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Alkyl
In organic chemistry, an alkyl substituent is an alkane missing one hydrogen.[1] The term alkyl is intentionally unspecific to include many possible substitutions. An acyclic alkyl has the general formula CnH2n+1. A cycloalkyl is derived from a cycloalkane by removal of a hydrogen atom from a ring and has the general formula CnH2n-1.[2] Typically an alkyl is a part of a larger molecule. In structural formula, the symbol R is used to designate a generic (unspecified) alkyl group. The smallest alkyl group is methyl, with the formula CH3−. [3]Contents1 In everyday life 2 In medicinal chemistry 3 Alkyl
Alkyl
cations, anions, and radicals 4 Nomenclature 5 Etymology 6 See also 7 ReferencesIn everyday life[edit] The word root alkyl is encountered in several contexts. Alkylation
Alkylation
is an important operation in refineries, for example in the production of high-octane gasoline
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Tertiary Carbon
A tertiary carbon atom is a carbon atom bound to three other carbon atoms. For this reason, tertiary carbon atoms are found only in hydrocarbons containing at least four carbon atoms. Tertiary carbon atoms can occur, for example, in branched alkanes, but not in linear alkanes.[1]primary carbon secondary carbon tertiary carbon quaternary carbonGeneral structure (R = Organyl group)Partial Structural formulaReferences[edit]^ Hans Peter Latscha, Uli Kazmaier, Helmut Alfons Klein (2016) (in German), Organische Chemie: Chemie-Basiswissen II (7
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Methane
Methane
Methane
(US: /ˈmɛθeɪn/ or UK: /ˈmiːθeɪn/) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula CH4 (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen). It is a group-14 hydride and the simplest alkane, and is the main constituent of natural gas
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Organic Compound
An organic compound is virtually any chemical compound that contains carbon, although a consensus definition remains elusive and likely arbitrary.[1] However, the traditional definition used by most chemists is limited to compounds containing a carbon-hydrogen bond. Organic compounds are rare terrestrially, but of central importance because all known life is based on organic compounds
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Mass Spectrometry
Mass
Mass
spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio. In simpler terms, a mass spectrum measures the masses within a sample. Mass
Mass
spectrometry is used in many different fields and is applied to pure samples as well as complex mixtures. A mass spectrum is a plot of the ion signal as a function of the mass-to-charge ratio. These spectra are used to determine the elemental or isotopic signature of a sample, the masses of particles and of molecules, and to elucidate the chemical structures of molecules, such as peptides and other chemical compounds. In a typical MS procedure, a sample, which may be solid, liquid, or gas, is ionized, for example by bombarding it with electrons
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Photochemical Reaction
Mechanistic organic photochemistry is that aspect of organic photochemistry which seeks to explain the mechanisms of organic photochemical reactions.[1][2] The absorption of ultraviolet light by organic molecules very often leads to reactions. In the earliest days sunlight was employed while in more modern times ultraviolet lamps are employed. Organic photochemistry has proven to be a very useful synthetic tool. Complex organic products can be obtained simply. Over the last century and earlier an immense number of photochemical reactions have been uncovered. In modern times the field is quite well understood and is used in organic synthesis and industrially
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IUPAC Nomenclature
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
(IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize chemical nomenclature. There are two main areas: IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry
IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry
(Red Book) IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry
IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry
(Blue Book)This chemistry-related article is a stub
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Carbanion
A carbanion is an anion in which carbon is threevalent (forms three bonds) and bears a formal negative charge in at least one significant mesomeric contributor (resonance form).[1] Absent π delocalization, carbanions assume a trigonal pyramidal, bent, or linear geometry when the carbanionic carbon is bound to three (e.g., methyl anion), two (e.g., phenyl anion), or one (e.g., acetylide anion) substituents, respectively. Formally, a carbanion is the conjugate base of a carbon acid:R3C-H + B− → R3C− + H-Bwhere B stands for the base. A carbanion is one of several reactive intermediates in organic chemistry. In organic synthesis, organolithium reagents and Grignard reagents
Grignard reagents
are commonly regarded as carbanions
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Chalcone
Chalcone
Chalcone
is an aromatic ketone and an enone that forms the central core for a variety of important biological compounds, which are known collectively as chalcones or chalconoids. Benzylideneacetophenone is the parent member of the chalcone series
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Flavanone
The flavanones, a type of flavonoids, are various aromatic, colorless ketones derived from flavone that often occur in plants as glycosides.[1][2]Contents1 List of flavanones 2 Metabolism 3 Synthesis 4 References 5 External linksList of flavanones[edit]Butin Eriodictyol Hesperetin Hesperidin Homoeriodictyol Isosakuranetin Naringenin Naringin Pinocembrin Poncirin Sakuranetin Sakuranin Sterubin PinostrobinMetabolism[edit] The enzyme chalcone isomerase uses a chalcone-like compound to produce a flavanone. Flavanone 4-reductase is an enzyme that uses (2S)-flavan-4-ol and NADP+ to produce (2S)-flavanone, NADPH, and H+. Synthesis[edit] Numerous methods exist for the enantioselective chemical and biochemical synthesis of flavanones and related compounds.[3] References[edit]^ "flavanone". Merriam-Webster
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Lipophilicity
Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene. These non-polar solvents are themselves lipophilic (translated as "fat-loving" or "fat-liking"[1][2])—the axiom that "like dissolves like" generally holds true. Thus lipophilic substances tend to dissolve in other lipophilic substances, while hydrophilic ("water-loving") substances tend to dissolve in water and other hydrophilic substances. Lipophilicity, hydrophobicity, and non-polarity can describe the same tendency towards participation in the London dispersion force
London dispersion force
as the terms are often used interchangeably
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Chemical Compounds
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds. There are four types of compounds, depending on how the constituent atoms are held together:molecules held together by covalent bonds ionic compounds held together by ionic bonds intermetallic compounds held together by metallic bonds certain complexes held together by coordinate covalent bonds.Many chemical compounds have a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service
Chemical Abstracts Service
(CAS): its CAS number. A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using the standard abbreviations for the chemical elements, and subscripts to indicate the number of atoms involved
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Medicinal Chemistry
Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs). Compounds used as medicines are most often organic compounds, which are often divided into the broad classes of small organic molecules (e.g., atorvastatin, fluticasone, clopidogrel) and "biologics" (infliximab, erythropoietin, insulin glargine), the latter of which are most often medicinal preparations of proteins (natural and recombinant antibodies, hormones, etc.)
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Green Algae
The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyte and Charophyte/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, as well as the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae and Chlorokybophyceae.[1] The land plants, or embryophytes, are thought to have emerged from the charophytes.[2] Therefore, cladistically, embryophytes belong to green algae as well. However, because the embryophytes are traditionally classified as neither algae nor green algae, green algae are a paraphyletic group. Since the realization that the embryophytes emerged from within the green algae, some authors are starting to include them.[3][4][5][6] The clade that includes both green algae and embryophytes is monophyletic and is referred to as the clade Viridiplantae
Viridiplantae
and as the kingdom Plantae
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