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Aramaic
Aramaic[2] (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡܝܐ‎, Arabic: آرامية‎) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family. More specifically, it is part of the Northwest Semitic group, which also includes the Canaanite languages such as Hebrew and Phoenician. The Aramaic alphabet
Aramaic alphabet
was widely adopted for other languages and is ancestral to the Hebrew, Syriac and Arabic alphabets. During its approximately 3,100 years of written history,[3] Aramaic has served variously as a language of administration of empires and as a language of divine worship, religious study and as the spoken tongue of a number of Semitic peoples from the Near East. Historically, Aramaic was the language of Aramean tribes, a Semitic people of the region around between the Levant
Levant
and the northern Euphrates
Euphrates
valley
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Glottolog
Glottolog
Glottolog
is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany. Glottolog
Glottolog
provides a catalogue of the world's languages and language families, and a bibliography on the world's less-spoken languages
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Western Aramaic Languages
Western
Western
may refer to:Contents1 Common uses and meanings 2 Places 3 Art, entertainment, and media 4 Brands and enterprises 5 Educational institutions 6 Sport 7 Transportation 8 People with the surname 9 Other uses 10 See alsoCommon uses and meanings[edit]West, a point in direction Western
Western
(genre), a category of fiction and visual art centered on the American Old West Western
Western
fiction, the Western
Western
genre as featured in literature Western
Western
music (North America), a type of American folk music Western
Western
world, e.g
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Near East
The Near East
Near East
is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia. Despite having varying definitions within different academic circles, the term was originally applied to the maximum extent of the Ottoman Empire
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Semitic People
Semites, Semitic people
Semitic people
or Semitic cultures
Semitic cultures
(from the biblical "Shem", Hebrew: שם‎) was a term for an ethnic, cultural or racial group who speak or spoke the Semitic languages.[2][3][4][5] First used in the 1770s by members of the Göttingen School of History, the terminology was derived from Shem, one of the three sons of Noah in the Book of Genesis,[6] together with the parallel terms Hamites
Hamites
and Japhetites
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Language Family
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree, or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy. Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related.[1] According to Ethnologue
Ethnologue
the 7,099 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families.[2] A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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Palestinian Territories
Palestinian territories
Palestinian territories
and occupied Palestinian territories
Palestinian territories
(OPT or oPt) are terms often used to describe the West Bank
West Bank
(including East Jerusalem) and the Gaza Strip, which are occupied or otherwise under the control of Israel.[7][8][9] Israeli governments have maintained that the area involved is within territorial dispute.[10][11] The extent of the territories, while subject to future negotiations, have frequently been defined by the Green Line. The term "Palestinian Territory, Occupied" was used by the United Nations (UN) and other international organizations between 1998 to 2013 in order to refer to areas controlled by the Palestinian National Authority
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Linguasphere Observatory
The Linguasphere Observatory (or "Observatoire", based upon its original French and legal title: Observatoire Linguistique) is a transnational linguistic research network.Contents1 History 2 The Lingua sphere Register and Linguascale referential framework2.1 Examples 2.2 Languages of London 2.3 See also3 "Langues de la Liberté/Languages of Liberty" 4 "In the galaxy of languages, each person's voice is a star" 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] It was created in Quebec
Quebec
in 1983 and was subsequently established and registered in Normandy
Normandy
as a non-profit association under the honorary presidency of the late Léopold Sédar Senghor, a French-language poet and the first president of Senegal
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ISO 639-5
ISO 639-5:2008 "Codes for the representation of names of languages—Part 5: Alpha-3 code for language families and groups" is a highly incomplete international standard published by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO). It was developed by ISO Technical Committee 37, Subcommittee 2, and first published on May 15, 2008. It is part of the ISO 639 series of standards.Contents1 Collective codes 2 Relationship to other parts of ISO 639 3 History 4 Deficiencies 5 References 6 External linksCollective codes[edit] ISO 639-5 defines alpha-3 (3-letter) codes, called "collective codes," that identify language families and groups. As of August 29, 2008 update to ISO 639-5, the standard defined 114 collective codes
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ISO 639-2
 ISO 639-2:1998, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes. The US Library of Congress
Library of Congress
is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA)
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Lebanon
Coordinates: 33°50′N 35°50′E / 33.833°N 35.833°E / 33.833; 35.833Lebanese Republic الجمهورية اللبنانية (Arabic) al-Jumhūrīyah al-LubnānīyahFlagCoat of armsAnthem: كلّنا للوطن Kulluna lil-watan All Of Us, For the Country!Capital and largest city Beirut 33°54′N 35°32′E / 33.900°N 35.533°E / 33.900; 35.533Official languages Arabic[nb 1]Recognised languages FrenchDemonym LebaneseGovernment Unitary parliamentary multi-confessionalist republic[1]• PresidentMichel Aoun[2]• Prime MinisterSaad Hariri• Speaker of the ParliamentNabih BerriLegislature ParliamentEstablishment• Greater Lebanon1 September 1920• Constitution23 May 1926• Independence declared22 November 1943• Independence (Joined U
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Kuwait
Coordinates: 29°30′N 45°45′E / 29.500°N 45.750°E / 29.500; 45.750State of Kuwait دولة الكويت (Arabic) Dawlat al-KuwaitFlagEmblemAnthem: "Al-Nasheed Al-Watani" "National Anthem"Location of  Kuwait  (green)Capital and largest city Kuwait
Kuwait
City 29°22′N 47°58′E / 29.367°N 47.967°E / 29.367; 47.967Official languages ArabicEthnic groups60% Arab
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Turkey
Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ˈtyɾcije d͡ʒumˈhuɾijeti] ( listen)), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia
Anatolia
in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.[7] Turkey
Turkey
is bordered by eight countries with Greece
Greece
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the northwest; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Iran
Iran
to the east; and Iraq
Iraq
and Syria
Syria
to the south
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Israel
Coordinates: 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35State of Israelמְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew) دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic)FlagEmblemAnthem: "Hatikvah" (Hebrew for "The Hope")(pre-) 1967 border (Green Line)Capital and largest city Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(limited recognition)[fn 1] 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217Official languagesHebrew ArabicEthnic groups (2017)74.7% Jewish
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Lingua Franca
A lingua franca (/ˌlɪŋɡwə ˈfræŋkə/; lit. Frankish tongue),[1] also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, vehicular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.[2] Lingua francas have developed around the world throughout human history, sometimes for commercial reasons (so-called "trade languages") but also for cultural, religious, diplomatic and administrative convenience, and as a means of exchanging information between scientists and other scholars of different nationalities.[3][4] The term originates with one such language, Mediterranean Lingua Franca
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Fertile Crescent
The Fertile Crescent
Crescent
(also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer
Sumer
and
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