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Antarctica
Antarctica
Antarctica
(UK English /ænˈtɑːktɪkə/ or /ænˈtɑːtɪkə/, US English /æntˈɑːrktɪkə/ ( listen))[note 1] is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole
South Pole
and is situated in the Antarctic
Antarctic
region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic
Antarctic
Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,000,000 square kilometres (5,400,000 square miles), it is the fifth-largest continent. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia
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Middle English
Middle English
Middle English
(ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest
Norman Conquest
(1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.[2] This stage of the development of the English language
English language
roughly followed the High to the Late Middle Ages. Middle English
Middle English
developed out of Late Old English, seeing many dramatic changes in its grammar, pronunciation and orthography. Writing customs during Middle English
Middle English
times varied widely, but by the end of the period, about 1470, aided by the invention of the printing press, a standard based on the London
London
dialect (Chancery Standard) had become established
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Precipitation (meteorology)
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.[2] The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, rain, sleet, snow, graupel and hail. Precipitation
Precipitation
occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates". Thus, fog and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes, possibly acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation
Precipitation
forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud
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Old French
Old French
Old French
(franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France
France
from the 8th century to the 14th century. In the 14th century, these dialects came to be collectively known as the langue d'oïl, contrasting with the langue d'oc or Occitan language
Occitan language
in the south of France
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Apuleius
Apuleius
Apuleius
(/ˌæpjʊˈliːəs/; also called Lucius Apuleius Madaurensis; c. 124 – c. 170 AD)[1] was a Latin-language prose writer, Platonist
Platonist
philosopher and rhetorician.[2] He was a Numidian who lived under the Roman Empire[3] and was from Madauros
Madauros
(now M'Daourouch, Algeria). He studied Platonism in Athens, travelled to Italy, Asia Minor, and Egypt, and was an initiate in several cults or mysteries. The most famous incident in his life was when he was accused of using magic to gain the attentions (and fortune) of a wealthy widow. He declaimed and then distributed a witty tour de force in his own defense before the proconsul and a court of magistrates convened in Sabratha, near ancient Tripoli, Libya. This is known as the Apologia. His most famous work is his bawdy picaresque novel, the Metamorphoses, otherwise known as The Golden Ass
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Gaius Julius Hyginus
Gaius Julius Hyginus (/hɪˈdʒaɪnəs/; c. 64 BC – AD 17) was a Latin
Latin
author, a pupil of the famous Cornelius Alexander Polyhistor, and a freedman of Caesar Augustus. He was elected superintendent of the Palatine library by Augustus
Augustus
according to Suetonius' De Grammaticis, 20.[1] It is not clear whether Hyginus was a native of the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
or of Alexandria. Suetonius remarks that he fell into great poverty in his old age, and was supported by the historian Clodius Licinus. Hyginus was a voluminous author: his works included topographical and biographical treatises, commentaries on Helvius Cinna and the poems of Virgil, and disquisitions on agriculture and bee-keeping
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Ancient Rome
In historiography, ancient Rome
Rome
is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome
Rome
in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and Roman Empire
Roman Empire
until the fall of the western empire.[1] The term is sometimes used to just refer to the kingdom and republic periods, excluding the subsequent empire.[2] The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian peninsula, dating from the 8th century BC, that grew into the city of Rome
Rome
and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed
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Marinus Of Tyre
Marinus of Tyre (Greek: Μαρῖνος ὁ Τύριος, Marînos o Týrios; c. AD 70–130) was a Greek or Hellenized geographer, cartographer and mathematician, who founded mathematical geography and provided the underpinnings of Claudius Ptolemy's influential Geography.Contents1 Life 2 Legacy 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksLife[edit] Marinus was originally from Tyre in the Roman province
Roman province
of Syria.[1] He and his wor
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Romanization Of Greek
Romanization
Romanization
of Greek is the transliteration (letter-mapping) or transcription (sound-mapping) of text from the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
into the Latin
Latin
alphabet. The conventions for writing and romanizing Ancient Greek and Modern Greek
Modern Greek
differ markedly, which can create confusion. The sound of the English letter B (/b/) was written as β in ancient Greek but is now written as the digraph μπ, while the modern β sounds like the English letter V (/v/) instead. The Greek name Ἰωάννης became Johannes
Johannes
in Latin
Latin
and then John in English, but in Greek itself has instead become Γιάννης; this might be written as Yannis, Jani, Ioannis, Yiannis, or Giannis, but not Giannes or Giannēs as it would have been in ancient Greek
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Fimbul Ice Shelf
Coordinates: 70°30′S 0°10′W / 70.500°S 0.167°W / -70.500; -0.167This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Swedish. (July 2012) Click [show] for important translation instructions.View a machine-translated version of the Swedish article. Google's machine translation is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation
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Pinniped
Pinnipeds,[a] commonly known as seals,[b] are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals. They comprise the extant families Odobenidae
Odobenidae
(whose only living member is the walrus), Otariidae
Otariidae
(the eared seals: sea lions and fur seals), and Phocidae
Phocidae
(the earless seals, or true seals). There are 33 extant species of pinnipeds, and more than 50 extinct species have been described from fossils
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Mite
Mites are small arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida
Arachnida
and the subclass Acari
Acari
(also known as Acarina). The term "mite" refers to the members of several groups in Acari
Acari
but it is not a clade, and excludes the ticks, order Ixodida. Mites and ticks are characterised by the body being divided into two regions, the cephalothorax or prosoma (there is no separate head), and an opisthosoma. The scientific discipline devoted to the study of ticks and mites is called acarology. Most mites are tiny, less than 1 mm (0.04 in) in length, and have a simple, unsegmented body plan. Their small size makes them easily overlooked; some species live in water, many live in soil as decomposers, others live on plants, sometimes creating galls, while others again are predators or parasites
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Protist
A protist (/ˈproʊtɪst/) is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus. The protists do not form a natural group, or clade, since they have no common characteristic origin, but, like algae or invertebrates, they are often grouped together for convenience
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Plant
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. They form the clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants") that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Fungus
Dikarya
Dikarya
(inc. Deuteromycota)AscomycotaPezizomycotina Saccharomycotina TaphrinomycotinaBasidiomycotaAgaricomycotina Pucciniomycotina UstilaginomycotinaSubphyla incertae sedisEntomophthoromycotina Kickxellomycotina Mucoromycotina ZoopagomycotinaA fungus (plural: fungi[3] or funguses[4]) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals. A characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants, bacteria, and some protists is chitin in their cell walls. Similar to animals, fungi are heterotrophs; they acquire their food by absorbing dissolved molecules, typically by secreting digestive enzymes into their environment. Fungi do not photosynthesise
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