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Alkyl
In organic chemistry, an alkyl substituent is an alkane missing one hydrogen.[1] The term alkyl is intentionally unspecific to include many possible substitutions. An acyclic alkyl has the general formula of CnH2n+1. A cycloalkyl is derived from a cycloalkane by removal of a hydrogen atom from a ring and has the general formula CnH2n-1.[2] Typically an alkyl is a part of a larger molecule. In structural formula, the symbol R is used to designate a generic (unspecified) alkyl group. The smallest alkyl group is methyl, with the formula CH3−. [3] This compound is known as 2,3,3-trimethylpentane
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Quaternary Carbon
A quaternary carbon is a carbon atom bound to four other carbon atoms.[1] For this reason, quaternary carbon atoms are found only in hydrocarbons having at least five carbon atoms. Quaternary carbon atoms can occur in branched alkanes, but not in linear alkanes.[2] The formation of chiral quaternary carbon centers has been a synthetic challenge. Chemists have developed asymmetric Diels–Alder reactions,chiral quaternary carbon centers has been a synthetic challenge. Chemists have developed asymmetric Diels–Alder reactions,[3] Heck reaction, Enyne cyclization, cycloaddition reactions,[4] C–H activation, Allylic substitution, [5] Pauson–Khand reaction, [6] etc
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Flavanone
The flavanones, a type of flavonoids, are various aromatic, colorless ketones derived from flavone that often occur in plants as glycosides.[1][2] The enzyme chalcone isomerase uses a chalcone-like compound to produce a flavanone. Flavanone 4-reductase is an enzyme that uses (2S)-flavan-4-ol and NADP+ to produce (2S)-flavanone, NADPH, and H+. Numerous methods exist for the enantioselective chemical and biochemical synthesis of flavanones and related compounds.[3]

Lipophilicity
Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene. Such non-polar solvents are themselves lipophilic (translated as "fat-loving" or "fat-liking"[1][2]), and the axiom that "like dissolves like" generally holds true. Thus lipophilic substances tend to dissolve in other lipophilic substances, but hydrophilic ("water-loving") substances tend to dissolve in water and other hydrophilic substances. Lipophilicity, hydrophobicity, and non-polarity may describe the same tendency towards participation in the London dispersion force, as the terms are often used interchangeably
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Medicinal Chemistry
Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs).[1][2] Compounds used as medicines are most often organic compounds, which are often divided into the broad classes of small organic molecules (e.g., atorvastatin, fluticasone, clopidogrel) and "biologics" (infliximab, erythropoietin, insulin glargine), the latter of which are most often medicinal preparations of proteins (natural and recombinant antibodies, hormones etc.)
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Green Algae
The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, together with the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Spirotaenia.[1][2] The land plants, or embryophytes, are thought to have emerged from the charophytes.[3] Therefore, cladistically, embryophytes belong to green algae as well. However, because the embryophytes are traditionally classified as neither algae nor green algae, green algae are a paraphyletic group. Since the realization that the embryophytes emerged from within the green algae, some authors are starting to include them.[4][5][6][7][8] The clade that includes both green algae and embryophytes is monophyletic and is referred to as the clade Viridiplantae and as the kingdom Plantae
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