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Agira
AGIRA (Italian pronunciation: ; Sicilian : Aggira) is a town and comune in the province of Enna
Enna
, Sicily
Sicily
(southern Italy
Italy
). It is located in the mid-valley of the River Salso , 35 kilometres (22 miles) from Enna
Enna
. Until 1861 it was called SAN FILIPPO D\'ARGIRIò, in honour of its saint Philip of Agira
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Dionysius I Of Syracuse
DIONYSIUS I or DIONYSIUS THE ELDER (Greek : Διονύσιος ὁ Πρεσβύτερος; c. 432 – 367 BC) was a Greek tyrant of Syracuse , in what is now Sicily
Sicily
, southern Italy. He conquered several cities in Sicily
Sicily
and southern Italy, opposed Carthage
Carthage
's influence in Sicily
Sicily
and made Syracuse the most powerful of the Western Greek colonies. He was regarded by the ancients as an example of the worst kind of despot—cruel, suspicious and vindictive. CONTENTS * 1 Early life of Dionysius the Elder * 2 Mercenaries
Mercenaries
and autocracy * 3 Conquests * 4 Death * 5 Intellectual tastes * 6 Walls of Syracuse * 7 Fictional references * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 Further reading * 11 External links EARLY LIFE OF DIONYSIUS THE ELDERDionysius began his working life as a clerk in a public office
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Tyrant
A TYRANT (Greek τύραννος, tyrannos), in the modern English usage of the word, is an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or person, or one who has usurped legitimate sovereignty. Often described as a cruel character, a tyrant defends his position by oppressive means, tending to control almost everything in the state. The original Greek term, however, merely meant an authoritarian sovereign without reference to character, bearing no pejorative connotation during the Archaic and early Classical periods. However, it was clearly a negative word to Plato , a Greek philosopher, and on account of the decisive influence of philosophy on politics, its negative connotations only increased, continuing into the Hellenistic period . Plato and Aristotle define a tyrant as a person who rules without law, using extreme and cruel methods against both his own people and others
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Carthage
CARTHAGE (/ˈkɑːrθɪdʒ/ , from Latin
Latin
: Carthāgō; Phoenician : Qart-ḥadašt ("New city") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization , on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis
Tunis
in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia
Tunisia
. The city developed from a Phoenician colony into the capital of an empire dominating the Mediterranean during the first millennium BC. The legendary Queen Dido is regarded as the founder of the city, though her historicity has been questioned. According to accounts by Timaeus of Tauromenium , she purchased from a local tribe the amount of land that could be covered by an oxhide
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Greek People
The GREEKS or HELLENES (Greek : Έλληνες ) are an ethnic group native to Greece
Greece
, Cyprus
Cyprus
, southern Albania
Albania
, Turkey
Turkey
, Sicily
Sicily
, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea
Sea
. They also form a significant diaspora , with Greek communities established around the world. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
and Black Sea
Black Sea
, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language
Greek language
has been spoken since the Bronze Age
Bronze Age

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Corinth
CORINTH (/ˈkɒrɪnθ/ ; Greek : Κόρινθος, Kórinthos, pronounced ( listen )) is a city and former municipality in Corinthia , Peloponnese , Greece
Greece
. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality of Corinth
Corinth
, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit. It is the capital of Corinthia. It was founded as NEA KORINTHOS or NEW CORINTH (Νέα Κόρινθος) in 1858 after an earthquake destroyed the existing settlement of Corinth, which had developed in and around the site of ancient Corinth
Corinth

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Ancient Greek Language
ANCIENT GREEK includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(3rd century BC to the 6th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek . The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
Medieval Greek
. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects
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Erean Mountains
The EREAN MOUNTAINS (Italian : Monti Erei) are a mountain chain in central Sicily
Sicily
, southern Italy
Italy
, mostly located in the central and northern areas of the province of Enna . The highest peak is the Monte Altesina , at 1,192 m above sea level. DESCRIPTIONThe Erean Mountains
Erean Mountains
are of limestone origin, and do not reach high altitudes. Their area was once one of the most important in the world for the production of sulphur , as testified today by numerous mineral quarries, the largest being that of Floristella-Grottacalda. There are several lakes in the mountain group, such as Pergusa Lake , whose rich bird life has given it the status of being the first special Natural Reserve in Sicily, and Pozzillo Lake , the largest artificial basin on the island
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Ragusa, Italy
RAGUSA (Italian: , listen (help ·info ); Sicilian : Rausa; Latin : Ragusia) is a city and comune in southern Italy. It is the capital of the province of Ragusa , on the island of Sicily
Sicily
, with 73,288 inhabitants in 2016. It is built on a wide limestone hill between two deep valleys , Cava San Leonardo and Cava Santa Domenica. Together with seven other cities in the Val di Noto , it is part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site

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Syracuse, Sicily
SYRACUSE (/ˈsɪrəˌkjuːs, -ˌkjuːz/ ; Italian : Siracusa, pronounced ( listen ); Sicilian : Sarausa/Seragusa; Latin : Syrācūsae; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Συράκουσαι, Syrakousai; Medieval Greek
Medieval Greek
: Συρακοῦσαι) is a historic city in Sicily
Sicily
, the capital of the province of Syracuse . The city is notable for its rich Greek history , culture , amphitheatres , architecture , and as the birthplace of the preeminent mathematician and engineer Archimedes . This 2,700-year-old city played a key role in ancient times, when it was one of the major powers of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world. Syracuse is located in the southeast corner of the island of Sicily, next to the Gulf of Syracuse beside the Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea

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Trapani
TRAPANI listen (help ·info ) (Sicilian : Tràpani; Latin : Drepanon, Greek : Δρέπανον) is a city and comune on the west coast of Sicily
Sicily
in Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Trapani . Founded by Elymians , the city is still an important fishing port and the main gateway to the nearby Egadi Islands
Egadi Islands
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Administration and demographics * 3 Economy * 4 Main sights * 5 Culture * 6 Transport * 7 Sport * 8 Climate * 9 International relations * 9.1 Twin towns — Sister cities * 10 Gallery * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 Bibliography * 14 External links HISTORY See also: Timeline of Trapani Trapani
Trapani
was founded by the Elymians to serve as the port of the nearby city of Erice
Erice
(ancient Eryx), which overlooks it from Monte San Giuliano
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Eucalyptus
Aromadendron Andrews ex Steud. Eucalypton St.-Lag. Eudesmia R.Br. Symphyomyrtus Schauer EUCALYPTUS /ˌjuːkəˈlɪptəs/ L'Heritier 1789 is a diverse genus of flowering trees and shrubs (including a distinct group with a multiple-stem mallee growth habit) in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae . Members of the genus dominate the tree flora of Australia
Australia
, and include Eucalyptus regnans , the tallest known flowering plant on Earth. There are more than 700 species of eucalyptus and most are native to Australia; a very small number are found in adjacent areas of New Guinea
New Guinea
and Indonesia
Indonesia
. One species, Eucalyptus deglupta
Eucalyptus deglupta
, ranges as far north as the Philippines . Of the 15 species found outside Australia, just nine are exclusively non-Australian
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Timoleon
TIMOLEON (Greek : Τιμολέων), son of Timodemus, of Corinth (c. 411–337 BC) was a Greek statesman and general. As the champion of Greece against Carthage he is closely connected with the history of Sicily , especially Syracuse . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Sicily * 3 Ruler of Syracuse * 4 Retirement * 5 Tyrant or democrat? * 6 Notes * 7 Sources * 7.1 Primary sources * 7.2 Secondary sources * 8 Further reading EARLY LIFEIn the mid 360s BC, Timophanes , the brother of Timoleon took possession of the acropolis of Corinth and effectively made himself tyrant of the city. In response, Timoleon, who had earlier saved his brother's life in battle, became involved in the assassination of Timophanes
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Heracles
HERACLES (/ˈhɛrəkliːz/ HERR-ə-kleez ; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ἡρακλῆς, Hēraklēs, from Hēra, " Hera
Hera
"), born ALCAEUS (Ἀλκαῖος, Alkaios) or ALCIDES (Ἀλκείδης, Alkeidēs), was a divine hero in Greek mythology
Greek mythology
, the son of Zeus
Zeus
and Alcmene , foster son of Amphitryon and great-grandson and half-brother (as they are both sired by the god Zeus
Zeus
) of Perseus
Perseus
. He was the greatest of the Greek heroes, a paragon of masculinity, the ancestor of royal clans who claimed to be Heracleidae (Ἡρακλεῖδαι), and a champion of the Olympian order against chthonic monsters
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Italian Language
ITALIAN ( italiano (help ·info ) or lingua italiana ) is a Romance language
Romance language
. By most measures, Italian, together with Sardinian , is the closest to Latin
Latin
of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy
Italy
, Switzerland
Switzerland
, San Marino
San Marino
, Vatican City and western Istria
Istria
(in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
)
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Saracens
SARACEN was a term widely used among Christian writers in Europe during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. The term's meaning evolved during its history. In the early centuries AD, Greek and Latin writings used this term to refer to the people who lived in desert areas in and near the Roman province of Arabia , and who were specifically distinguished as a people from others known as Arabs
Arabs
. In Europe during the Early Medieval era, the term came to be associated with Arab tribes as well. By the 12th century, "Saracen" had become synonymous with "Muslim" in Medieval Latin literature. Such expansion in the meaning of the term had begun centuries earlier among the Byzantine Greeks , as evidenced in documents from the 8th century
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