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The ANTARCTIC (US English /æntˈɑːrktɪk/ , UK English /ænˈtɑːrktɪk/ or /æntˈɑːrtɪk/ and /ænˈtɑːrtɪk/ or /ænˈɑːrtɪk/ ) is a polar region , specifically the region around the Earth
Earth
's South Pole
South Pole
, opposite the Arctic
Arctic
region around the North Pole . The Antarctic
Antarctic
comprises in the strict sense the continent of Antarctica
Antarctica
and the island territories located on the Antarctic Plate . In a broader sense the Antarctic
Antarctic
region include the ice shelves , waters, and island territories in the Southern Ocean situated south of the Antarctic Convergence , a zone approximately 32 to 48 km (20 to 30 mi) wide varying in latitude seasonally. The region covers some 20% of the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
, of which 5.5% (14 million km2) is the surface area of the Antarctic
Antarctic
continent itself. All of the land and ice shelves south of 60°S latitude are administrated under the Antarctic Treaty System
Antarctic Treaty System
. In a biogeographic sense, the Antarctic ecozone is one of eight ecozones of the Earth's land surface.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography * 2 Wildlife * 3 People * 4 Conservation * 5 Time zones * 6 Offshore Islands * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links

GEOGRAPHY

The maritime part of the region constitutes the area of application of the international Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), where for technical reasons the Convention uses an approximation of the Convergence line by means of a line joining specified points along parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude . The implementation of the Convention is managed through an international Commission headquartered in Hobart
Hobart
, Australia, by an efficient system of annual fishing quotas, licenses and international inspectors on the fishing vessels, as well as satellite surveillance.

Most of the Antarctic
Antarctic
region is situated south of 60°S latitude parallel, and is governed in accordance with the international legal regime of the Antarctic Treaty System
Antarctic Treaty System
. The Treaty area covers the continent itself and its immediately adjacent islands, as well as the archipelagos of the South Orkney Islands
South Orkney Islands
, South Shetland Islands , Peter I Island
Island
, Scott Island
Island
and Balleny Islands
Balleny Islands
.

The islands situated between 60°S latitude parallel to the south and the Antarctic Convergence to the north, and their respective 200-nautical-mile (370 km) Exclusive Economic Zones fall under the national jurisdiction of the countries that possess them: South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
South Sandwich Islands
(United Kingdom; also an EU Overseas territory ), Bouvet Island
Island
(Norway), and Heard and McDonald Islands (Australia).

Kerguelen Islands (France; also an EU Overseas territory) are situated in the Antarctic Convergence area, while the Falkland Islands , Isla de los Estados
Isla de los Estados
, Hornos Island
Island
with Cape Horn
Cape Horn
, Diego Ramírez Islands , Campbell Island
Island
, Macquarie Island
Island
, Amsterdam and Saint Paul Islands, Crozet Islands , Prince Edward Islands , and Gough Island
Island
and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
group remain north of the Convergence and thus outside the Antarctic
Antarctic
region.

WILDLIFE

A variety of animals live in Antarctica
Antarctica
for at least some of the year, including:

* Seals * Penguin * South Georgia pipits * Albatrosses * Antarctic
Antarctic
petrels * Whales * Fish, such as Antarctic icefish , Antarctic toothfish
Antarctic toothfish
* Squid
Squid
, including the colossal squid * Antarctic krill

Most of the Antarctic
Antarctic
continent is permanently covered by ice and snow; less than 1% of the land is exposed. There are only two species of flowering plant, Antarctic hair grass
Antarctic hair grass
and Antarctic pearlwort
Antarctic pearlwort
, but a range of mosses , liverworts , lichens and macrofungi .

PEOPLE

The first Antarctic
Antarctic
land discovered was the island of South Georgia , visited by the English merchant Anthony de la Roché in 1675. Although myths and speculation about a Terra Australis ("Southern Land") date back to antiquity, the first confirmed sighting of the continent of Antarctica
Antarctica
is commonly accepted to have occurred in 1820 by the Russian expedition of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on Vostok and Mirny . The first human born in the Antarctic was Solveig Gunbjørg Jacobsen born on 8 October 1913 in Grytviken
Grytviken
, South Georgia.

The Antarctic
Antarctic
region had no indigenous population when first discovered, and its present inhabitants comprise a few thousand transient scientific and other personnel working on tours of duty at the several dozen research stations maintained by various countries. However, the region is visited by more than 40,000 tourists annually, the most popular destinations being the Antarctic Peninsula area (especially the South Shetland Islands ) and South Georgia Island .

In December 2009, the growth of tourism , with consequences for both the ecology and the safety of the travellers in its great and remote wilderness, was noted at a conference in New Zealand
New Zealand
by experts from signatories to the Antarctic Treaty
Antarctic Treaty
. The definitive results of the conference was presented at the Antarctic Treaty
Antarctic Treaty
states' meeting in Uruguay in May 2010.

CONSERVATION

The Antarctic
Antarctic
hosts the world's largest protected area comprising 1.07 million km2, the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Marine Protection Area created in 2012. The latter exceeds the surface area of another vast protected territory, the Greenland National Park ’s 972,000 km2. (While the Ross Sea
Ross Sea
Marine Protection Area established in 2016 is still larger at 1.55 million km2, its protection is set to expire in 35 years. )

TIME ZONES

Main article: Time in Antarctica
Antarctica

Because Antarctica
Antarctica
surrounds the South Pole, it is theoretically located in all time zones . For practical purposes, time zones are usually based on territorial claims or the time zone of a station's owner country or supply base.

OFFSHORE ISLANDS

* South Georgia Islands * Shag Rocks * South Sandwich Islands
South Sandwich Islands
* Bouvet Island
Island
* Kerguelen Islands * Heard Island
Island
* McDonald Islands * Balleny Islands
Balleny Islands
* Scott Island
Island
* Peter I Island
Island
* South Shetland Islands * South Orkney Islands
South Orkney Islands

SEE ALSO

* Antarctic Circle * History of Antarctica
Antarctica

Cruise ship at Petermann Island
Island
, with the Kiev Peninsula
Kiev Peninsula
of Graham Land in the background.

NOTES

* ^ The word was originally pronounced without the first /k/, but the spelling pronunciation has become common and is often considered more correct. The pronunciation without the first k sound and the first t sound is however widespread and a typical phenomenon of English in many other similar words too. The "c" was added to the spelling for etymological reasons and then began to be pronounced, but (as with other spelling pronunciations) at first only by less educated people.

REFERENCES

* ^ American Heritage Dictionary * ^ Crystal, David (2006). The Fight for English. Oxford University Press. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-19-920764-0 . * ^ Harper, Douglas. "Antarctic". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 November 2011. * ^ Scientific Committee on Antarctic
Antarctic
Research (SCAR) * ^ Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic
Antarctic
Marine Living Resources Archived 2010-05-05 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Antarctic
Antarctic
Treaty * ^ " Antarctic
Antarctic
Wildlife". Natural Environment Research Council - British Antarctic
Antarctic
Survey. Retrieved 2012-11-20. * ^ Vanessa Woods (2011-10-14). " Antarctic
Antarctic
wildlife". Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. Retrieved 2012-11-20.

* ^ "Plants of Antarctica". Natural Environment Research Council - British Antarctic
Antarctic
Survey. Retrieved 2012-11-20. * ^ IAATO tourist statistics 2007/08 * ^ Antarctic
Antarctic
Nations Considering New Controls On Ships Amid Tourism Explosion. Ray Lilley, The Associated Press, December 8, 2009. * ^ SGSSI Marine Protection Area (Management Plan). * ^ Greenland
Greenland
in figures 2009. Statistics Greenland, 2009. * ^ CCAMLR to create world\'s largest Marine Protected Area. CCAMLR Website * ^ Slezak, Michael (26 October 2016). "World\'s largest marine park created in Ross Sea
Ross Sea
in Antarctica
Antarctica
in landmark deal". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 October 2016.

FURTHER READING

* Krupnik, Igor, Michael A. Lang, and Scott E. Miller, eds. Smithsonian at the Poles: Contributions to International Polar Year Science. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, 2009.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* British

.