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Alatri
ALATRI (Latin : Aletrium) is a town and comune of province of Frosinone in the Italian region of the Lazio , with c. 30,000 inhabitants. A part of the traditional region of Ciociaria , it is known for its megalithic acropolis . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Main sights * 2.1 Ancient remains * 2.2 Other * 3 Subdivisions * 3.1 Rioni * 3.2 Frazioni * 4 International relations * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYThe area of the modern city was settled as early as the 2nd millennium BC. ALETRIUM was a town of the Hernici which, together with Veroli
Veroli
, Anagni and Ferentino , formed a defensive league against the Volsci and the Samnites around 550 BC. In 530 they allied with Tarquinius Superbus ' Rome, confirming the Etruscan influence in the area attested also by archaeological findings
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Samnites
The SAMNITES were an ancient Italic people who lived in Samnium in south-central Italy
Italy
. They became involved in several wars with the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
until the 1st century BC. An Oscan-speaking people , the Samnites
Samnites
probably originated as an offshoot of the Sabines
Sabines
. The Samnites
Samnites
formed a confederation, consisting of four tribes: the Hirpini , Caudini , Caraceni , and Pentri . They allied with Rome against the Gauls
Gauls
in 354 BC, but later became enemies of the Romans and were soon involved in a series of three wars (343–341, 327–304, and 298–290) against the Romans. Despite an overwhelming victory over the Romans at the Battle of the Caudine Forks (321), the Samnites
Samnites
were eventually subjugated
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Tarquinius Superbus
LUCIUS TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS (died 495 BC) was the legendary seventh and final king of Rome , reigning from 535 BC until the popular uprising in 509 that led to the establishment of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
. He is commonly known as TARQUIN THE PROUD, from his cognomen Superbus ( Latin
Latin
for "proud, arrogant, lofty"). Ancient accounts of the Regal period mingle history and legend. Tarquin was said to have been the son or grandson of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus , the fifth king of Rome, and to have gained the throne through the murders of both his wife and his elder brother, followed by the assassination of his predecessor, Servius Tullius
Servius Tullius
. His reign is described as a tyranny that justified the abolition of the monarchy
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Cicero
MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO (/ˈsɪsᵻroʊ/ ; Classical Latin: ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman politician and lawyer, who served as consul in the year 63 BC. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the Roman equestrian order , and is considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists. His influence on the Latin
Latin
language was so immense that the subsequent history of prose, not only in Latin
Latin
but in European languages up to the 19th century, was said to be either a reaction against or a return to his style. According to Michael Grant , "the influence of Cicero
Cicero
upon the history of European literature and ideas greatly exceeds that of any other prose writer in any language"
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Volsci
The VOLSCI were an Italic tribe , well known in the history of the first century of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
. At that time they inhabited the partly hilly, partly marshy district of the south of Latium
Latium
, bounded by the Aurunci and Samnites
Samnites
on the south, the Hernici
Hernici
on the east, and stretching roughly from Norba and Cora in the north to Antium (modern Anzio
Anzio
and Nettuno ) in the south. Rivals of Rome for several hundred years, their territories were taken over by and assimilated into the growing Republic by 300 BC
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Pope Martin V
POPE MARTIN V (Latin : Martinus V; January/February 1369 – 20 February 1431), born OTTO (or ODDONE) COLONNA, was Pope
Pope
from 11 November 1417 to his death in 1431. His election effectively ended the Western Schism
Western Schism
(1378–1417). CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Papacy * 2.1 Election * 2.2 Hussite Wars
Hussite Wars
* 2.3 Crusades
Crusades
* 2.4 War against Braccio da Montone * 2.5 Annuity contracts * 2.6 Periodic ecumenical councils * 3 Death * 4 Personal views * 4.1 Position on Jews
Jews
* 4.2 Position on slavery * 5 Residences * 6 Numbering * 7 Notes * 8 References BIOGRAPHYHe was born at Genazzano , the son of Agapito Colonna and Caterina Conti, between January 26 and February 20, 1369. He belonged to one of the oldest and most distinguished families of Rome
Rome

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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Megalith
A MEGALITH is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. The word "MEGALITHIC" describes structures made of such large stones without the use of mortar or concrete, representing periods of prehistory characterised by such constructions. For later periods, the term monolith , with an overlapping meaning, is more likely to be used. The word "megalith" comes from the Ancient Greek "μέγας" (transl. megas meaning "great") and "λίθος" (transl. lithos meaning "stone"). Megalith
Megalith
also denotes an item consisting of rock(s) hewn in definite shapes for special purposes. It has been used to describe buildings built by people from many parts of the world living in many different periods
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Ladislaus Of Naples
LADISLAUS THE MAGNANIMOUS (Italian : Ladislao il Magnanimo di Napoli; Hungarian : Nápolyi László; 15 February 1377 – 6 August 1414) was King of Naples and titular King of Jerusalem
King of Jerusalem
and Sicily , titular Count of Provence
Provence
and Forcalquier
Forcalquier
(1386–1414), and titular King of Hungary and Croatia (1390–1414). He was the last male of the senior Angevin line . He was named in honor of the King Saint Ladislaus I of Hungary
Ladislaus I of Hungary
, who was highly venerated by the Angevin Kings Charles I of Hungary and Louis I of Hungary
Louis I of Hungary
, considered the model of the perfect King, Knight, and Christian man in Central Europe during that time
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Municipium
MUNICIPIUM (pl. MUNICIPIA) was the Latin term for a town or city. Etymologically the municipium was a social contract between municipes, the "duty holders," or citizens of the town. The duties, or munera, were a communal obligation assumed by the municipes in exchange for the privileges and protections of citizenship. Every citizen was a municeps. The distinction of municipia was not made in the Roman kingdom
Roman kingdom
; instead, the immediate neighbors of the city were invited or compelled to transfer their populations to the urban structure of Rome, where they took up residence in neighborhoods and became Romans per se. Under the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
the practical considerations of incorporating communities into the city-state of Rome
Rome
forced the Romans to devise the concept of municipium, a distinct state under the jurisdiction of Rome
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Western Roman Empire
In historiography , the WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE consists of the western provinces of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with (or only nominally subordinate to) that administering the eastern half. Both "Western Roman Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" (or " Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
") are modern terms describing de facto independent entities ; however, at no point did the Romans consider the Empire split into two, but rather considered it a single state governed by two separate Imperial courts out of administrative expediency, a system of government known as a diarchy
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Rome
ROME (/roʊm/ ROHM ; Italian : Roma ( listen ), Latin
Latin
: Rōma) is the capital of Italy
Italy
and a special comune (named Comune
Comune
di Roma Capitale). Rome
Rome
also serves as the capital of the Lazio region . With 2,876,051 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth-most populous city in the European Union
European Union
by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome , which has a population of 4.3 million residents. Rome
Rome
is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber
Tiber

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Consul
CONSUL (abbrev. cos.; Latin
Latin
plural consules) was the title of one of the chief magistrates of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, and subsequently a somewhat significant title under the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. The title was also used in other city states and also revived in modern states , notably in the First French Republic . The relating adjective is CONSULAR, from the consularis
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Podestà
PODESTà (pronounced ) is the name given to certain high officials in many Italian cities beginning in the later Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. Mainly it meant the chief magistrate of a city state, the counterpart to similar positions in other cities that went by other names, e.g. rettori ("rectors"), but it could also mean the local administrator, who was the representative of the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
. Currently, Podestà
Podestà
is the title of mayors in Italian -speaking municipalities of Graubünden in Switzerland
Switzerland
. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Italian history * 2.1 Fascist era * 3 Podesteria * 4 Frisian Potestaat * 5 See also * 6 Reading * 7 References ETYMOLOGYThe term derives from the Latin
Latin
word potestas , meaning power
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National Etruscan Museum
The NATIONAL ETRUSCAN MUSEUM (Italian : Museo Nazionale Etrusco) is a museum of the Etruscan civilization
Etruscan civilization
, housed in the Villa Giulia
Villa Giulia
in Rome
Rome
, Italy
Italy
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Collections * 3 References * 4 See also * 5 External links HISTORYThe villa was built for pope Julius III , for whom it was named. It remained in papal property until 1870, when, in the wake of the Risorgimento
Risorgimento
and the demise of the Papal States
Papal States
, it became the property of the Kingdom of Italy
Italy

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Totila
VANDALIC WAR * Ad Decimum * Tricamarum GOTHIC WAR * 1st Naples
Naples
* 1st Rome
Rome
* Treviso
Treviso
* Verona
Verona
* Faventia * Mucellium * 2nd Naples
Naples
* 2nd Rome
Rome
* 3rd Rome
Rome
* Sena Gallica * Taginae * Mons Lactarius * Volturnus CONQUEST OF SPANIA MOORISH WARS * Mammes and Bourgaon * Babosis and Zerboule * Cillium * Marta * Fields of Cato LAZIC WAR * Phasis TOTILA, original name BADUILA (died July 1, 552) was the penultimate King of the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
, reigning from 541 to 552 AD
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