Aramaic
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Aramaic (: ''Arāmāyā''; : ; : ; ) is a language that originated among the in the ancient , at the end of the , and later became one of the most prominent languages of the . During its three thousand years long history, Aramaic went through several stages of development. It has served as a language of public life and administration of ancient kingdoms and empires, and also as a language of divine worship and religious study. It subsequently branched into several languages that are still spoken in modern times. Aramaic language belongs to the of the , which also includes the , such as , , , and , as well as and . Aramaic languages are written in , that was derived from . One of the most prominent variants of Aramaic alphabet, still used in modern times, is . Aramaic alphabet also became a base for the creation and adaptation of specific writing systems in some other Semitic languages, thus becoming the precursor of and . Historically and originally, Aramaic was the language of the , a Semitic-speaking people of the region between the northern and the northern valley. By around 1000 BC, the Arameans had a string of kingdoms in what is now part of , , , and the fringes of southern and . Aramaic rose to prominence under the (911–605 BC), under whose influence Aramaic became a prestige language after being adopted as a of the empire, and its use spread throughout , the and parts of . At its height, Aramaic, having gradually replaced earlier Semitic languages, was spoken in several variants all over what is today , , , , , , , , , , parts of southeast and south central , and parts of northwest . Aramaic was the , who spoke the during his public ministry, as well as the language of several sections of the , including books of and , and also the language of the , Aramaic translation of the Hebrew Bible. The scribes of the Neo-Assyrian bureaucracy had also used Aramaic, and this practice was subsequently inherited by the succeeding (605–539 BC), and later by the (539–330 BC). Mediated by scribes that had been trained in the language, highly standardized ''written'' Aramaic (named by scholars as ) progressively also become the ' of public life, trade and commerce throughout the Achaemenid territories. Wide use of ''written'' Aramaic subsequently led to the adoption of the and (as s) some Aramaic vocabulary in the , which were used by several (including , , , and ). Aramaic's long history and diverse and widespread use has led to the development of many divergent varieties, which are sometimes considered s, though they have become distinct enough over time that they are now sometimes considered separate s. Therefore, there is not one singular, static Aramaic language; each time and place rather has had its own variation. The more widely spoken and forms are today largely restricted to Christian and gnostic communities in , northeastern , northwestern and southeastern , whilst the severely endangered is spoken by small communities of in western , and persisted in until as late as the 17th century. Some variants of Aramaic are also retained as by certain religious communities. Most notable among them is , the liturgical language of . It is used by several communities, including the , the , the , the , the , the , and also the of . One of Aramaic liturgical dialects was , which besides becoming a vernacular () also remained the liturgical language of . Syriac was also the liturgical language of several now-extinct faiths, such as . are still spoken today as a by many communities of Syriac Christians, (in particular, the ), and of the , most numerously by Christian Syriacs (Syriac-speakers: ethnic Arameans, Assyrians and Chaldeans), and with numbers of fluent speakers ranging approximately from 1 million to 2 million, with the main languages among Assyrians being (590,000 speakers), (240,000 speakers) and (100,000 speakers); in addition to (21,700) which persists in only three villages in the region in western . They have retained use of the once dominant lingua franca despite subsequent s experienced throughout the . However, the Aramaic languages are now considered , since several dialects are used mainly by the older generations, and therefore could go extinct in the near future. However, researchers are working to record and analyze all of the remaining dialects of Neo-Aramaic languages before they are extinguished as spoken languages. Royal Aramaic inscriptions from the Aramean city-states date from 10th century BC, making Aramaic one of the world's .


Name

In historical sources, Aramaic language is designated by two distinctive groups of terms, first of them represented by (native) names, and the other one represented by various (foreign in origin) names. Native (endonymic) terms for Aramaic language were derived from the same as the name of its original speakers, the ancient . Endonymic forms were also adopted in some other languages, like ancient . In the (Hebrew Bible), "Aram" is used as a proper name of several people including descendants of Shem, Nahor, and Jacob. Unlike in Hebrew, designations for Aramaic language in some other ancient languages were mostly exonymic. In , Aramaic language was most commonly known as the “Syrian language”,Nöldeke, 1871, p.115: “Die Griechen haben den Namen „Aramäer" nie eigentlich gekannt; ausser Posidonius (dem Strabo folgt) nennt ihn uns nur noch ein andrer Orientale, Josephus (Ant. 1, 6, 4). Dass Homer bei den 'Ερεμβοι oder in den Worten eiv 'Αρίμοις an sie dächte, ist sehr unwahrscheinlich. Die Griechen nannten das Volk „Syrer"”. in relation to the native (non-Greek) inhabitants of the historical . Since the itself emerged as a variant of Assyria, the biblical Ashur, and Akkadian Ashuru, a complex set of phenomena was created, becoming a subject of interest both among ancient writers and modern scholars. and (the latter citing ) both stated that the “Syrians” called themselves “Arameans”. The , the earliest Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, used the terms ''Syria'' and ''Syrian'' where the , the earliest extant Hebrew copy of the Bible, uses the terms ''Aramean'' and ''Aramaic''; numerous later bibles followed the Septuagint's usage, including the . The connection between Chaldean, Syriac, and Samaritan as "Aramaic" was first identified in 1679 by German theologian . The connection between the names Syrian and Aramaic was made in 1835 by . Ancient , bordering northern Israel and what is now called Syria, is considered the linguistic center of Aramaic, the language of the Arameans who settled the area during the circa 3500 BC. The language is often mistakenly considered to have originated within Assyria (Iraq). In fact, Arameans carried their language and writing into Mesopotamia by voluntary migration, by forced exile of conquering armies, and by nomadic n invasions of Babylonia during the period from 1200 to 1000 BC. The Christian uses the phrase ''Hebraïstí'' to denote "Aramaic", as Aramaic was at that time the language commonly spoken by the . The instead translated "Aramaic" to "the Syrian tongue".


Geographic distribution

During the and s, , the native speakers of Aramaic, began to settle in greater numbers, at first in , and later in (, modern-day northern , northeast , northwest , and south eastern (what was Armenia at the time). The influx eventually resulted in the (911–605 BC) adopting an -influenced as the ' of its empire. This policy was continued by the short-lived and , and all three empires became operationally bilingual in written sources, with Aramaic used alongside Akkadian. The (539–323 BC) continued this tradition, and the extensive influence of these empires led to Aramaic gradually becoming the of most of western Asia, the , , the , and . Beginning with the rise of the in the late 7th century, Arabic gradually replaced Aramaic as the of the . However, Aramaic remains a spoken, literary, and liturgical language for local Christians and also some . Aramaic also continues to be spoken by the Assyrians of Iraq, northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and northwest Iran, with diaspora communities in , , and southern . The also continue to use as a liturgical language, although most now speak Arabic as their . There are still also a small number of first-language speakers of in isolated villages in western Syria. Being in contact with other regional languages, some Aramaic dialects were often engaged in mutual exchange of influences, particularly with Arabic, Iranian, and Kurdish. The turbulence of the last two centuries (particularly the ) has seen speakers of first-language and literary Aramaic dispersed throughout the world. However, there are a number of sizable Assyrian towns in northern Iraq such as , , , , and , and numerous small villages, where Aramaic is still the main spoken language, and many large cities in this region also have Assyrian Aramaic-speaking communities, particularly , , , , and . In Modern Israel, the only native Aramaic speaking population are the , although the language is dying out. However, Aramaic is also experiencing a revival among in .


Aramaic languages and dialects

Aramaic is often spoken of as a single language, but is in reality a group of related languages. Some Aramaic languages differ more from each other than the do among themselves. Its long history, extensive literature, and use by different religious communities are all factors in the diversification of the language. Some Aramaic dialects are mutually intelligible, whereas others are not, not unlike the situation with modern . Some Aramaic languages are known under different names; for example, is particularly used to describe the used in Christian ethnic communities in Iraq, southeastern Turkey, northeastern Syria, and northwestern Iran, and in India. Most dialects can be described as either "Eastern" or "Western", the dividing line being roughly the , or slightly west of it. It is also helpful to draw a distinction between those Aramaic languages that are modern living languages (often called "Neo-Aramaic"), those that are still in use as literary languages, and those that are extinct and are only of interest to scholars. Although there are some exceptions to this rule, this classification gives "Modern", "Middle", and "Old" periods, alongside "Eastern" and "Western" areas, to distinguish between the various languages and dialects that are Aramaic.


Writing system

The earliest Aramaic alphabet was based on the . In time, Aramaic developed its distinctive "square" style. The ancient Israelites and other peoples of adopted this alphabet for writing their own languages. Thus, it is better known as the today. This is the writing system used in and other Jewish writing in Aramaic. The other main writing system used for Aramaic was developed by Christian communities: a cursive form known as the . A highly modified form of the Aramaic alphabet, the , is used by the . In addition to these writing systems, certain derivatives of the Aramaic alphabet were used in ancient times by particular groups: the in and the in . In modern times, (see ) has sometimes been written in a .


Periodization

of historical development of Aramaic language has been the subject of particular interest for scholars, who proposed several types of periodization, based on linguistic, chronological and territorial criteria. Overlapping terminology, used in different periodizations, led to the creation of several terms, that are used differently among scholars. Terms like: Old Aramaic, Ancient Aramaic, Early Aramaic, Middle Aramaic, Late Aramaic (and some others, like Paleo-Aramaic), were used in various meanings, thus referring (in scope or substance) to different stages in historical development of Aramaic language. Most commonly used types of periodization are those of Klaus Beyer and Joseph Fitzmyer. Periodization of Klaus Beyer (1929-2014): * , from the earliest records, to 200 AD * , from 200 AD, to 1200 AD * , from 1200 AD, up to the modern times Periodization of (1920–2016): * , from the earliest records, to regional prominence 700 BC * , from 700 BC, to 200 BC * , from 200 BC, to 200 AD * , from 200 AD, to 700 AD * , from 700 AD, up to the modern times Recent periodization of Aaron Butts: * , from the earliest records, to 538 BC * , from 538 BC, to 333 BC * , from 333 BC, to 200 AD * , from 200 AD, to 1200 AD * , from 1200 AD, up to the modern times


Old Aramaic

The term "Old Aramaic" is used to describe the varieties of the language from its first known use, until the point roughly marked by the rise of the (224 AD), dominating the influential, eastern dialect region. As such, the term covers over thirteen centuries of the development of Aramaic. This vast time span includes all Aramaic that is now effectively extinct. Regarding the earliest forms, Beyer suggests that written Aramaic probably dates from the 11th century BCE, as it is established by the 10th century, to which he dates the oldest inscriptions of northern Syria. Heinrichs uses the less controversial date of the 9th century, for which there is clear and widespread attestation. The central phase in the development of Old Aramaic was its official use by the (500–330 BC). The period before this, dubbed "Ancient Aramaic", saw the development of the language from being spoken in Aramaean city-states to become a major means of communication in diplomacy and trade throughout , the and . After the fall of the Achaemenid Empire, local vernaculars became increasingly prominent, fanning the divergence of an Aramaic and the development of differing written standards.


Ancient Aramaic

"Ancient Aramaic" refers to the earliest known period of the language, from its origin until it becomes the lingua franca of the . It was the language of the Aramean city-states of , th and . There are inscriptions that evidence the earliest use of the language, dating from the 10th century BC. These inscriptions are mostly diplomatic documents between Aramaean city-states. The alphabet of Aramaic at this early period seems to be based on the , and there is a unity in the written language. It seems that, in time, a more refined alphabet, suited to the needs of the language, began to develop from this in the eastern regions of Aram. Due to increasing Aramean migration eastward, the Western periphery of Assyria became bilingual in Akkadian and Aramean at least as early as the mid-9th century BC. As the conquered Aramean lands west of the , made Aramaic the Empire's second official language, and it eventually supplanted Akkadian completely. From 700 BC, the language began to spread in all directions, but lost much of its unity. Different dialects emerged in Assyria, Babylonia, the and . Around 600 BC, Adon, a ite king, used Aramaic to write to an Egyptian .


Imperial Aramaic

Around 500 BC, following the Achaemenid (Persian) conquest of Mesopotamia under , Aramaic (as had been used in that region) was adopted by the conquerors as the "vehicle for written communication between the different regions of the vast empire with its different peoples and languages. The use of a single official language, which modern scholarship has dubbed Official Aramaic or , can be assumed to have greatly contributed to the astonishing success of the Achaemenids in holding their far-flung empire together for as long as they did". In 1955, Richard Frye questioned the classification of Imperial Aramaic as an "official language", noting that no surviving edict expressly and unambiguously accorded that status to any particular language. Frye reclassifies Imperial Aramaic as the lingua franca of the Achaemenid territories, suggesting then that the Achaemenid-era use of Aramaic was more pervasive than generally thought. Imperial Aramaic was highly standardised; its orthography was based more on historical roots than any spoken dialect, and the inevitable influence of gave the language a new clarity and robust flexibility. For centuries after the fall of the Achaemenid Empire (in 330 BC), Imperial Aramaic – or a version thereof near enough for it to be recognisable – would remain an influence on the various native . Aramaic script and – as ideograms – Aramaic vocabulary would survive as the essential characteristics of the . One of the largest collections of Imperial Aramaic texts is that of the fortification tablets, which number about five hundred. Many of the extant documents witnessing to this form of Aramaic come from , and in particular (see ). Of them, the best known is the ', a book of instructive aphorisms quite similar in style to the biblical . In addition, current consensus regards the Aramaic portion of the Biblical book of Daniel (i.e., 2:4b-7:28) as an example of Imperial (Official) Aramaic. Achaemenid Aramaic is sufficiently uniform that it is often difficult to know where any particular example of the language was written. Only careful examination reveals the occasional loan word from a local language. A group of thirty Aramaic documents from have been discovered, and an analysis was published in November 2006. The texts, which were rendered on leather, reflect the use of Aramaic in the 4th century BC Achaemenid administration of Bactria and .


Biblical Aramaic

is the Aramaic found in four discrete sections of the : * – documents from the Achaemenid period (5th century BC) concerning the restoration of the temple in Jerusalem. * – five subversive tales and an apocalyptic vision. * – a single sentence in the middle of a Hebrew text denouncing idolatry. * – translation of a Hebrew place-name. Biblical Aramaic is a somewhat hybrid dialect. It is theorized that some Biblical Aramaic material originated in both Babylonia and Judaea before the fall of the Achaemenid dynasty. Biblical Aramaic presented various challenges for writers who were engaged in early . Since the time of (d. 420), Aramaic of the was misnamed as "Chaldean" (Chaldaic, Chaldee). That label remained common in early , and persisted up into the nineteenth century. The "'" was eventually abandoned, when modern scholarly analyses showed that Aramaic dialect used in Hebrew Bible was not related to and their language.


Post-Achaemenid Aramaic

The fall of the ( 334-330 BC), and its replacement with the newly created political order, imposed by (d. 323 BC) and his successors, marked an important turning point in the history of Aramaic language. During the early stages of the post-Achaemenid era, public use of Aramaic language was continued, but shared with the newly introduced . By the year 300 BC, all of the main Aramaic-speaking regions came under political rule of the newly created that promoted , and favored as the main language of public life and administration. During the 3rd century BCE, Greek overtook Aramaic in many spheres of public communication, particularly in highly cities throughout the Seleucid domains. However, Aramaic continued to be used, in its post-Achaemenid form, among upper and literate classes of native Aramaic-speaking communities, and also by local authorities (along with the newly introduced Greek). Post-Achaemenid Aramaic, that bears a relatively close resemblance to that of the Achaemenid period, continued to be used up to the 2nd century BCE. By the end of the 2nd century BC, several variants of Post-Achaemenid Aramaic emerged, bearing regional characteristics. One of them was Hasmonaean Aramaic, the official administrative language of Judaea (142–37 BC), alongside which was the language preferred in religious and some other public uses (coinage). It influenced the Biblical Aramaic of the texts, and was the main language of non-biblical theological texts of that community. The major s, translations of the Hebrew Bible into Aramaic, were originally composed in Hasmonaean Aramaic. It also appears in quotations in the and , although smoothed into its later context. It is written quite differently from Achaemenid Aramaic; there is an emphasis on writing as words are pronounced rather than using etymological forms. Babylonian ic is the later post-Achaemenid dialect found in the and , the "official" targums. The original, Hasmonaean targums had reached Babylon sometime in the 2nd or 3rd century AD. They were then reworked according to the contemporary dialect of Babylon to create the language of the standard targums. This combination formed the basis of Babylonian Jewish literature for centuries to follow. Galilean Targumic is similar to Babylonian Targumic. It is the mixing of literary Hasmonaean with the dialect of . The Hasmonaean targums reached Galilee in the 2nd century AD, and were reworked into this Galilean dialect for local use. The Galilean Targum was not considered an authoritative work by other communities, and documentary evidence shows that its text was amended. From the 11th century AD onwards, once the Babylonian Targum had become normative, the Galilean version became heavily influenced by it. Babylonian Documentary Aramaic is a dialect in use from the 3rd century AD onwards. It is the dialect of Babylonian private documents, and, from the 12th century, all Jewish private documents are in Aramaic. It is based on Hasmonaean with very few changes. This was perhaps because many of the documents in BDA are legal documents, the language in them had to be sensible throughout the Jewish community from the start, and Hasmonaean was the old standard. was the written language of the Arab kingdom of Nabataea, whose capital was . The kingdom (''c.'' 200 BC – 106 AD) controlled the region to the east of the , the , the and the northern , and supported a wide-ranging trade network. The Nabataeans used imperial Aramaic for written communications, rather than their native Arabic. Nabataean Aramaic developed from , with some influence from Arabic: "l" is often turned into "n", and there are some Arabic loanwords. Arabic influence on Nabataean Aramaic increased over time. Some Nabataean Aramaic inscriptions date from the early days of the kingdom, but most datable inscriptions are from the first four centuries AD. The language is written in a script which was the precursor to the . After annexation by the Romans in 106 AD, most of Nabataea was subsumed into the province of Arabia Petraea, the Nabataeans turned to Greek for written communications, and the use of Aramaic declined. is the dialect that was in use in the city state of in the Syrian Desert from 44 BC to 274 AD. It was written in a rounded script, which later gave way to cursive . Like Nabataean, Palmyrene was influenced by Arabic, but to a much lesser degree. The use of ''written'' Aramaic in the Achaemenid bureaucracy also precipitated the adoption of Aramaic(-derived) scripts to render a number of languages. Moreover, many common words, including even pronouns, particles, numerals, and auxiliaries, continued to written as Aramaic "words" even when writing Middle Iranian languages. In time, in Iranian usage, these Aramaic "words" became disassociated from the Aramaic language and came to be understood as ''signs'' (i.e. ), much like the symbol '&' is read as "and" in English and the original Latin ''et'' is now no longer obvious. Under the early 3rd-century BC , whose government used Greek but whose native language was , the Parthian language and its Aramaic-derived writing system both gained prestige. This in turn also led to the adoption of the name '' (< ''parthawi'', "of the Parthians") for that writing system. The , who succeeded the Parthian Arsacids in the mid-3rd century AD, subsequently inherited/adopted the Parthian-mediated Aramaic-derived writing system for their own Middle Iranian ethnolect as well. That particular Middle Iranian dialect, , i.e. the language of Persia proper, subsequently also became a prestige language. Following the conquest of the Sassanids by the Arabs in the 7th-century, the Aramaic-derived writing system was replaced by Arabic script in all but , which continued to use the name 'pahlavi' for the Aramaic-derived writing system and went on to create the bulk of all Middle Iranian literature in that writing system.


Other dialects of the Post-Achaemenid period

The dialects mentioned in the previous section were all descended from . However, some other regional dialects also continued to exist alongside these, often as simple, spoken variants of Aramaic. Early evidence for these dialects is known only through their influence on words and names in a more standard dialect. However, some of those regional dialects became written languages by the 2nd century BC. These dialects reflect a stream of Aramaic that is not directly dependent on , and they also show a clear linguistic diversity between eastern and western regions.


Eastern dialects of the Post-Achaemenid period

In the eastern regions (from Mesopotamia to Persia), dialects like Palmyrene Aramaic and Arsacid Aramaic gradually merged with the regional vernacular dialects, thus creating languages with a foot in Achaemenid and a foot in regional Aramaic. In the , founded in 132 BCE and centred in (Urhay), the regional dialect became the official language: Edessan Aramaic (Urhaya), that later came to be known as . On the upper reaches of the , East Mesopotamian Aramaic flourished, with evidence from the regions of () and (). , the author of the gospel harmony the came from Assyria, and perhaps wrote his work (172 AD) in East Mesopotamian rather than Syriac or Greek. In Babylonia, the regional dialect was used by the Jewish community, Jewish Old Babylonian (from c. 70 AD). This everyday language increasingly came under the influence of Biblical Aramaic and Babylonian Targumic. The written form of , the language of the religion, was descended from the Arsacid chancery script.


Western dialects of the Post-Achaemenid period

The western regional dialects of Aramaic followed a similar course to those of the east. They are quite distinct from the eastern dialects and Imperial Aramaic. Aramaic came to coexist with Canaanite dialects, eventually completely displacing in the first century BC and around the turn of the fourth century AD. The form of Late Old Western Aramaic used by the Jewish community is best attested, and is usually referred to as Jewish Old Palestinian. Its oldest form is Old East Jordanian, which probably comes from the region of . This is the dialect of the oldest manuscript of the (''c.'' 170 BC). The next distinct phase of the language is called Old Judaean lasting into the second century AD. Old Judean literature can be found in various inscriptions and personal letters, preserved quotations in the and receipts from . ' first, non-extant edition of his ' was written in Old Judean. The Old East Jordanian dialect continued to be used into the first century AD by pagan communities living to the east of the Jordan. Their dialect is often then called Pagan Old Palestinian, and it was written in a cursive script somewhat similar to that used for Old Syriac. A Christian Old Palestinian dialect may have arisen from the pagan one, and this dialect may be behind some of the Western Aramaic tendencies found in the otherwise eastern Old Syriac gospels (see ).


Languages during Jesus' lifetime

It is generally believed by Christian scholars that in the first century, Jews in primarily spoke Aramaic with a decreasing number using as their first language, though many learned Hebrew as a liturgical language. Additionally, was the lingua franca of the Near East in trade, among the Hellenized classes (much like French in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries in Europe), and in the Roman administration. , the language of the Roman army and higher levels of administration, had almost no impact on the linguistic landscape. In addition to the formal, literary dialects of Aramaic based on and Babylonian, there were a number of colloquial Aramaic dialects. Seven were spoken in the vicinity of Judea in ' time. They were probably distinctive yet mutually intelligible. Old Judean was the prominent dialect of and Judaea. The region of spoke the Southeast Judaean dialect. had its distinctive , where the consonants "", "" and "‘" all became pronounced as "". Galilean Aramaic, the dialect of Jesus' home region, is only known from a few place names, the influences on Galilean Targumic, some rabbinic literature and a few private letters. It seems to have a number of distinctive features: s are never simplified into monophthongs. East of the Jordan, the various dialects of East Jordanian were spoken. In the region of and the , Damascene Aramaic was spoken (deduced mostly from Modern Western Aramaic). Finally, as far north as , the western dialect of Orontes Aramaic was spoken. The three languages, especially Hebrew and Aramaic, influenced one another through s and . Hebrew words entered Jewish Aramaic. Most were mostly technical religious words, but a few were everyday words like עץ ' "wood". Conversely, Aramaic words, such as ''māmmôn'' "wealth", were borrowed into Hebrew, and Hebrew words acquired additional senses from Aramaic. For instance, Hebrew ראוי ''rā’ûi'' "seen" borrowed the sense "worthy, seemly" from the Aramaic ' meaning "seen" and "worthy". The Greek of the preserves some semiticisms, including transliterations of words. Some are Aramaic, like ''talitha'' (ταλιθα), which represents the noun טליתא ', and others may be either Hebrew or Aramaic like רבוני ''Rabbounei'' (Ραββουνει), which means "my master/great one/teacher" in both languages. Other examples: * "Talitha kumi" (טליתא קומי) * "Ephphatha" (אתפתח) * "Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?" (אלי, אלי, למה שבקתני?) The 2004 film ' used Aramaic for much of its dialogue, specially reconstructed by a scholar, , S.J. Where the appropriate words (in first-century Aramaic) were no longer known, he used the Aramaic of Daniel and fourth-century Syriac and Hebrew as the basis for his work.


Middle Aramaic

The 3rd century AD is taken as the threshold between Old and Middle Aramaic. During that century, the nature of the various Aramaic languages and dialects began to change. The descendants of Imperial Aramaic ceased to be living languages, and the eastern and western regional languages began to develop vital new literatures. Unlike many of the dialects of Old Aramaic, much is known about the vocabulary and grammar of Middle Aramaic.


Eastern Middle Aramaic

Only two of the Old Eastern Aramaic languages continued into this period. In the north of the region, Old Syriac transitioned into Middle Syriac. In the south, Jewish Old Babylonian became Jewish Middle Babylonian. The post-Achaemenid, Arsacid dialect became the background of the new .


Syriac Aramaic

Syriac Aramaic (also "Classical Syriac") is the literary, liturgical and often spoken language of . It originated by the first century AD in the region of , centered in , but its golden age was the fourth to eight centuries. This period began with the translation of the Bible into the language: the , and the masterful prose and poetry of . Classical Syriac became the language of the , and the . Missionary activity led to the spread of Syriac from Mesopotamia and , into , and .


Jewish Babylonian Aramaic

Jewish Middle Babylonian is the language employed by Jewish writers in Babylonia between the fourth and the eleventh century. It is most commonly identified with the language of the Babylonian (which was completed in the seventh century) and of post-Talmudic literature, which are the most important cultural products of Babylonian Judaism. The most important epigraphic sources for the dialect are the hundreds of s written in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic.


Mandaic Aramaic

The , spoken by the of , is a sister dialect to Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, though it is both linguistically and culturally distinct. Classical Mandaic is the language in which the Mandaeans' religious literature was composed. It is characterized by a highly phonetic orthography.


Western Middle Aramaic

The dialects of Old Western Aramaic continued with Jewish Middle Palestinian (in ), (in the ) and Christian Palestinian (in cursive ). Of these three, only Jewish Middle Palestinian continued as a written language.


Samaritan Aramaic

The is earliest attested by the documentary tradition of the that can be dated back to the fourth century. Its modern pronunciation is based on the form used in the tenth century.


Jewish Palestinian Aramaic

In 135, after the , many ish leaders, expelled from , moved to . The Galilean dialect thus rose from obscurity to become the standard among Jews in the west. This dialect was spoken not only in Galilee, but also in the surrounding parts. It is the linguistic setting for the (completed in the 5th century), Palestinian im (Jewish Aramaic versions of scripture), and im (biblical commentaries and teaching). The standard for the , the Tiberian system (7th century), was developed by speakers of the Galilean dialect of Jewish Middle Palestinian. Classical Hebrew vocalisation, therefore, in representing the Hebrew of this period, probably reflects the contemporary pronunciation of this Aramaic dialect. , the descendant of , was no longer the dominant dialect, and was used only in southern Judaea (the variant Engedi dialect continued throughout this period). Likewise, continued as a minor dialect from . The inscriptions in the synagogue at are either in Middle East Jordanian or Middle Judaean.


Christian Palestinian Aramaic

This was the language of the Christian (Chalcedonian) community from the 5th to the 8th century. As a liturgical language, it was used up to the 13th century. It is also been called "Melkite Aramaic" and "Palestinian Syriac". The language itself comes from Old Christian Palestinian Aramaic, but its writing conventions were based on early , and it was heavily influenced by . For example, the name Jesus, although ישוע ''Yešua’'' in Jewish Aramaic, and ''Išo'' in Syriac, is written ''Yesûs'' (a transliteration of the Greek form) in Christian Palestinian.


Modern Aramaic

As the languages of the Levant and Lebanon have become nearly extinct in non-liturgical usage, the most prolific speakers of Aramaic dialects today are predominantly ethnic Eastern Neo-Aramaic speakers, the most numerous being the speakers of Mesopotamia. This includes speakers of (235,000 speakers), (216,000 speakers), and (112,000 to 450,000 speakers). Having largely lived in remote areas as insulated communities for over a millennium, the remaining speakers of modern Aramaic dialects, such as the Assyrians, and the , escaped the linguistic pressures experienced by others during the large-scale s that saw the proliferation of other tongues among those who previously did not speak them, most recently the of the Middle East and North Africa by beginning with the of the seventh century.


Modern Eastern Aramaic

Modern Eastern Aramaic exists in a wide variety of dialects and languages. There is significant difference between the Aramaic spoken by Christians, Jews, and Mandaeans. The Christian varieties are often called Modern Syriac (or Neo-Syriac, particularly when referring to their literature), being deeply influenced by the old literary and liturgical language, the . However, they also have roots in numerous, previously unwritten, local Aramaic varieties, and are not purely the direct descendants of the language of . The varieties are not all mutually intelligible. The principal Christian varieties are and , both belonging to the group of languages. The are now mostly spoken in , and most are facing extinction. The Jewish varieties that have come from communities that once lived between and are not all mutually intelligible. In some places, for example , Assyrian Christians and Jews speak mutually unintelligible varieties of Modern Eastern Aramaic in the same place. In others, the around Mosul for example, the varieties of these two ethnic communities are similar enough to allow conversation. Modern , being in between Western Neo-Aramaic and Eastern Neo-Aramaic) is generally represented by Turoyo, the language of the Assyrians of . A related language, , has recently become extinct. Mandaeans living in the of Iran and scattered throughout Iraq, speak . It is quite distinct from any other Aramaic variety. Mandaic numbers some 50,000–75,000 people, but it is believed the Mandaic language may now be spoken fluently by as few as 5,000 people, with other Mandaeans having varying degrees of knowledge.


Modern Western Aramaic

Very little remains of Western Aramaic. Its only remaining vernacular is the language, that is still spoken in the villages of , , and on 's side of the , as well as by some people who migrated from these villages, to and other larger towns of Syria. All these speakers of Modern Western Aramaic are fluent in Arabic as well. Other Western Aramaic languages, like and , are preserved only in liturgical and literary usage.


Phonology

Each dialect of Aramaic has its own distinctive pronunciation, and it would not be feasible here to go into all these properties. Aramaic has a phonological palette of 25 to 40 distinct phonemes. Some modern Aramaic pronunciations lack the series of "emphatic" consonants, and some have borrowed from the inventories of surrounding languages, particularly , , , and .


Vowels

As with most Semitic languages, Aramaic can be thought of as having three basic sets of vowels: * Open ''a''-vowels * Close front ''i''-vowels * Close back ''u''-vowels These vowel groups are relatively stable, but the exact articulation of any individual is most dependent on its consonantal setting. The open vowel is an open near-front unrounded vowel ("short" ''a'', somewhat like the first vowel in the English "batter", ). It usually has a back counterpart ("long" ''a'', like the ''a'' in "father", , or even tending to the vowel in "caught", ), and a front counterpart ("short" ''e'', like the vowel in "head", ). There is much correspondence between these vowels between dialects. There is some evidence that Middle Babylonian dialects did not distinguish between the short ''a'' and short ''e''. In West Syriac dialects, and possibly Middle Galilean, the long ''a'' became the ''o'' sound. The open ''e'' and back ''a'' are often indicated in writing by the use of the letters א "alaph" (a ) or ה "he" (like the English ''h''). The close front vowel is the "long" ''i'' (like the vowel in "need", ). It has a slightly more open counterpart, the "long" ''e'', as in the final vowel of "café" (). Both of these have shorter counterparts, which tend to be pronounced slightly more open. Thus, the short close ''e'' corresponds with the open ''e'' in some dialects. The close front vowels usually use the consonant י ''y'' as a . The close back vowel is the "long" ''u'' (like the vowel in "school", ). It has a more open counterpart, the "long" ''o'', like the vowel in "show" (). There are shorter, and thus more open, counterparts to each of these, with the short close ''o'' sometimes corresponding with the long open ''a''. The close back vowels often use the consonant ו ''w'' to indicate their quality. Two basic s exist: an open vowel followed by י ''y'' (''ay''), and an open vowel followed by ו ''w'' (''aw''). These were originally full diphthongs, but many dialects have converted them to ''e'' and ''o'' respectively. The so-called "emphatic" consonants (see the next section) cause all vowels to become mid-centralised.


Consonants

The various alphabets used for writing Aramaic languages have twenty-two letters (all of which are consonants). Some of these letters, though, can stand for two or three different sounds (usually a and a at the same point of articulation). Aramaic classically uses a series of lightly contrasted plosives and fricatives: * Labial set: פּ\פ ''p''/''f'' and בּ\ב ''b''/''v'', * Dental set: תּ\ת ''t''/''θ'' and דּ\ד ''d''/''ð'', * Velar set: כּ\כ ''k''/''x'' and גּ\ג ''g''/''ɣ''. Each member of a certain pair is written with the same letter of the alphabet in most writing systems (that is, ''p'' and ''f'' are written with the same letter), and are near s. A distinguishing feature of Aramaic phonology (and that of Semitic languages in general) is the presence of "emphatic" consonants. These are consonants that are pronounced with the root of the tongue retracted, with varying degrees of and . Using their alphabetic names, these emphatics are: * ח Ḥêṯ, a , , * ט Ṭêṯ, a pharyngealized ''t'', , * ע ʽAyin (or ʽE in some dialects), a pharyngealized (sometimes considered to be a ), or , * צ Ṣāḏê, a pharyngealized ''s'', , * ק Qôp, a , . Ancient Aramaic may have had a larger series of emphatics, and some Neo-Aramaic languages definitely do. Not all dialects of Aramaic give these consonants their historic values. Overlapping with the set of emphatics are the "guttural" consonants. They include ח Ḥêṯ and ע ʽAyn from the emphatic set, and add א ʼĀlap̄ (a ) and ה Hê (as the English "h"). Aramaic classically has a set of four s (ancient Aramaic may have had six): * ס, שׂ (as in English "sea"), * ז (as in English "zero"), * שׁ (as in English "ship"), * צ (the emphatic Ṣāḏê listed above). In addition to these sets, Aramaic has the s מ ''m'' and נ ''n'', and the ר ''r'' (usually an ), ל ''l'', י ''y'' and ו ''w''.


Historical sound changes

Six broad features of sound change can be seen as dialect differentials: * Vowel change occurs almost too frequently to document fully, but is a major distinctive feature of different dialects. * Plosive/fricative pair reduction. Originally, Aramaic, like , had fricatives as conditioned s for each plosive. In the wake of vowel changes, the distinction eventually became phonemic; still later, it was often lost in certain dialects. For example, has mostly lost , using instead, like Arabic; other dialects (for instance, standard ) have lost and and replaced them with and , as with Modern Hebrew. In most dialects of Modern Syriac, and are realized as after a vowel. * Loss of emphatics. Some dialects have replaced emphatic consonants with non-emphatic counterparts, while those spoken in the often have rather than emphatics. * Guttural assimilation is the main distinctive feature of Samaritan pronunciation, also found in : all the gutturals are reduced to a simple glottal stop. Some Modern Aramaic dialects do not pronounce ''h'' in all words (the third person masculine pronoun ''hu'' becomes ''ow''). * Proto-Semitic */θ/ */ð/ are reflected in Aramaic as */t/, */d/, whereas they became sibilants in Hebrew (the number three is שלוש ''šālôš'' in Hebrew but תלת ''tlāṯ'' in Aramaic, the word gold is זהב zahav in Hebrew but דהב dehav in Aramaic). Dental/sibilant shifts are still happening in the modern dialects. * New phonetic inventory. Modern dialects have borrowed sounds from the dominant surrounding languages. The most frequent borrowings are (as the first consonant in "azure"), (as in "jam") and (as in "church"). The has been adapted for writing these new sounds.


Grammar

As with other Semitic languages, Aramaic (the way words are formed) is based on the consonantal . The root generally consists of two or three consonants and has a basic meaning, for example, כת״ב ''k-t-b'' has the meaning of 'writing'. This is then modified by the addition of vowels and other consonants to create different nuances of the basic meaning: * כתבה ''kṯāḇâ'', handwriting, inscription, script, book. * כתבי ''kṯāḇê'', books, the Scriptures. * כתובה ''kāṯûḇâ'', secretary, scribe. * כתבת ''kiṯḇeṯ'', I wrote. * אכתב eḵtûḇ'', I shall write.


Nouns and adjectives

Aramaic nouns and adjectives are inflected to show ''gender'', ''number'' and ''state''. Aramaic has two grammatical genders: masculine and feminine. The feminine absolute singular is often marked by the ending ה- ''-â''. Nouns can be either singular or plural, but an additional "dual" number exists for nouns that usually come in pairs. The dual number gradually disappeared from Aramaic over time and has little influence in Middle and Modern Aramaic. Aramaic nouns and adjectives can exist in one of three states. To a certain extent, these states correspond to the role of articles and cases in the : # The ''absolute'' state is the basic form of a noun. In early forms of Aramaic, the absolute state expresses indefiniteness, comparable to the English indefinite article a(n) (for example, כתבה ''kṯāḇâ'', "a handwriting"), and can be used in most syntactic roles. However, by the Middle Aramaic period, its use for nouns (but not adjectives) had been widely replaced by the emphatic state. # The ' state is a form of the noun used to make possessive constructions (for example, כתבת מלכתא ''kṯāḇat malkṯâ'', "the handwriting of the queen"). In the masculine singular the form of the construct is often the same as the absolute, but it may undergo vowel reduction in longer words. The feminine construct and masculine construct plural are marked by suffixes. Unlike a , which marks the possessor, the construct state is marked on the possessed. This is mainly due to Aramaic word order: possessed onst.possessor bs./emph.'' are treated as a speech unit, with the first unit (possessed) employing the construct state to link it to the following word. In Middle Aramaic, the use of the construct state for all but stock phrases (like בר נשא ''bar nāšâ'', "son of man") begins to disappear. # The ''emphatic'' or ''determined'' state is an extended form of the noun that functions similarly to the . It is marked with a suffix (for example, כתבתא ''kṯāḇtâ'', "the handwriting"). Although its original grammatical function seems to have been to mark definiteness, it is used already in Imperial Aramaic to mark all important nouns, even if they should be considered technically indefinite. This practice developed to the extent that the absolute state became extraordinarily rare in later varieties of Aramaic. Whereas other , like Hebrew, have the absolute and construct states, the emphatic/determined state is a unique feature to Aramaic. , as in , probably existed in a very early stage of the language, and glimpses of them can be seen in a few compound proper names. However, as most of those cases were expressed by short final vowels, they were never written, and the few characteristic long vowels of the masculine plural accusative and genitive are not clearly evidenced in inscriptions. Often, the is marked by a prefixed -ל ''l-'' (the "to") if it is definite. Adjectives agree with their nouns in number and gender but agree in state only if used attributively. Predicative adjectives are in the absolute state regardless of the state of their noun (a may or may not be written). Thus, an attributive adjective to an emphatic noun, as in the phrase "the good king", is written also in the emphatic state מלכא טבא ''malkâ ṭāḇâ''—king mph.good mph. In comparison, the predicative adjective, as in the phrase "the king is good", is written in the absolute state מלכא טב ''malkâ ṭāḇ''—king mph.good bs. The final א- ''-â'' in a number of these suffixes is written with the letter . However, some Jewish Aramaic texts employ the letter for the feminine absolute singular. Likewise, some Jewish Aramaic texts employ the Hebrew masculine absolute singular suffix ים- ''-îm'' instead of ין- ''-în''. The masculine determined plural suffix, יא- ''-ayyâ'', has an alternative version, ''-ê''. The alternative is sometimes called the "gentilic plural" for its prominent use in ethnonyms (יהודיא ''yəhûḏāyê'', 'the Jews', for example). This alternative plural is written with the letter , and came to be the only plural for nouns and adjectives of this type in Syriac and some other varieties of Aramaic. The masculine construct plural, ''-ê'', is written with . In Syriac and some other variants this ending is ized to ''-ai''. Possessive phrases in Aramaic can either be made with the construct state or by linking two nouns with the relative particle - [י ''d[î''. As the use of the construct state almost disappears from the Middle Aramaic period on, the latter method became the main way of making possessive phrases. For example, the various forms of possessive phrases (for "the handwriting of the queen") are: # כתבת מלכתא kṯāḇaṯ malkṯâ – the oldest construction, also known as סמיכות səmîḵûṯ : the possessed object (כתבה kṯābâ, "handwriting") is in the construct state (כתבת kṯāḇaṯ); the possessor (מלכה malkâ, "queen") is in the emphatic state (מלכתא malkṯâ) # כתבתא דמלכתא kṯāḇtâ d(î)-malkṯâ – both words are in the emphatic state and the relative particle - [י ''d[î'' is used to mark the relationship # כתבתה דמלכתא kṯāḇtāh d(î)-malkṯâ – both words are in the emphatic state, and the relative particle is used, but the possessed is given an anticipatory, pronominal ending (כתבתה kṯāḇtā-h, "handwriting-her"; literally, "her writing, that (of) the queen"). In Modern Aramaic, the last form is by far the most common. In Biblical Aramaic, the last form is virtually absent.


Verbs

The Aramaic verb has gradually evolved in time and place, varying between varieties of the language. Verb forms are marked for (first, second or third), (singular or plural), (masculine or feminine), (perfect or imperfect), (indicative, imperative, jussive or infinitive) and (active, reflexive or passive). Aramaic also employs a system of , or verbal stems, to mark intensive and extensive developments in the lexical meaning of verbs.


Aspectual tense

Aramaic has two proper : and . These were originally , but developed into something more like a and . The perfect is , while the imperfect uses various that vary according to person, number and gender. In both tenses the third-person singular masculine is the unmarked form from which others are derived by addition of (and preformatives in the imperfect). In the chart below (on the root כת״ב K-T-B, meaning "to write"), the first form given is the usual form in Imperial Aramaic, while the second is .


Conjugations or verbal stems

Like other Semitic languages, Aramaic employs a number of , to extend the lexical coverage of verbs. The basic form of the verb is called the ''ground stem'', or ''G-stem''. Following the tradition of mediaeval Arabic grammarians, it is more often called the Pə‘al פעל (also written Pe‘al), using the form of the פע״ל P-‘-L, meaning "to do". This stem carries the basic lexical meaning of the verb. By doubling of the second radical, or root letter, the D-stem or פעל Pa‘‘el is formed. This is often an intensive development of the basic lexical meaning. For example, ''qəṭal'' means "he killed", whereas ''qaṭṭel'' means "he slew". The precise relationship in meaning between the two stems differs for every verb. A , which can be -ה ''ha-'', -א ''a-'' or -ש ''ša-'', creates the C-stem or variously the Hap̄‘el, Ap̄‘el or Šap̄‘el (also spelt הפעל Haph‘el, אפעל Aph‘el and שפעל Shaph‘el). This is often an extensive or causative development of the basic lexical meaning. For example, טעה ''ṭə‘â'' means "he went astray", whereas אטעי ''aṭ‘î'' means "he deceived". The Šap̄‘el שפעל is the least common variant of the C-stem. Because this variant is standard in Akkadian, it is possible that its use in Aramaic represents loanwords from that language. The difference between the variants הפעל Hap̄‘el and אפעל Ap̄‘el appears to be the gradual dropping of the initial ה ''h'' sound in later Old Aramaic. This is noted by the respelling of the older preformative with א . These three conjugations are supplemented with three further derived stems, produced by the preformative -הת ''hiṯ-'' or -את ''eṯ-''. The loss of the initial ה ''h'' sound occurs similarly to that in the form above. These three derived stems are the Gt-stem, התפעל Hiṯpə‘el or אתפעל Eṯpə‘el (also written Hithpe‘el or Ethpe‘el), the Dt-stem, התפעּל Hiṯpa‘‘al or אתפעּל Eṯpa‘‘al (also written Hithpa‘‘al or Ethpa‘‘al), and the Ct-stem, התהפעל Hiṯhap̄‘al, אתּפעל Ettap̄‘al, השתפעל Hištap̄‘al or אשתפעל Eštap̄‘al (also written Hithhaph‘al, Ettaph‘al, Hishtaph‘al or Eshtaph‘al). Their meaning is usually , but later became . However, as with other stems, actual meaning differs from verb to verb. Not all verbs use all of these conjugations, and, in some, the G-stem is not used. In the chart below (on the root כת״ב K-T-B, meaning "to write"), the first form given is the usual form in Imperial Aramaic, while the second is . In Imperial Aramaic, the began to be used for a . Perhaps under influence from other languages, Middle Aramaic developed a system of composite tenses (combinations of forms of the verb with pronouns or an ), allowing for narrative that is more vivid. The syntax of Aramaic (the way sentences are put together) usually follows the order verb–subject–object (VSO). Imperial (Persian) Aramaic, however, tended to follow a S-O-V pattern (similar to Akkadian), which was the result of Persian syntactic influence.


See also


References


Sources

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links


Aramaic Dictionary
Search the online dictionary using English or Aramaic words.

Contains audio recordings of scripture.
Aramaic Designs
Website offering various designs based on historical Aramaic scripts.
Lishana Online Academy
The first online academy on Spanish network to learn Aramaic in several dialects. For Spanish and Portuguese speakers.

* [http://cal.huc.edu/aramaic_language.html Aramaic Language]: "Christians in Palestine eventually rendered portions of Christian Scripture into their dialect of Aramaic; these translations and related writings constitute 'Christian Palestinian Aramaic'. A much larger body of Christian Aramaic is known as Syriac. Indeed, Syriac writings surpass in quantity all other Aramaic combined."
The Aramaic Language and Its Classification – Efrem Yildiz, Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies

Aramaic Peshitta Bible Repository
Many free Syriac Aramaic language research tools and the Syriac Bible.

(including editions of s) at the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati
Dictionary of Judeo-Aramaic



"An Introduction to Syriac Studies" by Sebastian Brock
Reproduced, with permission, from J. H. Eaton, ed., ''Horizons in Semitic Studies: Articles for the Student'' (Semitics Study Aids 8; Birmingham: Dept. of Theology, , 1980), pp. 1–33.


Learn Aramaic for the absolute beginner
{{DEFAULTSORT:Aramaic Language Languages attested from the 10th century BC