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Marcus Tullius Cicero[n 1] (/ˈsɪsəroʊ/; Classical Latin: [ˈmaːr.kʊs ˈtʊl.lɪ.ʊs ˈkɪ.kɛ.roː]; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman politician and lawyer, who served as consul in the year 63 BC. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the Roman equestrian order, and is considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists.[2][3] His influence on the Latin
Latin
language was so immense that the subsequent history of prose, not only in Latin
Latin
but in European languages up to the 19th century, was said to be either a reaction against or a return to his style.[4] According to Michael Grant, "the influence of Cicero upon the history of European literature and ideas greatly exceeds that of any other prose writer in any language".[5] Cicero
Cicero
introduced the Romans to the chief schools of Greek philosophy
Greek philosophy
and created a Latin philosophical vocabulary (with neologisms such as evidentia,[6] humanitas, qualitas, quantitas, and essentia)[7] distinguishing himself as a translator and philosopher. Though he was an accomplished orator and successful lawyer, Cicero believed his political career was his most important achievement. It was during his consulship that the second Catilinarian conspiracy attempted to overthrow the government through an attack on the city by outside forces, and Cicero
Cicero
suppressed the revolt by summarily executing five conspirators. During the chaotic latter half of the 1st century BC marked by civil wars and the dictatorship of Gaius Julius Caesar, Cicero
Cicero
championed a return to the traditional republican government. Following Julius Caesar's death, Cicero
Cicero
became an enemy of Mark Antony
Mark Antony
in the ensuing power struggle, attacking him in a series of speeches. He was proscribed as an enemy of the state by the Second Triumvirate
Triumvirate
and consequently executed by soldiers operating on their behalf in 43 BC after having been intercepted during an attempted flight from the Italian peninsula. His severed hands and head were then, as a final revenge of Mark Antony, displayed in the Roman Forum. Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited for initiating the 14th-century Renaissance
Renaissance
in public affairs, humanism, and classical Roman culture.[8] According to Polish historian Tadeusz Zieliński, "the Renaissance
Renaissance
was above all things a revival of Cicero, and only after him and through him of the rest of Classical antiquity."[9] The peak of Cicero's authority and prestige came during the 18th-century Enlightenment,[10] and his impact on leading Enlightenment thinkers and political theorists such as John Locke, David Hume, Montesquieu
Montesquieu
and Edmund Burke
Edmund Burke
was substantial.[11] His works rank among the most influential in European culture, and today still constitute one of the most important bodies of primary material for the writing and revision of Roman history, especially the last days of the Roman Republic.[12]

Contents

1 Personal life

1.1 Early life 1.2 Family

2 Public career

2.1 Early political career 2.2 Consul 2.3 Exile and return 2.4 Julius Caesar's civil war 2.5 Opposition to Mark Antony
Mark Antony
and death

3 Legacy 4 Works

4.1 Speeches 4.2 Philosophical dialogues and treatises 4.3 Letters

5 Notable fictional portrayals 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References

8.1 Citations 8.2 Bibliography

9 Further reading 10 External links

Personal life[edit] Main article: Personal life of Marcus Tullius Cicero Early life[edit] Cicero
Cicero
was born in 106 BC in Arpinum, a hill town 100 kilometers (62 mi) southeast of Rome. He belonged to the tribus Cornelia.[13] His father was a well-to-do member of the equestrian order and possessed good connections in Rome. However, being a semi-invalid, he could not enter public life and studied extensively to compensate. Although little is known about Cicero's mother, Helvia, it was common for the wives of important Roman citizens to be responsible for the management of the household. Cicero's brother Quintus wrote in a letter that she was a thrifty housewife.[14] Cicero's cognomen, or personal surname, comes from the Latin
Latin
for chickpea, cicer. Plutarch
Plutarch
explains that the name was originally given to one of Cicero's ancestors who had a cleft in the tip of his nose resembling a chickpea. However, it is more likely that Cicero's ancestors prospered through the cultivation and sale of chickpeas.[15] Romans often chose down-to-earth personal surnames. The famous family names of Fabius, Lentulus, and Piso come from the Latin
Latin
names of beans, lentils, and peas, respectively. Plutarch
Plutarch
writes that Cicero was urged to change this deprecatory name when he entered politics, but refused, saying that he would make Cicero
Cicero
more glorious than Scaurus ("Swollen-ankled") and Catulus ("Puppy").[16]

The Young Cicero Reading
The Young Cicero Reading
by Vincenzo Foppa
Vincenzo Foppa
(fresco, 1464), now at the Wallace Collection

During this period in Roman history, "cultured" meant being able to speak both Latin
Latin
and Greek. Cicero
Cicero
was therefore educated in the teachings of the ancient Greek philosophers, poets and historians; he obtained much of his understanding of the theory and practice of rhetoric from the Greek poet Archias[17] and from the Greek rhetorician Apollonius.[18] Cicero
Cicero
used his knowledge of Greek to translate many of the theoretical concepts of Greek philosophy
Greek philosophy
into Latin, thus translating Greek philosophical works for a larger audience. It was precisely his broad education that tied him to the traditional Roman elite.[19] According to Plutarch, Cicero
Cicero
was an extremely talented student, whose learning attracted attention from all over Rome,[20] affording him the opportunity to study Roman law
Roman law
under Quintus Mucius Scaevola.[21] Cicero's fellow students were Gaius Marius
Gaius Marius
Minor, Servius
Servius
Sulpicius Rufus (who became a famous lawyer, one of the few whom Cicero considered superior to himself in legal matters), and Titus Pomponius. The latter two became Cicero's friends for life, and Pomponius (who later received the nickname "Atticus", and whose sister married Cicero's brother) would become, in Cicero's own words, "as a second brother", with both maintaining a lifelong correspondence.[22] Cicero
Cicero
wanted to pursue a public career in politics along the steps of the Cursus honorum. In 90–88 BC, he served both Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo
Strabo
and Lucius Cornelius Sulla
Lucius Cornelius Sulla
as they campaigned in the Social War, though he had no taste for military life, being an intellectual first and foremost. Cicero
Cicero
started his career as a lawyer around 83–81 BC. His first major case, of which a written record is still extant, was his 80 BC defense of Sextus Roscius
Sextus Roscius
on the charge of patricide.[23] Taking this case was a courageous move for Cicero; patricide was considered an appalling crime, and the people whom Cicero
Cicero
accused of the murder, the most notorious being Chrysogonus, were favorites of Sulla. At this time it would have been easy for Sulla
Sulla
to have the unknown Cicero
Cicero
murdered. Cicero's defense was an indirect challenge to the dictator Sulla, and on the strength of his case, Roscius was acquitted.[24] Cicero’s case was divided into three parts. The first part detailed exactly the charge brought by Ericius. Cicero
Cicero
explained how a rustic son of a farmer, who lives off the pleasures of his own land, would not have gained anything from committing patricide because he would have eventually inherited his father's land anyway. The second part concerned the boldness and greed of two of the accusers, Magnus and Capito. Cicero
Cicero
told the jury that they were the more likely perpetrators of murder because the two were greedy, both for conspiring together against a fellow kinsman and, in particular, Magnus, for his boldness and for being unashamed to appear in court to support the false charges. The third part explained that Chrysogonus had immense political power, and the accusation was successfully made due to that power. Even though Chrysogonus may not have been what Cicero
Cicero
said he was, through rhetoric Cicero
Cicero
successfully made him appear to be a foreign freed man who prospered by devious means in the aftermath of the civil war. Cicero
Cicero
surmised that it showed what kind of a person he was and that something like murder was not beneath him.[25] Cicero's interest in philosophy figured heavily in his later career and led to him providing a comprehensive account of Greek philosophy for a Roman audience,[26] including creating a philosophical vocabulary in Latin.[27] In 87 BC, Philo of Larissa, the head of the Academy
Academy
that was founded by Plato
Plato
in Athens
Athens
about 300 years earlier, arrived in Rome. Cicero, "inspired by an extraordinary zeal for philosophy",[28] sat enthusiastically at his feet and absorbed Plato's philosophy. Cicero
Cicero
said of Plato's Dialogues, that if Zeus were to speak, he would use their language.[29] In 79 BC, Cicero
Cicero
left for Greece, Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and Rhodes. This was perhaps to avoid the potential wrath of Sulla,[30] though Cicero himself says it was to hone his skills and improve his physical fitness.[31] In Athens
Athens
he studied philosophy with Antiochus of Ascalon, the 'Old Academic' and initiator of Middle Platonism.[32] In Asia
Asia
Minor, he met the leading orators of the region and continued to study with them. Cicero
Cicero
then journeyed to Rhodes
Rhodes
to meet his former teacher, Apollonius Molon, who had previously taught him in Rome. Molon helped Cicero
Cicero
hone the excesses in his style, as well as train his body and lungs for the demands of public speaking.[33] Charting a middle path between the competing Attic and Asiatic styles, Cicero would ultimately become considered second only to Demosthenes
Demosthenes
among history's orators.[34] Family[edit]

Marcus Tullius Cicero

Cicero
Cicero
married Terentia probably at the age of 27, in 79 BC. According to the upper class mores of the day it was a marriage of convenience, but lasted harmoniously for nearly 30 years. Terentia's family was wealthy, probably the plebeian noble house of Terenti Varrones, thus meeting the needs of Cicero's political ambitions in both economic and social terms. She had a half-sister named Fabia, who as a child had become a Vestal Virgin, a very great honour. Terentia was a strong willed woman and (citing Plutarch) "she took more interest in her husband's political career than she allowed him to take in household affairs."[35] In the 50s BC, Cicero's letters to Terentia became shorter and colder. He complained to his friends that Terentia had betrayed him but did not specify in which sense. Perhaps the marriage simply could not outlast the strain of the political upheaval in Rome, Cicero's involvement in it, and various other disputes between the two. The divorce appears to have taken place in 51 BC or shortly before.[36] In 46 or 45 BC,[37] Cicero
Cicero
married a young girl, Publilia, who had been his ward. It is thought that Cicero
Cicero
needed her money, particularly after having to repay the dowry of Terentia, who came from a wealthy family.[38] This marriage did not last long. Although his marriage to Terentia was one of convenience, it is commonly known that Cicero
Cicero
held great love for his daughter Tullia.[39] When she suddenly became ill in February 45 BC and died after having seemingly recovered from giving birth to a son in January, Cicero
Cicero
was stunned. "I have lost the one thing that bound me to life" he wrote to Atticus.[40] Atticus told him to come for a visit during the first weeks of his bereavement, so that he could comfort him when his pain was at its greatest. In Atticus's large library, Cicero
Cicero
read everything that the Greek philosophers had written about overcoming grief, "but my sorrow defeats all consolation."[41] Caesar and Brutus as well as Servius Sulpicius Rufus sent him letters of condolence.[42][43] Cicero
Cicero
hoped that his son Marcus would become a philosopher like him, but Marcus himself wished for a military career. He joined the army of Pompey
Pompey
in 49 BC and after Pompey's defeat at Pharsalus
Pharsalus
48 BC, he was pardoned by Caesar. Cicero
Cicero
sent him to Athens
Athens
to study as a disciple of the peripatetic philosopher Kratippos in 48 BC, but he used this absence from "his father's vigilant eye" to "eat, drink and be merry."[44] After Cicero's murder he joined the army of the Liberatores
Liberatores
but was later pardoned by Augustus. Augustus's bad conscience for not having objected to Cicero's being put on the proscription list during the Second Triumvirate
Second Triumvirate
led him to aid considerably Marcus Minor's career. He became an augur, and was nominated consul in 30 BC together with Augustus. As such, he was responsible for revoking the honors of Mark Antony, who was responsible for the proscription, and could in this way take revenge. Later he was appointed proconsul of Syria
Syria
and the province of Asia.[45] Public career[edit] Main article: Political career of Cicero Early political career[edit] His first office was as one of the twenty annual quaestors, a training post for serious public administration in a diversity of areas, but with a traditional emphasis on administration and rigorous accounting of public monies under the guidance of a senior magistrate or provincial commander. Cicero
Cicero
served as quaestor in western Sicily in 75 BC and demonstrated honesty and integrity in his dealings with the inhabitants. As a result, the grateful Sicilians asked Cicero
Cicero
to prosecute Gaius Verres, a governor of Sicily, who had badly plundered the province. His prosecution of Gaius Verres
Gaius Verres
was a great forensic success[46] for Cicero. Governor Gaius Verres
Gaius Verres
hired the prominent lawyer of a noble family Quintus Hortensius Hortalus. After a lengthy period in Sicily collecting testimonials and evidence and persuading witnesses to come forward, Cicero
Cicero
returned to Rome
Rome
and won the case in a series of dramatic court battles. His unique style of oratory set him apart from the flamboyant Hortensius. On the conclusion of this case, Cicero
Cicero
came to be considered the greatest orator in Rome. The view that Cicero
Cicero
may have taken the case for reasons of his own is viable. Hortensius was, at this point, known as the best lawyer in Rome; to beat him would guarantee much success and the prestige that Cicero
Cicero
needed to start his career. Cicero's oratorical skill is shown in his character assassination of Verres and various other techniques of persuasion used on the jury. One such example is found in the speech Against Verres I, where he states "with you on this bench, gentlemen, with Marcus Acilius Glabrio as your president, I do not understand what Verres can hope to achieve".[47] Oratory was considered a great art in ancient Rome
Rome
and an important tool for disseminating knowledge and promoting oneself in elections, in part because there were no regular newspapers or mass media. Cicero
Cicero
was neither a patrician nor a plebeian noble; his rise to political office despite his relatively humble origins has traditionally been attributed to his brilliance as an orator.[48] Cicero
Cicero
grew up in a time of civil unrest and war. Sulla's victory in the first of a series of civil wars led to a new constitutional framework that undermined libertas (liberty), the fundamental value of the Roman Republic. Nonetheless, Sulla's reforms strengthened the position of the equestrian class, contributing to that class's growing political power. Cicero
Cicero
was both an Italian eques and a novus homo, but more importantly he was a Roman constitutionalist. His social class and loyalty to the Republic
Republic
ensured that he would "command the support and confidence of the people as well as the Italian middle classes". The optimates faction never truly accepted Cicero; and this undermined his efforts to reform the Republic
Republic
while preserving the constitution. Nevertheless, he successfully ascended the cursus honorum, holding each magistracy at or near the youngest possible age: quaestor in 75 BC (age 31), aedile in 69 BC (age 37), and praetor in 66 BC (age 40), when he served as president of the "Reclamation" (or extortion) Court. He was then elected consul at age 43. Consul[edit]

Cicero
Cicero
Denounces Catiline, fresco by Cesare Maccari, 1882–88

Cicero
Cicero
was elected consul for the year 63 BC. His co-consul for the year, Gaius Antonius Hybrida, played a minor role. During his year in office, he thwarted a conspiracy centered on assassinating him and overthrowing the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
with the help of foreign armed forces, led by Lucius Sergius Catilina. Cicero
Cicero
procured a senatus consultum ultimum (a declaration of martial law) and drove Catiline
Catiline
from the city with four vehement speeches (the Catiline
Catiline
Orations), which to this day remain outstanding examples of his rhetorical style. The Orations listed Catiline
Catiline
and his followers' debaucheries, and denounced Catiline's senatorial sympathizers as roguish and dissolute debtors clinging to Catiline
Catiline
as a final and desperate hope. Cicero demanded that Catiline
Catiline
and his followers leave the city. At the conclusion of his first speech, Catiline
Catiline
hurriedly left the Senate, (which was being held in the Temple of Jupiter Stator). In his following speeches, Cicero
Cicero
did not directly address Catiline. He delivered the second and third orations before the people, and the last one again before the Senate. By these speeches, Cicero
Cicero
wanted to prepare the Senate for the worst possible case; he also delivered more evidence against Catiline.[49] Catiline
Catiline
fled and left behind his followers to start the revolution from within while Catiline
Catiline
assaulted the city with an army of "moral bankrupts and honest fanatics". Catiline
Catiline
had attempted to involve the Allobroges, a tribe of Transalpine Gaul, in their plot, but Cicero, working with the Gauls, was able to seize letters that incriminated the five conspirators and forced them to confess in front of the Senate.[50] The Senate then deliberated upon the conspirators' punishment. As it was the dominant advisory body to the various legislative assemblies rather than a judicial body, there were limits to its power; however, martial law was in effect, and it was feared that simple house arrest or exile – the standard options – would not remove the threat to the state. At first Decimus Silanus spoke for the "extreme penalty"; many were swayed by Julius Caesar, who decried the precedent it would set and argued in favor of life imprisonment in various Italian towns. Cato the Younger
Cato the Younger
rose in defence of the death penalty and the entire Senate finally agreed on the matter. Cicero
Cicero
had the conspirators taken to the Tullianum, the notorious Roman prison, where they were strangled. Cicero
Cicero
himself accompanied the former consul Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura, one of the conspirators, to the Tullianum. Cicero
Cicero
received the honorific "Pater Patriae" for his efforts to suppress the conspiracy, but lived thereafter in fear of trial or exile for having put Roman citizens to death without trial. After the conspirators were put to death, Cicero
Cicero
was proud of his accomplishment. Some of his political enemies argued that though the act gained Cicero
Cicero
popularity, he exaggerated the extent of his success. He overestimated his popularity again several years later after being exiled from Italy
Italy
and then allowed back from exile. At this time, he claimed that the Republic
Republic
would be restored along with him.[51] Exile and return[edit] In 60 BC, Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
invited Cicero
Cicero
to be the fourth member of his existing partnership with Pompey
Pompey
and Marcus Licinius Crassus, an assembly that would eventually be called the First Triumvirate.[52] Cicero
Cicero
refused the invitation because he suspected it would undermine the Republic.[53] In 58 BC, Publius Clodius Pulcher, the tribune of the plebs, introduced a law (the Leges Clodiae) threatening exile to anyone who executed a Roman citizen without a trial. Cicero, having executed members of the Catiline
Catiline
Conspiracy four years previously without formal trial, and having had a public falling out with Clodius, was clearly the intended target of the law. Cicero
Cicero
argued that the senatus consultum ultimum indemnified him from punishment, and he attempted to gain the support of the senators and consuls, especially of Pompey. When help was not forthcoming, he went into exile. He arrived at Thessalonica, on May 23, 58 BC.[54][55][56] Cicero's exile caused him to fall into depression. He wrote to Atticus: "Your pleas have prevented me from committing suicide. But what is there to live for? Don't blame me for complaining. My afflictions surpass any you ever heard of earlier".[57] After the intervention of recently elected tribune Titus Annius Milo, the senate voted in favor of recalling Cicero
Cicero
from exile. Clodius cast the single vote against the decree. Cicero
Cicero
returned to Italy
Italy
on August 5, 57 BC, landing at Brundisium.[58] He was greeted by a cheering crowd, and, to his delight, his beloved daughter Tullia.[59] Cicero
Cicero
tried to re-enter politics, but his attack on a bill of Caesar's proved unsuccessful. The conference at Luca in 56 BC forced Cicero
Cicero
to recant and support the triumvirate. After this, a cowed Cicero
Cicero
concentrated on his literary works. It is uncertain whether he was directly involved in politics for the following few years.[60] He reluctantly accepted a promagistracy in Cilicia for 51 BC, because there were few other eligible governors available as a result of a legislative requirement enacted by Pompey
Pompey
in 52 BC, specifying an interval of five years between a consulship or praetorship and a provincial command.[61] He served as proconsul of Cilicia from May 51 to November 50 BC. He was given instructions to keep nearby Cappadocia
Cappadocia
loyal to the King, Ariobarzanes III, which he achieved ‘satisfactorily without war.’ Rome’s defeat by the Parthian Empire
Parthian Empire
and an uprising in Syria
Syria
caused disquiet in Cilicia. Cicero
Cicero
maintained calm through his mild government. He discovered that much of public property had been embezzled and restored it. This made the cities better off. He retained the civil rights of, and did not impose penalties on, the men who gave the property back. Cicero defeated some robbers who were based on Mount Amanus and his soldiers hailed him as imperator. On his way back to Rome
Rome
he stopped in Rhodes. He then spent some time in Athens, where he caught up with an old friend from his previous stay there and met men of great learning.[62] Julius Caesar's civil war[edit] The struggle between Pompey
Pompey
and Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
grew more intense in 50 BC. Cicero
Cicero
favoured Pompey, seeing him as a defender of the senate and Republican tradition, but at that time avoided openly alienating Caesar.[63] When Caesar invaded Italy
Italy
in 49 BC, Cicero
Cicero
fled Rome. Caesar, seeking the legitimacy of an endorsement by a senior senator, courted Cicero's favour, but even so Cicero
Cicero
slipped out of Italy
Italy
and traveled to Dyrrachium (Epidamnos), Illyria, where Pompey's staff was situated.[64] Cicero
Cicero
traveled with the Pompeian forces to Pharsalus
Pharsalus
in 48 BC,[65] though he was quickly losing faith in the competence and righteousness of the Pompeian side. Eventually, he provoked the hostility of his fellow senator Cato, who told him that he would have been of more use to the cause of the optimates if he had stayed in Rome. After Caesar's victory at the Battle of Pharsalus
Battle of Pharsalus
on August 9, Cicero
Cicero
returned to Rome
Rome
only very cautiously. Caesar pardoned him and Cicero
Cicero
tried to adjust to the situation and maintain his political work, hoping that Caesar might revive the Republic
Republic
and its institutions. In a letter to Varro on c. April 20, 46 BC, Cicero
Cicero
outlined his strategy under Caesar's dictatorship. Cicero, however, was taken completely by surprise when the Liberatores
Liberatores
assassinated Caesar on the ides of March, 44 BC. Cicero
Cicero
was not included in the conspiracy, even though the conspirators were sure of his sympathy. Marcus Junius Brutus called out Cicero's name, asking him to restore the republic when he lifted his bloodstained dagger after the assassination.[66] A letter Cicero
Cicero
wrote in February 43 BC to Trebonius, one of the conspirators, began, "How I could wish that you had invited me to that most glorious banquet on the Ides of March"![67] Cicero
Cicero
became a popular leader during the period of instability following the assassination. He had no respect for Mark Antony, who was scheming to take revenge upon Caesar's murderers. In exchange for amnesty for the assassins, he arranged for the Senate to agree not to declare Caesar to have been a tyrant, which allowed the Caesarians to have lawful support and kept Caesar's reforms and policies intact.[68] Opposition to Mark Antony
Mark Antony
and death[edit]

Cicero's death (France, 15th century)

Cicero
Cicero
and Antony now became the two leading men in Rome: Cicero
Cicero
as spokesman for the Senate; Antony as consul, leader of the Caesarian faction, and unofficial executor of Caesar's public will. Relations between the two, never friendly, worsened after Cicero
Cicero
claimed that Antony was taking liberties in interpreting Caesar's wishes and intentions. Octavian was Caesar's adopted son and heir. After he returned to Italy, Cicero
Cicero
began to play him against Antony. He praised Octavian, declaring he would not make the same mistakes as his father. He attacked Antony in a series of speeches he called the Philippics,[69] after Demosthenes's denunciations of Philip II of Macedon. At the time Cicero's popularity as a public figure was unrivalled.[70] Cicero
Cicero
supported Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus as governor of Cisalpine Gaul
Cisalpine Gaul
(Gallia Cisalpina) and urged the Senate to name Antony an enemy of the state. The speech of Lucius Piso, Caesar's father-in-law, delayed proceedings against Antony. Antony was later declared an enemy of the state when he refused to lift the siege of Mutina, which was in the hands of Decimus Brutus. Cicero’s plan to drive out Antony failed. Antony and Octavian reconciled and allied with Lepidus to form the Second Triumvirate
Second Triumvirate
after the successive battles of Forum Gallorum and Mutina. The Triumvirate
Triumvirate
began proscribing their enemies and potential rivals immediately after legislating the alliance into official existence for a term of five years with consular imperium. Cicero
Cicero
and all of his contacts and supporters were numbered among the enemies of the state, and reportedly, Octavian argued for two days against Cicero
Cicero
being added to the list.[71] Cicero
Cicero
was one of the most viciously and doggedly hunted among the proscribed. He was viewed with sympathy by a large segment of the public and many people refused to report that they had seen him. He was caught December 7, 43 BC leaving his villa in Formiae
Formiae
in a litter going to the seaside where he hoped to embark on a ship destined for Macedonia.[72] When his killers – Herennius (a centurion) and Popilius (a tribune) – arrived, Cicero's own slaves said they had not seen him, but he was given away by Philologus, a freedman of his brother Quintus Cicero.[72]

Cicero
Cicero
about age 60, from a marble bust

Cicero's last words are said to have been, "There is nothing proper about what you are doing, soldier, but do try to kill me properly." He bowed to his captors, leaning his head out of the litter in a gladiatorial gesture to ease the task. By baring his neck and throat to the soldiers, he was indicating that he wouldn't resist. According to Plutarch, Herennius first slew him, then cut off his head. On Antony's instructions his hands, which had penned the Philippics against Antony, were cut off as well; these were nailed along with his head on the Rostra
Rostra
in the Forum Romanum according to the tradition of Marius and Sulla, both of whom had displayed the heads of their enemies in the Forum. Cicero
Cicero
was the only victim of the proscriptions who was displayed in that manner. According to Cassius Dio (in a story often mistakenly attributed to Plutarch),[73] Antony's wife Fulvia took Cicero's head, pulled out his tongue, and jabbed it repeatedly with her hairpin in final revenge against Cicero's power of speech.[74] Cicero's son, Marcus Tullius Cicero
Cicero
Minor, during his year as a consul in 30 BC, avenged his father's death, to a certain extent, when he announced to the Senate Mark Antony's naval defeat at Actium in 31 BC by Octavian and his capable commander-in-chief, Agrippa. Octavian is reported to have praised Cicero
Cicero
as a patriot and a scholar of meaning in later times, within the circle of his family.[75] However, it was Octavian's acquiescence that had allowed Cicero
Cicero
to be killed, as Cicero
Cicero
was proscribed by the new triumvirate. Cicero's career as a statesman was marked by inconsistencies and a tendency to shift his position in response to changes in the political climate. His indecision may be attributed to his sensitive and impressionable personality; he was prone to overreaction in the face of political and private change. "Would that he had been able to endure prosperity with greater self-control, and adversity with more fortitude!" wrote C. Asinius Pollio, a contemporary Roman statesman and historian.[76][77] Legacy[edit]

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Henry VIII's childhood copy of De Officiis, bearing the inscription in his hand, "Thys boke is myne Prynce Henry"

Cicero
Cicero
has been traditionally considered the master of Latin
Latin
prose, with Quintilian
Quintilian
declaring that Cicero
Cicero
was "not the name of a man, but of eloquence itself."[78] The English words Ciceronian (meaning "eloquent") and cicerone (meaning "local guide") derive from his name.[79][80] He is credited with transforming Latin
Latin
from a modest utilitarian language into a versatile literary medium capable of expressing abstract and complicated thoughts with clarity.[81] Julius Caesar praised Cicero's achievement by saying "it is more important to have greatly extended the frontiers of the Roman spirit (ingenium) than the frontiers of the Roman empire".[82] According to John William Mackail, "Cicero's unique and imperishable glory is that he created the language of the civilized world, and used that language to create a style which nineteen centuries have not replaced, and in some respects have hardly altered."[83] Cicero
Cicero
was also an energetic writer with an interest in a wide variety of subjects, in keeping with the Hellenistic philosophical and rhetorical traditions in which he was trained. The quality and ready accessibility of Ciceronian texts favored very wide distribution and inclusion in teaching curricula, as suggested by a graffito at Pompeii, admonishing: "You will like Cicero, or you will be whipped".[84] Cicero
Cicero
was greatly admired by influential Church Fathers such as Augustine of Hippo, who credited Cicero's lost Hortensius for his eventual conversion to Christianity,[85] and St. Jerome, who had a feverish vision in which he was accused of being "follower of Cicero and not of Christ" before the judgment seat.[86] This influence further increased after the Early Middle Ages in Europe, which more of his writings survived than any other Latin
Latin
author. Medieval philosophers were influenced by Cicero's writings on natural law and innate rights.[87][citation needed] Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters provided the impetus for searches for ancient Greek and Latin
Latin
writings scattered throughout European monasteries, and the subsequent rediscovery of classical antiquity led to the Renaissance. Subsequently, Cicero
Cicero
became synonymous with classical Latin
Latin
to such an extent that a number of humanist scholars began to assert that no Latin
Latin
word or phrase should be used unless it appeared in Cicero's works, a stance criticized by Erasmus.[88] His voluminous correspondence, much of it addressed to his friend Atticus, has been especially influential, introducing the art of refined letter writing to European culture. Cornelius Nepos, the 1st century BC biographer of Atticus, remarked that Cicero's letters contained such a wealth of detail "concerning the inclinations of leading men, the faults of the generals, and the revolutions in the government" that their reader had little need for a history of the period.[89] Among Cicero's admirers were Desiderius Erasmus, Martin Luther, and John Locke.[90] Following the invention of Johannes Gutenberg's printing press, De Officiis
De Officiis
was the second book printed in Europe, after the Gutenberg Bible. Scholars note Cicero's influence on the rebirth of religious toleration in the 17th century.[91] While Cicero
Cicero
the humanist deeply influenced the culture of the Renaissance, Cicero
Cicero
the republican inspired the Founding Fathers of the United States and the revolutionaries of the French Revolution.[92] John Adams
John Adams
said, "As all the ages of the world have not produced a greater statesman and philosopher united than Cicero, his authority should have great weight."[93] Jefferson names Cicero
Cicero
as one of a handful of major figures who contributed to a tradition “of public right” that informed his draft of the Declaration of Independence and shaped American understandings of "the common sense" basis for the right of revolution.[94] Camille Desmoulins
Camille Desmoulins
said of the French republicans in 1789 that they were "mostly young people who, nourished by the reading of Cicero
Cicero
at school, had become passionate enthusiasts for liberty".[95] Jim Powell starts his book on the history of liberty with the sentence: "Marcus Tullius Cicero
Cicero
expressed principles that became the bedrock of liberty in the modern world."[96] Likewise, no other ancient personality has inspired as much venomous dislike as Cicero, especially in more modern times.[97] His commitment to the values of the Republic
Republic
accommodated a hatred of the poor and persistent opposition to the advocates and mechanisms of popular representation.[98] Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
referred to him as "the most contemptible scoundrel in history" for upholding republican "democracy" while at the same time denouncing land and class reforms.[99] Cicero
Cicero
has faced criticism for exaggerating the democratic qualities of republican Rome, and for defending the Roman oligarchy against the popular reforms of Caesar.[100] Michael Parenti admits Cicero's abilities as an orator, but finds him a vain, pompous and hypocritical personality who, when it suited him, could show public support for popular causes that he privately despised. Parenti presents Cicero's prosecution of the Catiline
Catiline
conspiracy as legally flawed at least, and possibly unlawful.[101] Cicero
Cicero
also had an influence on modern astronomy. Nicolaus Copernicus, searching for ancient views on earth motion, said that he "first ... found in Cicero
Cicero
that Hicetas supposed the earth to move."[102] Works[edit]

Marci Tullii Ciceronis Opera Omnia (1566)

Main article: Writings of Cicero Cicero
Cicero
was declared a righteous pagan by the Early Church,[103] and therefore many of his works were deemed worthy of preservation. The Bogomils
Bogomils
considered him a rare exception of a pagan saint.[104] Subsequent Roman and medieval Christian writers quoted liberally from his works De Re Publica (On the Commonwealth) and De Legibus (On the Laws), and much of his work has been recreated from these surviving fragments. Cicero
Cicero
also articulated an early, abstract conceptualization of rights, based on ancient law and custom. Of Cicero's books, six on rhetoric have survived, as well as parts of eight on philosophy. Of his speeches, 88 were recorded, but only 58 survive. Speeches[edit]

(81 BC) Pro Quinctio (In Defense of Quinctius) (80 BC) Pro Roscio Amerino
Pro Roscio Amerino
(In Defense of Roscius of Ameria) (70 BC) In Verrem (Against Verres) (69 BC) Pro Fonteio (In Defense of Fonteius) (69 BC) Pro Caecina (In Defense of Caecina) (66 BC) Pro Cluentio (In Defense of Cluentius) (66 BC) De Imperio Gnaei Pompei or De Lege Manilia (On the Command of Gnaeus Pompey) (63 BC) De Lege Agraria (On the Agrarian Law
Law
proposed by Servilius Rullus) (63 BC) In Catilinam (Against Catiline) (63 BC) Pro Rabirio Perduellionis Reo (In Defense of Rabirius) (62 BC) Pro Sulla
Sulla
(In Defense of Sulla) (62 BC) Pro Archia Poeta (In Defense of Archias the Poet) (59 BC) Pro Flacco (In Defense of Flaccus) (57 BC) Post Reditum in Senatu (Speech to the Senate After His Return) (57 BC) Post Reditum ad Quirites (Speech to the People After His Return) (57 BC) De Domo Sua (On His House) (57 BC) De Haruspicum Responsis (On the Response of the Haruspices) (56 BC) Pro Sestio (In Defense of Sestius) (56 BC) In Vatinium (Cross-examination of Vatinius) (56 BC) Pro Caelio
Pro Caelio
(In Defense of Caelius) (56 BC) De Provinciis Consularibus (On the Consular Provinces) (56 BC) Pro Balbo (In Defense of Balbus) (55 BC) In Pisonem (Against Piso) (54 BC) Pro Rabirio Postumo (In Defense of Rabirius Postumus) (54 BC) Pro Cnaeo Plancio (In Defense of Gnaeus Plancius) (52 BC) Pro Milone
Pro Milone
(In Defense of Milo) (46 BC) Pro Marcello (In Support of the Recall of Marcellus) (46 BC) Pro Ligario (In Defense of Ligarius) (45 BC) Pro Deiotaro (In Defense of King Deiotarus) (44–43 BC) Philippicae (Philippics, against Mark Antony)[105]

Philosophical dialogues and treatises[edit]

(84 BC) De Inventione (About the composition of arguments) (55 BC) De Oratore
De Oratore
ad Quintum fratrem libri tres (On the Orator, three books for his brother Quintus) (51 BC) De Re Publica (On the Commonwealth) (?? BC) De Legibus (On the Laws) (46 BC) Paradoxa Stoicorum (Stoic Paradoxes) (46 BC) Brutus (Brutus) (46 BC) Orator (Orator) (45 BC) Hortensius (an exhortation to philosophy) (45 BC) Consolatio (on grief and consolation) (45 BC) Academica (On Academic Skepticism) (45 BC) De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum
De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum
(On the Ends of Good and Evil or On Moral Ends,[106] a book on ethics)[107] (45 BC) Tusculanae Disputationes (Tusculan Disputations) (45 BC) De Natura Deorum
De Natura Deorum
(On the Nature of the Gods) (44 BC) Topica (44 BC) De Divinatione (On Divination) (44 BC) De Fato (On Fate) (44 BC) Cato Maior de Senectute ( Cato the Elder
Cato the Elder
on Old Age) (44 BC) Laelius de Amicitia (Laelius on Friendship) (44 BC) De Gloria (On Glory) (44 BC) De Officiis
De Officiis
(On Duties)

Letters[edit] Cicero's letters to and from various public and private figures are considered some of the most reliable sources of information for the people and events surrounding the fall of the Roman Republic. While 37 books of his letters have survived into modern times, 35 more books were known to antiquity that have since been lost. These included letters to Caesar, to Pompey, to Octavian, and to his son Marcus.[108]

Epistulae ad Atticum (Letters to Atticus; 68–43 BC) Epistulae ad Brutum (Letters to Brutus; 43 BC) Epistulae ad Familiares (Letters to friends; 62–43 BC) Epistulae ad Quintum Fratrem (Letters to brother Quintus; 60/59–54 BC)

Notable fictional portrayals[edit] Ben Jonson
Ben Jonson
dramatised the conspiracy of Catiline
Catiline
in his play Catiline His Conspiracy, featuring Cicero
Cicero
as a character. Cicero
Cicero
also appears as a minor character in William Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar. Cicero
Cicero
was portrayed on the motion picture screen by British actor Alan Napier
Alan Napier
in the 1953 film Julius Caesar, based on Shakespeare's play. He has also been played by such noted actors as Michael Hordern (in Cleopatra), and André Morell
André Morell
(in the 1970 Julius Caesar). Most recently, Cicero
Cicero
was portrayed by David Bamber in the HBO series Rome (2005–2007) and appeared in both seasons. In the historical novel series Masters of Rome, Colleen McCullough presents an unflattering depiction of Cicero's career, showing him struggling with an inferiority complex and vanity, morally flexible and fatally indiscreet, while his rival Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
is shown in a more approving light.[citation needed] Cicero
Cicero
is portrayed as a hero in the novel A Pillar of Iron by Taylor Caldwell
Taylor Caldwell
(1965). Robert Harris' novels Imperium, Lustrum (published under the name Conspirata in the United States) and Dictator is the three-part novel series based upon the life of Cicero. In these novels Cicero's character is depicted in a more balanced way than in those of McCullough, with his positive traits equaling or outweighing his weaknesses (while conversely Caesar is depicted as more sinister than in McCullough).[citation needed] Cicero
Cicero
is a major recurring character in the Roma Sub Rosa
Roma Sub Rosa
series of mystery novels by Steven Saylor. He also appears several times as a peripheral character in John Maddox Roberts' SPQR
SPQR
series. The protagonist, Decius Metellus, admires Cicero for his erudition, but is disappointed by his lack of real opposition to Caesar, as well as puzzled by his relentless fawning on the Optimates, who secretly despise Cicero
Cicero
as a parvenu.[citation needed] See also[edit]

Ancient Rome
Rome
portal

A Dialogue Concerning Oratorical Partitions Caecilia Attica Caecilia Metella (daughter of Metellus Celer) Clausula (rhetoric) Esse quam videri Marcantonius Majoragio Marcus Tullius Tiro Otium Quintus Tullius Cicero Servius
Servius
Sulpicius Rufus Titus Pomponius Atticus Translation Tullia (daughter of Cicero)

Notes[edit]

^ The name is infrequently anglicized as Tully[1] (/ˈtʌli/).

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ E.g., in H. Jones, Master Tully: Cicero
Cicero
in Tudor England (Nieuwkoop: De Graaf, 1998). ^ Rawson, E.: Cicero, a portrait (1975) p. 303 ^ Haskell, H.J.: This was Cicero
Cicero
(1964) pp. 300–01 ^ Merriam-Webster, Inc (January 1995). "Ciceronian period". Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia Of Literature. Merriam-Webster. p. 244. ISBN 978-0-87779-042-6. Retrieved 27 August 2013.  ^ Cicero, Selected Works, 1971, p. 24 ^ Q. Acad. 2.17–18 ^ Conte, G.B.: " Latin
Latin
Literature: a history" (1987) p. 199 ^ Wootton, David (1 January 1996). Modern Political Thought: Readings from Machiavelli to Nietzsche. Hackett Publishing. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-87220-341-9. Retrieved 27 August 2013.  ^ Zieliński, Tadeusz. Cicero
Cicero
Im Wandel Der Jahrhunderte. Nabu Press.  ^ Wood, Neal (1991). Cicero's Social and Political Thought. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-07427-9.  ^ Nicgorski, Walter. " Cicero
Cicero
and the Natural Law". Natural Law, Natural Rights, and American Constitutionalism.  ^ Griffin, Miriam; Boardman, John; Griffin, Jasper; Murray, Oswyn (15 January 2001). The Oxford Illustrated History of the Roman World. Oxford University Press. pp. 76ff. ISBN 978-0-19-285436-0. Retrieved 10 August 2011.  ^ Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum, 747. ^ Rawson, E.: Cicero, a portrait (1975) pp. 5–6; Cicero, Ad Familiares 16.26.2 (Quintus to Cicero) ^ Trollope, Anthony. The Life of Cicero
Cicero
Volume 1. p. 42 ^ Plutarch, Cicero
Cicero
1.3–5 ^ Everitt, A.:"Cicero: The Life and Times of Rome's Greatest Politician" (2001) p.34 ^ Plutarch. "Life of Caesar". University of Chicago. p. 447. After this, Sulla's power being now on the wane, and Caesar's friends at home inviting him to return, Caesar sailed to Rhodes
Rhodes
to study under Apollonius the son of Molon, an illustrious rhetorician with the reputation of a worthy character, of whom Cicero
Cicero
also was a pupil.  ^ Everitt, A.: "Cicero: The Life and Times of Rome's Greatest Politician" (2001) p. 35 ^ Plutarch, Cicero
Cicero
2.2 ^ Plutarch, Cicero
Cicero
3.2 ^ Everitt, A.: "Cicero: The Life and Times of Rome's Greatest Politician" (2001) p. 35 ^ Rawson, E.: "Cicero, a portrait" (1975) p. 22 ^ Everitt, A.: "Cicero: The Life and Times of Rome's Greatest Politician" (2001) p. 61 ^ Vasaly, Ann. Representation: Images of the World in a Ciceronian Territory. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 158–68. ISBN 0520077555. Archived from the original on 2014-03-06.  ^ De Officiis, book 1, n. 1 ^ Everitt, A.:" Cicero: The Life and Times of Rome's Greatest Politician" (2001) pp. 253–55 ^ Rawson: "Cicero, a portrait" (1975) p.18 ^ "Elpenor".  ^ Haskell, H.J.: "This was Cicero" (1940) p. 83 ^ Cicero, Brutus, 313–14 ^ Cicero, Brutus, 315 ^ Cicero, Brutus, 316 ^ Gesine Manuwald, Cicero: Philippics 3–9, vol. 2, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2007, pp. 129f ^ Rawson, E.: "Cicero, a portrait" (1975) p. 25 ^ Susan Treggiari, Terentia, Tullia and Publilia: the women of Cicero's family, London: Routledge, 2007, pp. 76ff. ^ Treggiari, op. cit., p. 133 ^ Rawson, E.: Cicero
Cicero
p. 225 ^ Haskell H.J.: This was Cicero, p. 95 ^ Haskell, H.J.: "This was Cicero" (1964) p. 249 ^ Cicero, Letters to Atticus, 12.14. Rawson, E.: Cicero
Cicero
p. 225 ^ Rawson, E.: Cicero
Cicero
p. 226 ^ Cicero, Samtliga brev/Collected letters ^ Haskell, H.J (1964). This was Cicero. pp. 103–04.  ^ Paavo Castren & L. Pietilä-Castren: Antiikin käsikirja/Encyclopedia of the Ancient World ^ The Oxford illustrated history of the Roman world. pp. 84ff. Retrieved 10 August 2011.  ^ Trans. Grant, Michael. Cicero: Selected Works. London: Penguin Books. 1960. ^ III. The First Oration Against Catiline
Catiline
by Cicero. Rome
Rome
(218 BC–84 AD). Vol. II. Bryan, William Jennings, ed. 1906. The World's Famous Orations ^ Cicero, Marcus Tullius, Selected Works, Penguin Books Ltd, Great Britain, 1971 ^ Cicero, In Catilinam 3.2[dead link] (at the Perseus Project); Sallust, Bellum Catilinae 40–45 (at Lacus Curtius); Plutarch, Cicero 18.4 (at Lacus Curtius). ^ Clayton, Edward. " Cicero
Cicero
(106–43 BC)". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 21 October 2013.  ^ Yelegaonkar, Dr Shrikant (2009). Western Thinker's in Political Science. Lulu.com. ISBN 9781329082779.  ^ Rawson, E.: Cicero, 1984 106 ^ Haskell, H.J.: This was Cicero, 1964 200 ^ Haskell, H.J.: This was Cicero, 1964 p. 201 ^ Plutarch. Cicero
Cicero
32 ^ Haskell, H.J.: "This was Cicero" (1964) p. 201 ^ Cicero, Samtliga brev/Collected letters (in a Swedish translation) ^ Haskell. H.J.: This was Cicero, p. 204 ^ Grant, M: "Cicero: Selected Works", p. 67 ^ Everitt, A. "Cicero: The Life and Times of Rome's Greatest Politician" (2001), pp. 186–88 ^ Plutarch, The Life of Cicero, 36 ^ Plutarch. "Life of Caesar". University of Chicago. p. 575. It was Cicero
Cicero
who proposed the first honours for [Caesar] in the senate, and their magnitude was, after all, not too great for a man; but others added excessive honours and vied with one another in proposing them, thus rendering Caesar odious and obnoxious even to the mildest citizens because of the pretension and extravagance of what was decreed for him.  ^ Everitt, Anthony: Cicero
Cicero
p. 215. ^ Plutarch, Cicero
Cicero
38.1 ^ Cicero, Second Philippic Against Antony ^ Cicero, Ad Familiares 10.28 ^ Cecil W. Wooten, "Cicero's Philippics and Their Demosthenic Model" University of North Carolina Press ^ "World History in Context". ic.galegroup.com. Retrieved 2018-01-03.  ^ Appian, Civil Wars 4.19 ^ Plutarch, Cicero
Cicero
46.3–5 ^ a b Haskell, H.J.: This was Cicero
Cicero
(1964) p. 293 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History 47.8.4 ^ Everitt, A.: Cicero, A turbulent life (2001) ^ Plutarch, Cicero, 49.5 ^ Haskell, H.J. "This was Cicero" (1964) p. 296 ^ Castren and Pietilä-Castren: "Antiikin käsikirja" /"Handbook of antiquity" (2000) p. 237 ^ Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria
Institutio Oratoria
10.1.1 12 ^ Harper, Douglas. "Ciceronian". Online Etymology Dictionary.  ^ Harper, Douglas. "cicerone". Online Etymology Dictionary.  ^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature, "Ciceronian period" (1995) p. 244 ^ Pliny, Natural History, 7.117 ^ Cicero, Seven orations, 1912 ^ Hasan Niyazi, From Pompeii
Pompeii
to Cyberspace – Transcending barriers with Twitter "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-11-14. Retrieved 2012-09-07.  ^ Augustine of Hippo, Confessions, 3:4 ^ Jerome, Letter to Eustochium, XXII:30 ^ Goodey, C. F. (2013-07-28). A History of Intelligence and 'Intellectual Disability': The Shaping of Psychology in Early Modern Europe. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 9781409482352.  ^ Erasmus, Ciceronianus ^ Cornelius Nepos, Atticus 16, trans. John Selby Watson. ^ Richards 2010, p.121 ^ Gibson, William (2006). "John Marshall. John Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture: Religious Toleration and Arguments for Religious Toleration in Early Modern and Early Enlightenment Europe". H-Albion. Retrieved 8 July 2012.  ^ De Burgh, W.G., "The legacy of the ancient world" ^ American republicanism: Roman Ideology
Ideology
in the United States Mortimer N. S. Sellers, NYU Press, 1994 ^ Thomas Jefferson, “Letter to Henry Lee,” 8 May 1825, in The Political Thought of American Statesmen, eds. Morton Frisch and Richard Stevens (Itasca, Ill.: F. E. Peacock Publishers, 1973), 12. ^ Aulard, François-Alphonse (1901). Histoire politique de la Révolution française: Origines et Développement de la Démocratie et de la République (1789–1804). Librairie Armand Colin. p. 5.  ^ Powell, Jim (2000). The Triumph of Liberty: A 2,000 Year History Told Through the Lives of Freedom's Greatest Champions. Free Press. pp. 2–10. ISBN 978-0684859675.  ^ Bailey, D.R.S. "Cicero's letters to Atticus" (1978) p. 16 ^ Letters to Atticus I & II ^ Noted in Michael Parenti, The Assassination of Julius Caesar: A People's History of Ancient Rome, 2003:86. ISBN 1-56584-797-0 ^ Cicero. "On Duties" (PDF).  ^ Michael Parenti, The Assassination of Julius Caesar: A People's History of Ancient Rome, 2003, pp. 107–11, 93. ISBN 1-56584-797-0 ^ Spielvogel, Jackson (2011). Western Civilization since 1300. Cengage Learning. p. 492. ISBN 978-1-111-34219-7.  ^ Everitt, A., Cicero: The Life and Times of Rome's Greatest Politician
Politician
(2003), p. 259 ^ De Burgh, W.G. ^ "M. Tullius Cicero, Orations: The fourteen orations against Marcus Antonius (Philippics) (ed. C. D. Yonge)". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2013-10-03.  ^ Cicero
Cicero
On Moral Ends. (De Finibus) Julia Annas – editor, Raphael Woolf – transltr Cambridge University Press, 2001 ^ "E-Texts : De Finibus, Book I". Epicurus.info. Archived from the original on December 9, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-03.  ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Cicero". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

Bibliography[edit]

Library resources about Cicero

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

By Cicero

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Badian, E: " Cicero
Cicero
and the Commission of 146 B.C.", Collection Latomus 101 (1969), 54–65. Caldwell, Taylor (1965). A Pillar of Iron. New York: Doubleday & Company. ISBN 0-385-05303-7.  Cicero, Marcus Tullius, Cicero’s letters to Atticus, Vol, I, II, IV, VI, Cambridge University Press, Great Britain, 1965 Cicero, Marcus Tullius, Latin
Latin
extracts of Cicero
Cicero
on Himself, translated by Charles Gordon Cooper, University of Queensland Press, Brisbane, 1963 Cicero, Marcus Tullius, Selected Political Speeches, Penguin Books Ltd, Great Britain, 1969 Cicero, Marcus Tullius, De Officiis
De Officiis
(On Duties), translated by Walter Miller. Harvard University Press, 1913, ISBN 978-0-674-99033-3, ISBN 0-674-99033-1 Cicero, Marcus Tullius, Selected Works, Penguin Books Ltd, Great Britain, 1971 Cowell, F R: Cicero
Cicero
and the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(Penguin Books, 1948; numerous later reprints) Everitt, Anthony (2001). Cicero: the life and times of Rome's greatest politician. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-375-50746-9.  Gruen, Erich S. (1974). The Last Generation of the Roman Republic. University of California Press.  Haskell, H. J. (1942). This was Cicero. Alfred A. Knopf.  March, Duane A. (1989). " Cicero
Cicero
and the 'Gang of Five'". Classical World. 82 (4): 225–34. doi:10.2307/4350381.  Narducci, Emanuele (2009). Cicerone. La parola e la politica. Laterza. ISBN 88-420-7605-8.  Plutarch
Plutarch
Penguins Classics English translation by Rex Warner, Fall of the Roman Republic, Six Lives by Plutarch: Marius, Sulla, Crassus, Pompey, Caesar, Cicero
Cicero
(Penguin Books, 1958; with Introduction and notes by Robin Seager, 1972) Rawson, Beryl: The Politics
Politics
of Friendship: Pompey
Pompey
and Cicero
Cicero
(Sydney University Press, 1978) Rawson, Elizabeth:

" Cicero
Cicero
the Historian and Cicero
Cicero
the Antiquarian", JRS 62 (1972), 33–45. Cicero: A Portrait (Allen Lane, Penguin Books Ltd., 1975) ISBN 0-7139-0864-5. Revised edition: Bristol Classical Press, 1983. ISBN 0-86292-051-5. American edition of revised edition: Cornell University Press, 1983. ISBN 0-8014-1628-0 (hardcover); ISBN 0-8014-9256-4 (paperback).

Richards, Carl J. (2010). Why We're All Romans: The Roman Contribution to the Western World. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-6778-8.  Scullard, H. H. From the Gracchi to Nero, University Paperbacks, Great Britain, 1968 Smith, R E: Cicero
Cicero
the Statesman (Cambridge University Press, 1966) Stockton, David: Cicero: A Political Biography (Oxford University Press, 1971) Strachan-Davidson, James Leigh (1936). " Cicero
Cicero
and the Fall of the Roman Republic". Oxford: Oxford University Press.  Taylor, H. (1918). "Cicero: A sketch of his life and works". Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co.  Wistrand, M. (1979). Cicero
Cicero
Imperator: Studies in Cicero's Correspondence 51–47 B.C. Göteborg.  Yates, Frances A. (1974). The Art of Memory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-95001-8. 

Further reading[edit]

Boissier, Gaston, Cicéron et ses amis. Étude sur la société romaine du temps de César (1884) Hamza, Gabor, Ciceros Verhältnis zu seinen Quellen, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Darstellung der Staatslehre in De re publica. KLIO – Beiträge zur alten Geschichte 67 (1985) 492–97. Hamza, Gabor, Cicero
Cicero
und der Idealtypus des iurisconsultus. HELIKON 22–27 (1982–1987) 281–96. Everitt, Anthony (2001). Cicero. A turbulent life. London: John Murray Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7195-5493-3.  Fuhrmann, Manfred (1992). Cicero
Cicero
and the Roman Republic. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-17879-1.  Gildenhard, Ingo (2011). Creative Eloquence: The Construction of Reality in Cicero's Speeches. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press. Habicht, Christian (1990). Cicero
Cicero
the politician. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-3872-X.  Macdonald, C. (1986). De imperio (Nachdr. d. Ausg. Basingstoke 1966. ed.). Bristol: Bristol Classical Press. ISBN 0-86292-182-1.  Palmer, Tom G. (2008). " Cicero
Cicero
(106–43 B.C.)". In Hamowy, Ronald. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE; Cato Institute. p. 63. doi:10.4135/9781412965811.n42. ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4. LCCN 2008009151. OCLC 750831024.  Parenti, Michael (2004). The Assassination of Julius Caesar: A People's History of Ancient Rome. New York: The New Press. ISBN 1-56584-942-6.  Powell, J.G.F., ed. (1995). Cicero
Cicero
the philosopher : twelve papers. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-814751-1.  Shackleton Bailey, D. R. (1971). Cicero. London: Duckworth. ISBN 0-7156-0574-7.  Sihler, Ernest G. (1914). Cicero
Cicero
of Arpinum: A Political and Literary Biography. New Haven: Yale University Press.  Hamza, Gabor, L’optimus status civitatis di Cicerone e la sua tradizione nel pensiero politico. In: Tradizione romanistica e Costituzione. Cinquanta anni della Corte Costituzionale della Repubblica Italiana. vol. II. Napoli, 2006. 1455–68. Treggiari, S. (2007). Terentia, Tullia and Publilia. The women of Cicero's family. London: Routledge Hamza, Gabor, Il potere (lo Stato) nel pensiero di Cicerone e la sua attualità. Revista Internacional de Derecho Romano (RIDROM) 10 (2013) 1–25. http://www.ridrom.uclm.es Hamza, Gabor, Zur Interpretation des Naturrechts in den Werken von Cicero. Pázmány Law
Law
Review 2 (2014) 5–15.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Marcus Tullius Cicero.

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Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Cicero

Latin
Latin
Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Marcus Tullius Cicero

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Cicero.

Works by Cicero

Works by Cicero
Cicero
at Perseus Digital Library Works by Marcus Tullius Cicero
Cicero
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Cicero
Cicero
at Internet Archive Works by Cicero
Cicero
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) The Latin
Latin
Library (Latin): Works of Cicero Dickinson College Commentaries: Against Verres 2.1.53-86 Dickinson College Commentaries: On Pompey’s Command (De Imperio) 27-49 Horace
Horace
MS 1b Laelius de Amicitia at OPenn Lewis E 66 Epistolae ad familiares (Letters to friends)

Biographies and descriptions of Cicero's time

At Project Gutenberg Plutarch's biography of Cicero
Cicero
contained in the Parallel Lives Life of Cicero
Cicero
by Anthony Trollope, Volume I – Volume II Cicero
Cicero
by Rev. W. Lucas Collins (Ancient Classics for English Readers) Roman life in the days of Cicero
Cicero
by Rev. Alfred J. Church Social life at Rome
Rome
in the Age of Cicero
Cicero
by W. Warde Fowler At Heraklia website at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived January 14, 2006) Dryden's translation of Cicero
Cicero
from Plutarch's Parallel Lives At Middlebury College website

Political offices

Preceded by Lucius Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
and Gaius Marcius Figulus Consul of the Roman Republic with Gaius Antonius Hybrida 63 BC Succeeded by Decimus Junius Silanus and Lucius Licinius Murena

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Marcus Tullius Cicero

Personal life Political career Writings

Treatises

Rhetoric and politics

De Inventione De Oratore

Book III

De Partitionibus Oratoriae De Optimo Genere Oratorum Brutus Orator De Legibus

Philosophical

Hortensius Consolatio De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum Tusculanae Quaestiones De Natura Deorum De Divinatione De Fato Cato Maior de Senectute Laelius de Amicitia De Officiis De Re Publica

Somnium Scipionis

Paradoxa Stoicorum

Orations

Political

De Imperio Cn. Pompei In Catilinam I–IV In Toga Candida Pro Milone Pro Marcello Pro Ligario Philippicae

Judicial

Pro Quinctio Pro Roscio Amerino Divinatio in Caecilium In Verrem Pro Tullio Pro Caecina Pro Cluentio Pro Archia Poeta Pro Caelio

Letters

Epistulae ad Atticum Epistulae ad Brutum Epistulae ad Familiares Epistulae ad Quintum Fratrem

Related

Summum bonum

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Extraordinary

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Romance languages

Writers

Latin

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Greek

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The works of Plutarch

Works

Parallel Lives Moralia Pseudo-Plutarch

Lives

Alcibiades
Alcibiades
and Coriolanus1 Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and Julius Caesar Aratus of Sicyon
Aratus of Sicyon
/ Artaxerxes and Galba
Galba
/ Otho2 Aristides
Aristides
and Cato the Elder1 Crassus and Nicias1 Demetrius and Antony1 Demosthenes
Demosthenes
and Cicero1 Dion and Brutus1 Fabius and Pericles1 Lucullus
Lucullus
and Cimon1 Lysander
Lysander
and Sulla1 Numa and Lycurgus1 Pelopidas
Pelopidas
and Marcellus1 Philopoemen
Philopoemen
and Flamininus1 Phocion
Phocion
and Cato the Younger Pompey
Pompey
and Agesilaus1 Poplicola and Solon1 Pyrrhus and Gaius Marius Romulus
Romulus
and Theseus1 Sertorius and Eumenes1 Agis / Cleomenes1 and Tiberius Gracchus
Tiberius Gracchus
/ Gaius Gracchus Timoleon
Timoleon
and Aemilius Paulus1 Themistocles
Themistocles
and Camillus

Translators and editors

Jacques Amyot Arthur Hugh Clough John Dryden Philemon Holland Thomas North

1 Comparison extant 2 Four unpaired Lives

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The Seven Virtues in Christian ethics

Great Commandment; "All the Law
Law
and the Prophets hang on these two commandments." – Matthew 22:35-40

Four Cardinal virtues

Prudence
Prudence
(Prudentia) Justice
Justice
(Iustitia) Fortitude (Fortitudo) Temperance (Temperantia)

Sources: Plato

Republic, Book IV

Cicero Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Thomas Aquinas

Three Theological virtues

Faith (Fides) Hope (Spes) Love (Caritas)

Sources: Paul the Apostle

1 Corinthians 13

Seven deadly sins

Lust
Lust
(Luxuria) Gluttony
Gluttony
(Gula) Greed
Greed
(Avaritia) Sloth (Acedia) Wrath (Ira) Envy
Envy
(Invidia) Pride
Pride
(Superbia)

Source: Prudentius, Psychomachia

People: Evagrius Ponticus John Cassian Pope Gregory I Dante Alighieri Peter Binsfeld

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 78769600 LCCN: n79032166 ISNI: 0000 0001 3932 2910 GND: 118520814 SELIBR: 46187 SUDOC: 02665234X BNF: cb11885977m (data) BIBSYS: 90053491 ULAN: 500242756 NLA: 35028404 NDL: 00436023 NKC: jn19981000486 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV06643 BNE: XX841

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