[Aram] was the first to raise the Armenian name to any degree of renown; so that contemporary nations... called them the Aramians, or followers of Aram, a name which has been corrupted into Armenians; and the country they inhabited, by universal consent, took the name of Armenia." ^ Charles, R.H. (1913). The Book of Jubilees
Book of Jubilees
9:5 from The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament. Clarendon Press.  ^ Josephus, Flavius. Antiquities of the Jews. p.  Book
Book
1, section 143.  ^ "Armenian cave yields what may be world's oldest leather shoe". CNN. 9 June 2010.  ^ "5,900-year-old women's skirt discovered in Armenian cave". News Armenia. 13 September 2011. Retrieved 14 September 2011.  ^ "Earliest Known Winery Found in Armenian Cave". National Geographic. 12 January 2011.  ^ Kurkjian, Vahan (1958). History of Armenia
History of Armenia
(1964 ed.). Michigan: Armenian General Benevolent Union. Retrieved 22 July 2009.  ^ Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia. Yerevan: Armenian Encyclopedia. 1987. p. v. 12.  ^ Movsisyan, Artak (2000). Sacred Highland: Armenia
Armenia
in the spiritual conception of the Near East. Yerevan.  ^ Kavoukjian, Martiros (1982). The Genesis of Armenian People. Montreal.  ^ Joshua J. Mark. "Assyria". Ancient History Encyclopedia.  ^ Charles W. Hartley; G. Bike Yazicioğlu; Adam T. Smith, eds. (2012). The Archaeology of Power and Politics in Eurasia: Regimes and Revolutions. Cambridge University Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-107-01652-1. ...the unique temple-tomb at Garni, just east of Yerevan
Yerevan
– the only Greco-Roman colonnaded building anywhere in the Soviet Union.  ^ a b "The World Factbook: Armenia". CIA. Archived from the original on 14 November 2007. Retrieved 15 November 2007.  ^ Brunner, Borgna (2006). Time Almanac with Information Please 2007. New York: Time Home Entertainment. p. 685. ISBN 978-1-933405-49-0.  ^ a b Mary Boyce. Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices Psychology Press, 2001 ISBN 0-415-23902-8 p. 84 ^ Stokes, Jamie, ed. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-4381-2676-0. Etchmiatzin is located in the west of modern Armenia, close to the border with Turkey, and its fourth-century cathedral is generally regarded as the oldest in the world.  ^ Bauer-Manndorff, Elisabeth (1981). Armenia: Past and Present. Lucerne: Reich Verlag. OCLC 8063377. Etchmiadzin, with the world's oldest cathedral and the seat of the Catholicos, draws tourists from all over the world.  ^ Utudjian, Édouard (1968). Armenian Architecture: 4th to 17th Century. Paris: Editions A. Morancé. p. 7. OCLC 464421. ...the oldest cathedral in Christendom, that of Etchmiadzin, founded in the 4th century.  ^ Holt, Peter Malcolm; Lambton, Ann Katharine Swynford & Lewis, Bernard (1977). "The Cambridge History of Islam": 231–32.  ^ Rayfield, Donald (2013). Edge of Empires: A History of Georgia. Reaktion Books. p. 165. ISBN 978-1-78023-070-2.  ^ Ward, Steven R. (2014). Immortal, Updated Edition: A Military History of Iran
Iran
and Its Armed Forces. Georgetown University Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-62616-032-3.  ^ Herzig, Edmund; Kurkchiyan, Marina (2004). The Armenians: Past and Present in the Making of National Identity. Routledge. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-135-79837-6.  ^ H. Nahavandi, Y. Bomati, Shah Abbas, empereur de Perse (1587–1629) (Perrin, Paris, 1998) ^ Mikaberidze, Alexander (2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 33, 351. ISBN 978-1-59884-337-8.  ^ Dowling, Timothy C. (2014). Russia
Russia
at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. pp. 728–. ISBN 978-1-59884-948-6.  ^ Minahan, James (2010). The complete guide to national symbols and emblems. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Greenwood Press. p. 310. ISBN 0-313-34497-3.  ^ Kirakosian, J. S. (1972). Hayastane michazkayin divanakitut'yan ew sovetakan artakin kaghakakanut'yan pastateghterum, 1828–1923 [ Armenia
Armenia
in the documents of international diplomacy and Soviet foreign policy, 1828–1923] (in Armenian). Yerevan. pp. 149–358.  ^ Kieser, Hans-Lukas; Schaller, Dominik J. (2002), Der Völkermord an den Armeniern und die Shoah [The Armenian genocide and the Shoah] (in German), Chronos, p. 114, ISBN 3-0340-0561-X  ^ Walker, Christopher J. (1980), Armenia: The Survival of A Nation, London: Croom Helm, pp. 200–03  ^ "Extensive bibliography by University of Michigan on the Armenian Genocide". Umd.umich.edu. Archived from the original on 16 November 2001. Retrieved 30 December 2010.  ^ " Council of Europe
Council of Europe
Parliamentary Assembly Resolution". Armenian genocide. Retrieved 10 February 2016.  ^ Ferguson, Niall (2006). The War of the World: Twentieth-Century Conflict and the Descent of the West. New York: Penguin Press. p. 177. ISBN 1-59420-100-5.  ^ Robert Melson, Revolution and Genocide: On the Origins of the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
and the Holocaust, University Of Chicago Press, 15 October 1992, p. 147 ^ Q&A: Armenian genocide dispute. BBC News. 10 July 2008. ^ " Tsitsernakaberd
Tsitsernakaberd
Memorial Complex". Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute. Retrieved 10 February 2016.  ^ Hovannisian, Richard, and Simon Payaslian. Armenian Cilicia. Costa Mesa: Mazda Publishers, Inc., 2008. 483. Print. ^ a b "The Soviet Period – History – Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
– Asia". Retrieved 25 July 2011.  ^ a b Закавказская федерация. Большая советская энциклопедия, 3-е изд., гл. ред. А. М. Прохоров. Москва: Советская энциклопедия, 1972. Т. 9 (A. M. Prokhorov; et al., eds. (1972). "Transcaucasian Federation". Great Soviet Encyclopedia
Great Soviet Encyclopedia
(in Russian). 9. Moscow: Soviet Encyclopedia. ) ^ Ronald G. Suny, James Nichol, Darrell L. Slider. Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. 1995. pp. 17 and following ^ C. Mouradian, L'Armenie sovietique, pp. 278–79 ^ " Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Soviet Socialist Republic". The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). ^ Eastern Europe, Russia
Russia
and Central Asia 2004. p. 74 by Imogen Gladman, Taylor & Francis Group ^ Notes from Baku: Black January. Rufat Ahmedov. EurasiaNet Human Rights. ^ "The March Referendum". Archived from the original on 15 October 2006. Retrieved 10 November 2008.  ^ a b Croissant, Michael P. (1998). The Armenia- Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Conflict: Causes and Implications. London: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-96241-8.  ^ "The Ties That Divide". Global Heritage Fund. 17 June 2006. Archived from the original on 20 August 2006. Retrieved 22 July 2009.  ^ De Waal, Thomas (2004). Black Garden: Armenia
Armenia
And Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Through Peace and War. New York: New York University Press. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-8147-1945-9.  ^ A Conflict That Can Be Resolved in Time: Nagorno-Karabakh. International Herald Tribune. 29 November 2003. ^ a b "Heritage Index of Economic Freedom". The Heritage Foundation.  ^ "EU negotiations with Armenia
Armenia
and Georgia on Free Trade Agreements successfully concluded". EPP Group. Retrieved 10 February 2016.  ^ " Armenia
Armenia
will significantly increase its revenues by reinforcing its role of a transit country between Europe, CIS and Middle East". Arka News Agency. Retrieved 10 February 2016.  ^ " Europe
Europe
Could Draw Gas Through Iran– Armenia
Armenia
Pipeline". European dialogue. Archived from the original on 17 February 2016. Retrieved 10 February 2016.  ^ "Geographic Characteristic of The Republic
Republic
of Armenia" (PDF). Marzes of the Republic
Republic
of Armenia
Armenia
in Figures, 2002–2006. National Statistical Service of the Republic
Republic
of Armenia. 2007. Retrieved 22 July 2009.  ^ Natasha May Azarian (2007). The Seeds of Memory: Narrative Renditions of the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
Across Generations. ProQuest. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-549-53005-3. Retrieved 28 April 2013. Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
is considered the 'heart' of historical Armenia
Armenia
as it is Armenian folklore which considers the majestic mountain to be the place where Noah's Arc landed. Armenian businesses, households, and schools almost ubiquitously have at ...  ^ Rouben Paul Adalian (13 May 2010). Historical Dictionary of Armenia. Scarecrow Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-8108-7450-3. Retrieved 28 April 2013. Although the mythology associated with the pagan worship of the mountain is now lost to popular belief, Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
has played a very ...  ^ James Minahan (1998). Miniature empires: a historical dictionary of the newly independent states. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 2–3. ISBN 978-0-313-30610-5. Retrieved 28 April 2013. Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's Ark, is located in what is now modern Turkey. Situated near the border, the peak is visible from nearly every area of Armenia. Historically, the mountain has been the Armenian people's most ...  ^ "Environmental Performance Index". epi.envirocenter.yale.edu. Retrieved 2018-02-02.  ^ LLC, Helix Consulting. ""We have good reasons to boast economic growth in the coming years" - Karen Karapetyan Pleased with 2017 Indices in Kotayk Marz". www.gov.am. Retrieved 2018-02-16.  ^ "EU: Armenia
Armenia
nuclear plant should be shut down as soon as possible". news.am. Retrieved 2018-02-16.  ^ "Modernization to increase the capacity of Armenian nuclear power plant by 10%". arka.am. Retrieved 2018-02-16.  ^ "Armenian Nuclear Power Plant upgrading program to continue in 2018". armenpress.am. Retrieved 2018-02-16.  ^ "Nations in Transit 2008" (PDF). Freedom House. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 1 March 2014.  ^ "Freedom in the World 2007" (PDF). Freedom House. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 April 2010. Retrieved 20 February 2007.  ^ Danielyan, Emil (20 February 2008). "Armenian Vote 'Largely Democratic'". ArmeniaLiberty, Radio Free Europe. Archived from the original on 6 March 2008. Retrieved 20 February 2008.  ^ a b "Nagorno-Karabakh: The Crisis in the Caucasus". Retrieved 6 April 2007.  ^ " Armenia
Armenia
and Turkey
Turkey
sign peace deal". Archived from the original on 14 October 2009.  ^ " Baku
Baku
and Moscow – 'One Hundred Percent Strategic Partners'". Hetq Online. 27 February 2006. Retrieved 20 April 2008.  ^ "Ancestry Data". U.S. Census Bureau. 2006. Archived from the original on 3 April 2008. Retrieved 22 July 2009.  The 2001 Canadian Census determined that there are 40,505 persons of Armenian ancestry currently living in Canada. However, these are liable to be low numbers, since people of mixed ancestry, very common in North America tend to be under-counted: the 1990 census US indicates 149,694 people who speak the Armenian language
Armenian language
at home. "The Armenian Embassy in Canada". Archived from the original on 26 August 2006. Retrieved 1 June 2016.  estimates 1 million ethnic Armenians
Armenians
in the US and 100,000 in Canada. The Armenian Church of America makes a similar estimate. By all accounts, over half of the Armenians
Armenians
in the United States live in California. ^ "RFE/RL Caucasus
Caucasus
Report". Armenian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 7 January 2005. Archived from the original on 20 November 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2009.  ^ "Interview with RA National Assembly Speaker Artur Baghdasaryan". ArmInfo News Agency. 26 October 2005. Archived from the original on 13 January 2009. Retrieved 22 July 2009.  ^ "How Armenia
Armenia
Could Approach the European Union" (PDF). Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ "EU launches negotiations on Association Agreements with Armenia, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Georgia". Europa (web portal). 15 July 2010. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  ^ "Armenia-EU association agreement may be concluded shortly Armenia News". News.am. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  ^ "3rd Plenary Round of the EU– Armenia
Armenia
Negotiation on the Association Agreement". Ec.europa.eu. 15 December 2010. Retrieved 28 August 2012.  ^ "Eurasian Economic Commission". www.eurasiancommission.org. Retrieved 13 October 2015.  ^ "ДОГОВОР О ПРИСОЕДИНЕНИИ РЕСПУБЛИКИ АРМЕНИЯ К ДОГОВОРУ О ЕВРАЗИЙСКОМ ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКОМ СОЮЗЕ ОТ 29 МАЯ 2014 ГОДА (Минск, 10 октября 2014 года)". www.customs-code.ru. Retrieved 13 October 2015.  ^ " Armenia
Armenia
To Join Russian-Led Customs Union". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 3 September 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2013.  ^ "New agreement signed between the European Union
European Union
and Armenia
Armenia
set to bring tangible benefits to citizens - EEAS - European External Action Service - European Commission". EEAS - European External Action Service. Retrieved 2018-01-16.  ^ "Armenia". freedomhouse.org. Retrieved 2018-02-05.  ^ "KFOR Contingent: Armenia". Official Web Site of the Kosovo
Kosovo
Force. 23 March 2007. Retrieved 27 October 2008.  ^ "Last shift of Armenian peacekeepers in Iraq returns home". Ministry of Defence. 7 October 2008. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2008.  ^ "Regional Administration Bodies". The Government of the Republic
Republic
of Armenia. Retrieved 11 September 2008.  ^ "Armstat:Provinces, area and population" (PDF).  ^ Demourian, Avet (19 October 2007). "Armenian Eyes, Ears on US Genocide
Genocide
Vote". The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 July 2009.  ^ "Intel center to open in Armenia". PanARMENIAN.Net. 20 January 1990. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ a b Z. Lerman and A. Mirzakhanian, Private Agriculture in Armenia, Lexington Books, Lanham, MD, 2001. ^ Statistical Yearbook 2007, Armenia
Armenia
National Statistical Service, Yerevan ^ Kiniry, Laura. "How Armenia
Armenia
Plans to Become the Next World-Class Hiking Destination".  ^ "Unemployment Armenia". Armenian Statistical Service of Republic
Republic
of Armenia. Retrieved 6 May 2016.  ^ " Human Development Report
Human Development Report
2015 – "Rethinking Work for Human Development"" (PDF). HDRO ( Human Development Report
Human Development Report
Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 14 December 2015.  ^ " Human Development Report
Human Development Report
2016" (PDF).  ^ "Human Development Reports". hdr.undp.org. Retrieved 2018-01-16.  ^ "Human Development Reports". hdr.undp.org. Retrieved 2018-01-16.  ^ "COUNTRY PROFILES" (PDF).  ^ "Human Freedom Index". Cato Institute. Retrieved 2018-01-26.  ^ "Doing Business in Armenia
Armenia
- World Bank
World Bank
Group". www.doingbusiness.org. Retrieved 2018-01-16.  ^ "CPI 2015 table". Transparency International. Retrieved 28 January 2016.  ^ a b c d e f g Erocal, Deniz; Yegorov, Igor (2015). Countries in the Black Sea
Black Sea
basin. In: UNESCO
UNESCO
Science Report: towards 2030 (PDF). Paris: UNESCO. pp. 324–41. ISBN 978-92-3-100129-1.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Curtis, Glenn E. and Ronald G. Suny. "Education". Armenia: A Country
Country
Study. Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Federal Research Division (March 1994). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. ^ "About us". araratbaccalaureate.am.  ^ "The Araratian Baccalaureate: A guide for universities" (PDF).  ^ "Armath". Armath (in Amharic). Retrieved 2018-02-25.  ^ "Nagorno Karabakh and Armenia". One Laptop per Child.  ^ "Chart - World Development Indicators (Google Public Data Explorer)". www.google.com. Retrieved 2018-02-24.  ^ "Chart - World Development Indicators (Google Public Data Explorer)". www.google.com. Retrieved 2018-02-24.  ^ "World Development Indicators - Google Public Data Explorer". www.google.com. Retrieved 2018-02-17.  ^ Paul, Amanda. "Armenia's disappearing population". Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011.  ^ "World Development Indicators - Google Public Data Explorer". www.google.com. Retrieved 2018-02-17.  ^ Turay, Anna. "Tarihte Ermeniler". Bolsohays: Istanbul
Istanbul
Armenians
Armenians
Like many other ethnicities Armenians
Armenians
in India too have played a role historically and had an impact historically. Today however the community has been reduced to about a hundred living in Calcutta. Archived from the original on 9 February 2008. Retrieved 4 January 2007.  ^ " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
– The Old City: The Armenian Quarter". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 22 July 2009.  ^ " San Lazzaro degli Armeni
San Lazzaro degli Armeni
– Venice for Visitors". Europeforvisitors.com. Archived from the original on 22 November 2010. Retrieved 30 December 2010.  ^ "Population in Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
2007" (PDF). National Statistical Service of Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Republic. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 April 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2009.  ^ Asatryan, Garnik; Arakelova, Victoria (2002). "The Ethnic Minorities of Armenia". Routledge. , part of the OSCE ^ a b Sherwood, Harriet (25 July 2016). "World's largest Yazidi
Yazidi
temple under construction in Armenia". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 July 2016.  ^ (in Russian) The All-Union Population Census of 1989 Archived 4 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Demoscope.ru ^ Inc., Gallup,. "New Index Shows Least-, Most-Accepting Countries for Migrants". Gallup.com. Retrieved 2018-01-19.  ^ "Map of Gallup's Migrant Acceptance Index". reddit. Retrieved 2018-01-19.  ^ "The South Caucasus
South Caucasus
Between The EU And The Eurasian Union" (PDF). Caucasus
Caucasus
Analytical Digest #51–52. Forschungsstelle Osteuropa, Bremen and Center for Security Studies, Zürich. 17 June 2013. pp. 22–23. ISSN 1867-9323. Retrieved 3 July 2013.  ^ Aragatsotn ^ Tavush ^ Kotayk ^ Vayots Dzor ^ Syunik ^ Shirak ^ Lori ^ Gegharkunik ^ Armavir ^ Ararat ^ Yerevan ^ " Armenia
Armenia
– Which Nation First Adopted Christianity?". Ancienthistory.about.com. 29 October 2009. Retrieved 25 January 2010.  ^ "Visit Armenia, It is Beautiful". Visitarmenia.org. Retrieved 25 January 2010.  ^ " Armenia
Armenia
Information – Welcome to Armenia". Welcomearmenia.com. Archived from the original on 6 February 2010. Retrieved 25 January 2010.  ^ "Blog Archive " Which is the first country to adopt Christianity?". Did You Know it. Archived from the original on 19 July 2009. Retrieved 25 January 2010.  ^ "The Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Apostolic Church
(World Council of Churches)".  ^ " Armenian Brotherhood Church
Armenian Brotherhood Church
of Yerevan".  ^ "Armenian Evangelical Christian Baptist". Armbaplife.am. Retrieved 28 August 2012.  ^ "Despite poverty, Baptists
Baptists
prosper in Armenia" (PDF). Biblical Recorder. Baptist State convention of North Carolina. 17 July 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 November 2008. Retrieved 28 June 2010.  ^ "Armenian Presbyterian Church to Commemorate 1700th Anniversary of Christianity
Christianity
in Armenia
Armenia
with Concert and Khachkar
Khachkar
Dedication". The Armenian Reporter. 20 October 2001. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2011.  ^ Lane, Christel (1978). Christian religion in the Soviet Union : a sociological study. Albany: State univ. of New York P. p. 107. ISBN 0-87395-327-4.  ^ Knapp, Caprice; Madden, Vanessa; Fowler-Kerry, Susan (2011). Pediatric palliative care : global perspectives. Dordrecht: Springer. p. 84. ISBN 9400725698.  ^ " Armenia
Armenia
is the only country having the certificate". www.hhpress.am. Retrieved 2018-02-24.  ^ "WHO: GLOBAL GUIDANCE ON CRITERIA AND PROCESSES FOR VALIDATION: ELIMINATION OF MOTHER-TO-CHILD TRANSMISSION OF HIV
HIV
AND SYPHILIS" (PDF).  ^ "GHO By country Armenia
Armenia
- statistics summary (2002 - present)". apps.who.int. Retrieved 2018-01-19.  ^ "Chart – World Development Indicators (Google Public Data Explorer)". www.google.com. Retrieved 2018-02-24.  ^ "Chart – World Development Indicators (Google Public Data Explorer)". www.google.com. Retrieved 2018-02-24.  ^ "Chart – World Development Indicators (Google Public Data Explorer)". www.google.com. Retrieved 2018-02-24.  ^ "Chart – World Development Indicators (Google Public Data Explorer)". www.google.com. Retrieved 2018-02-24.  ^ "Chart – World Development Indicators (Google Public Data Explorer)". www.google.com. Retrieved 2018-02-24.  ^ "Chart – World Development Indicators (Google Public Data Explorer)". www.google.com. Retrieved 2018-02-24.  ^ "World Rankings: Obesity
Obesity
Rates by Country
Country
(July 2017)". Renew Bariatrics. 2017-09-23. Retrieved 2018-01-19.  ^ "Prevalence of obesity in the world". Lay summary.  ^ "Chart – World Development Indicators (Google Public Data Explorer)". www.google.com. Retrieved 2018-02-24.  ^ "Chart – World Development Indicators (Google Public Data Explorer)". www.google.com. Retrieved 2018-02-24.  ^ "Chart – World Development Indicators (Google Public Data Explorer)". www.google.com. Retrieved 2018-02-24.  ^ Freedom House, Armenia, 2015 Press Freedom report ^ Anais Melikyan, Armenia, EJC Press Landscapes (circa 2009) ^ Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, The Protection of media freedom in Europe.Background report prepared by Mr William Horsley, special representative for media freedom of the Association of European Journalists ^ "Legislation: National Assembly of RA". Parliament.am. Retrieved 26 April 2013.  ^ Armenian Cinema 100, by Artsvi Bakhchinyan, Yerevan, 2012, pp. 111–112 ^ a b c "Ambassadors in Sport?: Independent Armenia
Armenia
far below the glory of Soviet times on the pitch, mat". ArmeniaNow. 15 December 2006.  ^ Green, ed. by Thomas A. (2001). Martial arts of the world : en encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. p. 718. ISBN 978-1-57607-150-2. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ "Armenia: the cleverest nation on earth". BBC World Service. 18 October 2009. 

External links

Find more aboutArmeniaat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Electronic Government of Armenia The official tourism website of Armenia The Armenian Church Hayastan All Armenian Fund Armenia
Armenia
on Twitter
Twitter
"Armenia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.  Armenia
Armenia
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Armenia
Armenia
profile from the BBC News Wikimedia Atlas of Armenia Key Development Forecasts for Armenia
Armenia
from International Futures Armeniapedia.org

Articles related to Armenia

v t e

Armenia articles

History  (timeline)

Early

Origins Name Kura–Araxes culture Hayk Hayasa-Azzi Mitanni Nairi Kingdom of Urartu Median kingdom Orontid Dynasty Achaemenid Empire

Satrapy of Armenia

Kingdom of Armenia Roman Armenia Parthian Empire Byzantine Armenia Sasanian Armenia

Middle

Arminiya Sajids Bagratuni Armenia Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Sallarids Ilkhanate Chobanids Ag Qoyunlu Kara Koyunlu Ottoman Armenia 1508–1828 Persian Armenia Safavid Iran Afsharid Iran Qajar Iran

Erivan Khanate Karabakh Khanate Treaty of Turkmenchay

Russian Armenia

Modern

First Republic
Republic
of Armenia Soviet Armenia Independent Armenia

By topic

Armenian Genocide Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
conflict Armenian national liberation movement more...

Geography

Ararat Plain Armenian Highlands Cities Earthquakes Extreme points Lake Sevan Mountains Municipalities Rivers and lakes Shikahogh State Reserve Shirak Plain more...

Politics

Administrative divisions Constitution Corruption Elections Foreign relations Government Human rights Military National Assembly National Security Service Police Political parties President Prime Minister President of the National Assembly more on government on politics

Economy

Agriculture Armex (stock exchange) Central Bank Dram (currency) Energy Mining Pension reform Telecommunications Tourism Transport Waste management

Culture

Alphabet Architecture Art Cinema Cuisine Dance Language

Eastern Western

Literature Music Sport Theatre more...

Demographics

Census Crime Education Ethnic minorities Health People

diaspora

Social issues Women more...

Religion

Armenian Apostolic Church Armenian Catholic Church Armenian Evangelical Church Armenian Brotherhood Church Judaism Islam more...

Symbols

Armenian Cross Armenian eternity sign Coat of arms Flag Mount Ararat National anthem Apricot Grape Pomegranate

Outline Index

Book Category Portal

v t e

Armenian nationalism

Ideology

United Armenia Armenian national awakening Tseghakronism Miatsum

Organizations

Active political parties Armenian Revolutionary Federation
Armenian Revolutionary Federation
(Dashnak) Social Democrat Hunchakian Party
Social Democrat Hunchakian Party
(Hunchak) Armenian Democratic Liberal Party
Armenian Democratic Liberal Party
(Ramgavar)

Defunct parties Armenakan Party National United Party

Defunct militant organizations Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia Justice Commandos of the Armenian Genocide Armenian Revolutionary Army

People

Thinkers Khachatur Abovian Mikael Nalbandian Raffi Mkrtich Khrimian Shahan Natalie Kevork Ajemian Silva Kaputikyan

Militants and commanders Arabo Aghbiur Serob Kevork Chavush Andranik Aram Manukian Armen Garo Garegin Nzhdeh Hagop Hagopian Movses Gorgisyan Monte Melkonian Vazgen Sargsyan Jirair Sefilian

Historical events

Armenian national liberation movement Battle of Sardarabad February Uprising Karabakh movement Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
War

Political entities

Provisional Republic
Republic
of Van First Republic
Republic
of Armenia Republic
Republic
of Mountainous Armenia Armenia Artsakh

v t e

Provinces of Armenia

Provinces (մարզեր)

Aragatsotn Ararat Armavir Gegharkunik Kotayk Lori Shirak Syunik Tavush Vayots Dzor

City with special status

Yerevan
Yerevan
(capital)

v t e

Cities and towns in Armenia

Aragatsotn

Ashtarak Aparan Talin

Ararat

Artashat Ararat Masis Vedi

Armavir

Armavir Metsamor Vagharshapat

Gegharkunik

Gavar Chambarak Martuni Sevan Vardenis

Kotayk

Hrazdan Abovyan Byureghavan Charentsavan Nor Hachn Tsaghkadzor Yeghvard

Lori

Vanadzor Akhtala Alaverdi Spitak Stepanavan Tashir Tumanyan

Shirak

Gyumri Artik Maralik

Syunik

Kapan Goris Kajaran Meghri Sisian

Tavush

Ijevan Ayrum Berd Dilijan Noyemberyan

Vayots Dzor

Yeghegnadzor Jermuk Vayk

Capital city

Yerevan

v t e

World Heritage Sites in Armenia

Monasteries of Haghpat and Sanahin Monastery of Geghard
Geghard
and the Upper Azat Valley Cathedral and Churches of Echmiatsin

Saint Hripsime Saint Gayane Shoghakat

the Archaeological Site of Zvartnots

Sites on the Tentative List The archaeological site of the city of Dvin The basilica and archaeological site of Yererouk The monastery of Noravank
Noravank
and the upper Amaghou Valley The monasteries of Tatev and Tatevi Anapat The adjacent areas of the Vorotan Valley

 Geographic locale

v t e

Countries and regions of the Caucasus

   

 Abkhazia1  Adjara  Adygea  Armenia  Artsakh1

 Azerbaijan  Chechnya  Dagestan  Georgia

 Ingushetia  Kabardino-Balkaria  Karachay-Cherkessia  Krasnodar Krai

Nakhchivan  North Ossetia-Alania  South Ossetia1  Stavropol Krai

1 Partially-recognized states

v t e

Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe

Sovereign states

Albania Andorra Armenia2 Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus2 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland1 Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia2 Artsakh2 Kosovo Northern Cyprus2 South Ossetia2 Transnistria

Dependencies

Denmark

Faroe Islands1

autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark

United Kingdom

Akrotiri and Dhekelia2

Sovereign Base Areas

Gibraltar

British Overseas Territory

Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey

Crown dependencies

Special
Special
areas of internal sovereignty

Finland

Åland Islands

autonomous region subject to the Åland Convention of 1921

Norway

Svalbard

unincorporated area subject to the Svalbard
Svalbard
Treaty

United Kingdom

Northern Ireland

country of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
subject to the British-Irish Agreement

1 Oceanic islands within the vicinity of Europe
Europe
are usually grouped with the continent even though they are not situated on its continental shelf. 2 Some countries completely outside the conventional geographical boundaries of Europe
Europe
are commonly associated with the continent due to ethnological links.

International membership

v t e

International organizations with Armenia
Armenia
as member

ADB BSEC CE CIS CSTO EAPC EBRD ECE EAEC UNESCAP FAO IAEA IBRD ICAO ICFTU ICRM IDA IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF Interpol IOC IOM ISO ITU OIF EAPC NAM OPCW OSCE PACE PFP UN UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UPU UNWTO WHO WIPO WMO WNO WTO

Italics indicates observer status

v t e

Council of Europe

Institutions

Secretary General Committee of Ministers Parliamentary Assembly Congress Court of Human Rights Commissioner for Human Rights Commission for the Efficiency of Justice Commission against Racism and Intolerance

Members

Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia1 Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom

Observers

Canada Holy See Israel Japan Mexico United States Sovereign Military Order of Malta

Former members

Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(1991–1992) Saar (assoc. 1950–1956)

1 Provisionally referred to by the Council of Europe
Council of Europe
as "the former Yugoslav Republic
Republic
of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute.

v t e

Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS)

Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia Eurasian Economic Union Union State

Membership

Members

Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Moldova Russia Tajikistan Uzbekistan

Associate members

Turkmenistan Ukraine

Former members

Georgia (1993–2009)

History

Russian Empire Soviet Union Dissolution of the Soviet Union Union of Sovereign States Belavezha Accords
Belavezha Accords
(Near abroad) Alma-Ata Protocol

Sports

Unified Team at the Olympics Unified Team at the Paralympics CIS national bandy team CIS national football team CIS national ice hockey team CIS national rugby team CIS Cup (football)

Military

Collective Security Treaty Organization Collective Rapid Reaction Force Joint CIS Air Defense System

Economics

Economic Court CISFTA Eurasian Economic Community Eurasian Patent Convention Eurasian Patent Organization EU Technical Aid

Organization

Interstate Aviation Committee Council of Ministers of Defense of the CIS

Category

v t e

Eurasian Economic Union

Member states

Armenia Belarus Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Russia

Observer members

Moldova

Prospective members

Mongolia Syria Tajikistan

v t e

La Francophonie

Membership

Members

Albania Andorra Armenia Belgium

French Community

Benin Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada

New Brunswick Quebec

Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Comoros Cyprus1 Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo Republic
Republic
of the Congo Djibouti Dominica Egypt Equatorial Guinea France

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique St. Pierre and Miquelon

Gabon Ghana1 Greece Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti Ivory Coast Laos Luxembourg Lebanon Macedonia2 Madagascar Mali Mauritania Mauritius Moldova Monaco Morocco Niger Qatar Romania Rwanda St. Lucia São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Switzerland Togo Tunisia Vanuatu Vietnam

Observers

Argentina Austria Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatia Czech Republic Dominican Republic Georgia Hungary Kosovo Latvia Lithuania Montenegro Mozambique Ontario Poland Serbia Slovakia Slovenia South Korea Thailand Ukraine United Arab Emirates Uruguay

1 Associate member. 2 Provisionally referred to by the Francophonie as the "former Yugoslav Republic
Republic
of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute.

Organization

Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique Agence universitaire de la Francophonie

Secretaries-General

Boutros Boutros-Ghali Abdou Diouf Michaëlle Jean

Culture

French language UN French Language Day International Francophonie Day Jeux de la Francophonie Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie Senghor University AFFOI TV5Monde LGBT rights

Category

v t e

Organization of the Black Sea
Black Sea
Economic Cooperation (BSEC)

   

 Albania  Armenia  Azerbaijan

 Bulgaria  Georgia  Greece

 Moldova  Romania  Russia

 Serbia  Turkey  Ukraine

v t e

World Trade Organization

System

Accession and membership Appellate Body Dispute Settlement Body International Trade Centre Chronology of key events

Issues

Criticism Doha Development Round Singapore issues Quota Elimination Peace Clause

Agreements

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Agriculture Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Technical Barriers to Trade Trade Related Investment Measures Trade in Services Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Government Procurement Information Technology Marrakech Agreement Doha Declaration Bali Package

Ministerial Conferences

1st (1996) 2nd (1998) 3rd (1999) 4th (2001) 5th (2003) 6th (2005) 7th (2009) 8th (2011) 9th (2013) 10th (2015)

People

Roberto Azevêdo
Roberto Azevêdo
(Director-General) Pascal Lamy Supachai Panitchpakdi Alejandro Jara Rufus Yerxa

Members

Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belize Benin Bolivia Botswana Brazil Brunei Burkina Faso Burma Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo Republic
Republic
of the Congo Costa Rica Côte d'Ivoire Cuba Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Gabon The Gambia Georgia Ghana Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong1 Iceland India Indonesia Israel Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lesotho Liberia Liechtenstein Macau1 Macedonia Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nepal New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Qatar Russia Rwanda St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Saudi Arabia Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Switzerland Tajikistan Taiwan2 Tanzania Thailand Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United States Uruguay Venezuela Vietnam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe

European Union

Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom

Special
Special
administrative regions of the People's Republic
Republic
of China, participates as "Hong Kong, China" and "Macao China". Officially the Republic
Republic
of China, participates as "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu", and "Chinese Taipei" in short.

v t e

National personifications

Argentina Effigies of Argentina Armenia Mother Armenia Australia Boxing kangaroo Little Boy from Manly Bangladesh Mother Bengal Belgium Leo Belgicus Brazil Efígie da República Cambodia Preah Thong and Neang Neak Canada Johnny Canuck China Yanhuang Czech Republic Čechie Czech Vašek Švejk Denmark Holger Danske Finland Finnish Maiden France Marianne Georgia Kartvlis Deda Germany Deutscher Michel Germania Greece Hellas Hungary Lady of Hungaria Iceland Lady of the Mountain India Bharat Mata Indonesia Ibu Pertiwi Ireland Ériu Hibernia Kathleen Ni Houlihan Israel Srulik Italy Italia turrita Japan Amaterasu Kenya Wanjiku Korea Dangun Ungnyeo Malta Melita Montenegro Fairy of Lovćen Netherlands Dutch Maiden New Zealand Zealandia Norway Ola Nordmann Philippines Juan dela Cruz Maria Clara Poland Polonia Portugal Efígie da República Zé Povinho Russia Mother Russia Serbia Mother Serbia Kosovo
Kosovo
Maiden Spain Hispania Sweden Mother Svea Switzerland Helvetia Ukraine Cossack Mamay United Kingdom Britannia John Bull Dame Wales United States Brother Jonathan Columbia Lady Liberty Uncle Sam Billy Yank

Northern states

Johnny Reb

Southern states

Other symbols of Liberty

v t e

States with limited recognition

Details concerning international recognition and foreign relations provided by the articles linked in parenthesis

UN member states

Partially unrecognised

Armenia

relations

China

relations

Cyprus

relations

Israel

recognition relations

North Korea

relations

South Korea

relations

UN observer states

Partially unrecognised

Palestine

recognition relations

Non-UN member states

Recognised by at least one UN member

Abkhazia

recognition relations

Kosovo

recognition relations

Northern Cyprus

relations relations

Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic

recognition relations

South Ossetia

recognition relations

Taiwan

relations

Recognised only by non-UN members

Artsakh

recognition relations

Transnistria

recognition relations

Unrecognised

Somaliland

relations

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 138518304 LCCN: n92057129 GND: 4085931-9 HDS: 2

.