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Adjuntas
Adjuntas (Spanish pronunciation: [aðˈxuntas]) is a small mountainside municipality in Puerto Rico located central midwest of the island on the Cordillera Central, north of Yauco, Guayanilla and Peñuelas; southeast of Utuado; east of Lares and Yauco; and west of Ponce. Adjuntas is spread over 16 wards and Adjuntas Pueblo (the downtown area and the administrative center of the city). Adjuntas is about two hours by car westward from the capital, San Juan. It is the principal city of and comprises the Adjuntas Micropolitan Statistical Area. Adjuntas is nicknamed "the Switzerland of Puerto Rico", because of its relatively chilly weather
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Haplogroup L1 (mtDNA)
Haplogroup L1 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup
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Maranos
Marranos, now considered an offensive term for which the academic term "crypto-Jews" substitutes, were Jews living in Iberia who converted or were forced to convert to Christianity yet continued to practice Judaism in secret. The term specifically refers to the accusation of Crypto-Judaism, whereas the term converso was used for the wider population of Jewish converts to Catholicism whether or not they secretly still practised Jewish rites. Converts from both Judaism or Islam were referred to by the even broader term "New Christians". The term "marrano" came into later use in 1492 with the Castilian Alhambra Decree, which outlawed the practice of Judaism in Spain and required all remaining Jews to convert or leave. By then, the large majority of Jews in Spain had converted to Catholicism and conversos numbered hundreds of thousands
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Petroglyph
A petroglyph is an image created by removing part of a rock surface by incising, picking, carving, or abrading, as a form of rock art. Outside North America, scholars often use terms such as "carving", "engraving", or other descriptions of the technique to refer to such images. Petroglyphs are found worldwide, and are often associated with prehistoric peoples. The word comes from the Greek prefix petro-, from Ancient Greek language text">πέτρα Ancient Greek language text">petra meaning "stone", and Ancient Greek language text">γλύφω Ancient Greek language text">glýphō meaning "carve", and was originally coined in French as pétroglyphe. Another form of petroglyph, normally found in literate cultures, a rock relief or rock-cut relief is a relief sculpture carved on "living rock" such as a cliff, rather than a detached piece of stone
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Taíno People
The Taíno people were one of the most populous of the Indigenous peoples of the Caribbean">indigenous peoples of the Caribbean. At the time of European contact in the late 15th century, they were the principal inhabitants of most of Cuba, Trinidad, Jamaica, Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), and Puerto Rico. Cuba’s largest indigenous group was the Ciboney (or Siboney) inhabiting the central part of the island, while other Taínos dominated the eastern part. In the Greater Antilles, the northern Lesser Antilles, and The Bahamas, they were known as the Lucayans. They spoke the Taíno language"> Taíno language (an Arawakan language), which contained traces of earlier languages which were supplanted by Taíno
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Cacique
A cacique (Spanish: [kaˈθike]; Portuguese: [kɐˈsikɨ, kaˈsiki]; feminine form: cacica) is a leader of an indigenous group, derived from the Taíno word kasikɛ for the pre-Columbian tribal chiefs in the Bahamas, the Greater Antilles, and the northern Lesser Antilles. In the colonial era, Spaniards extended the word as a title for the leaders of practically all indigenous groups that they encountered in the Western Hemisphere
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Spain
Spain (Spanish: España [esʲˈpaɲa] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de España), is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea"> Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory
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Cayetano Coll Y Toste
Dr. Cayetano Coll y Toste (November 30, 1850 – November 19, 1930), was a Puerto Rican historian and writer
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City Hall
In local government, a city hall, town hall, civic centre, (in the UK or Australia) a guildhall, a Rathaus (German), or (more rarely) a municipal building, is the chief administrative building of a city, town, or other municipality. It usually houses the City council">city or Town council">town council, its associated departments, and their employees. It also usually functions as the base of the mayor of a city, town, borough, or county/shire. By convention, until the mid 19th-century, a single large open chamber (or 'hall') formed an integral part of the building housing the council. The hall may be used for council meetings and other significant events. This large chamber, the 'town hall', (and its later variant 'city hall') has become synonymous with the whole building, and with the administrative body housed in it
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Anusim
Anusim (Hebrew: אֲנוּסִים‬, pronounced [anuˈsim]; singular male, Anús, Hebrew: אָנוּסpronounced [aˈnus]; singular female, Anusáh, אָנוּסָהpronounced [anuˈsa], meaning "Coerced") is a legal category of Jews in halakha (Jewish law) who were forced to abandon Judaism against their will, typically while forcibly converted to another religion
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Sephardi
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (Hebrew: סְפָרַדִּים‬, Modern Hebrew: Sfaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also יְהוּדֵי סְפָרַדY'hudey Spharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), are a Jewish ethnic division whose ethnogenesis and emergence as a distinct community of Jews coalesced during the early Middle Ages on the Iberian Peninsula. They established communities throughout areas of modern Spain and Portugal, where they traditionally resided, evolving what would become their distinctive characteristics and diasporic identity, which they took with them in their exile from Iberia beginning in the late 15th century to North Africa, Anatolia, the Levant, Southeastern and Southern Europe, as well as the Americas, and all other places of their exiled settlement, either alongside pre-existing co-religionists, or alone as the first Jews in new frontiers
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined
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Jews
Jews (Hebrew: יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3 Yehudim, Israeli pronunciation [jehuˈdim]) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah"> Israel and Judah
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Pérez
Pérez or Perez, as most commonly written in English, is a Spanish and Jewish surname popular among people of Sephardic Jewish descent.

Origins

The surname with Spanish origins, written in Spanish orthography as Pérez, is a patronymic surname meaning "son of Pero or Pedro (Peter)". The surname has a Portuguese counterpart with the same meaning and etymology, Peres, written with a final "s" instead of "z" and without the accent. The surname with a Hebrew origin is transliterated into English as either Perez or Peretz, and is derived from the Hebrew given name פרץ (cf. Genesis 38:29), after the biblical character Perez (son of Judah), which in Hebrew means "to breach" or "to burst forth". That biblical character's Hebrew name, however, is transliterated as Farés in the Spanish Christian Bible. Neither the Spanish nor the Hebrew surname corresponds to one single lineage
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