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Ad
The terms ANNO DOMINI (AD) and BEFORE CHRIST (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars . The term _anno Domini_ is Medieval Latin and means "in the year of the Lord", but is often translated as "in the year of our Lord". This calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus of Nazareth , with _AD_ counting years from the start of this epoch , and _BC_ denoting years before the start of the era. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 immediately follows the year 1 BC. This dating system was devised in 525 by Dionysius Exiguus of Scythia Minor , but was not widely used until after 800. The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world today
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The Adverts
THE ADVERTS were an English punk band who formed in 1976 and broke up in late 1979. They were one of the first punk bands to enjoy chart success in the UK ; their 1977 single "Gary Gilmore\'s Eyes " reached No. 18 in the UK Singles Chart . The Virgin Encyclopedia of 70s Music described bassist Gaye Advert as the "first female punk star". CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Discography * 2.1 Studio albums * 2.2 Singles * 2.3 EPs * 2.4 Live albums * 2.5 Compilation albums * 2.6 Selected compilation appearances * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Sources * 6 Further reading * 7 External links HISTORYThe band was formed in 1976 by T.V. Smith (Tim Smith) and Gaye Advert (Gaye Black). Smith and Advert were both from Bideford , a small coastal town in Devon
Devon
, and were later married
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AD (other)
An AD (advertisement ) is a form of marketing communication. AD (Anno Domini) is a designation used to label years following 1 BC in the Julian and Gregorian calendars
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Coca-Cola
COCA-COLA (often referred to simply as COKE) is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company
The Coca-Cola Company
. Originally intended as a patent medicine , it was invented in the late 19th century by John Pemberton and was bought out by businessman Asa Griggs Candler , whose marketing tactics led Coca- Cola
Cola
to its dominance of the world soft-drink market throughout the 20th century. The drink's name refers to two of its original ingredients, which were kola nuts (a source of caffeine ) and coca leaves. The current formula of Coca- Cola
Cola
remains a trade secret , although a variety of reported recipes and experimental recreations have been published. The Coca-Cola Company
The Coca-Cola Company
produces concentrate , which is then sold to licensed Coca- Cola
Cola
bottlers throughout the world
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Marketing
MARKETING is the study and management of exchange relationships . The American Marketing Association has defined marketing as "the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large." Marketing
Marketing
is used to create, keep and satisfy the customer. With the customer as the focus of its activities, it can be concluded that Marketing
Marketing
is one of the premier components of Business Management
Management
- the other being Innovation. Other services and management activities such as Operations (or Production), Human Resources, Accounting, Law and Legal aspects can be "bought in" or "contracted out"
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Marketing Management
MARKETING MANAGEMENT is the organizational discipline which focuses on the practical application of marketing orientation, techniques and methods inside enterprises and organizations and on the management of a firm's marketing resources and activities. CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Brand
Brand
audit * 1.2 Marketing
Marketing
strategy * 1.3 Implementation planning * 1.4 Project, process, and vendor management * 1.5 Reporting, measurement, feedback and control systems * 1.6 International marketing management * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links STRUCTURE Marketing
Marketing
management employs tools from economics and competitive strategy to analyze the industry context in which the firm operates. These include Porter\'s five forces , analysis of strategic groups of competitors, value chain analysis and others
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Product Marketing
PRODUCT MARKETING is the process of promoting and selling a product to an audience. Product marketing, as opposed to product management , deals with more outbound marketing or customer-facing tasks (in the older sense of the phrase). For example, product management deals with the basics of product development within a firm, whereas product marketing deals with marketing the product to prospects , customers , and others. Product marketing, as a job function within a firm, also differs from other marketing jobs such as marketing communications ("marcom"), online marketing , advertising , marketing strategy , and public relations , although product marketers may use channels such as online for outbound marketing for their product. A product market is something that is referred to when pitching a new product to the general public
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Pricing
PRICING is the process whereby a business sets the price at which it will sell its products and services, and may be part of the business's marketing plan . In setting prices, the business will take into account the price at which it could acquire the goods, the manufacturing cost , the market place, competition, market condition, brand , and quality of product. Pricing
Pricing
is a fundamental aspect of financial modeling and is one of the four Ps of the marketing mix . (The other three aspects are product, promotion, and place .) Price
Price
is the only revenue generating element amongst the four Ps, the rest being cost centers . However, the other Ps of marketing will contribute to decreasing price elasticity and so enable price increases to drive greater revenue and profits
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Distribution (business)
DISTRIBUTION (or PLACE) is one of the four elements of the marketing mix . Distribution is the process of making a product or service available for the consumer or business user that needs it. This can be done directly by the producer or service provider, or using indirect channels with intermediaries . The other three parts of the marketing mix are product , pricing , and promotion
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Service (economics)
In economics , a SERVICE is a transaction in which no physical goods are transferred from the seller to the buyer. The benefits of such a service are held to be demonstrated by the buyer's willingness to make the exchange. Public services are those that society (nation state, fiscal union, region) as a whole pays for. Using resources , skill , ingenuity , and experience , service providers benefit service consumers. CONTENTS* 1 Five I\'s * 1.1 Intangibility * 1.2 Inventory (perishability) * 1.3 Inseparability * 1.4 Inconsistency (variability) * 1.5 Involvement * 2 Service quality * 3 Specification * 4 Delivery * 5 Service-commodity goods continuum * 6 Service types * 7 List of countries by tertiary output * 8 See also * 9 References FIVE I\'SServices can be described in terms of their key characteristics, sometimes called the "Five I's of Services". INTANGIBILITYServices are by definition intangible
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Retail
RETAIL markets and shops have a very ancient history, dating back to antiquity. Retailing involves the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit. Retailers satisfy demand identified through a supply chain . Some of the earliest retailers were itinerant peddlers. Modern retailers typically make a variety of strategic level decisions including the type of store , the market to be served, the optimal product assortment, customer service , supporting services and the store's overall market positioning. Once the strategic retail plan is in place, retailers devise the retail mix which includes product, price, place, promotion, personnel and presentation. In the digital age , an increasing number of retailers are seeking to reach broader markets by selling through multiple channels, including both bricks and mortar and online retailing
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Brand Management
In marketing , BRAND MANAGEMENT is the analysis and planning on how that brand is perceived in the market . Developing a good relationship with the target market is essential for brand management. Tangible elements of brand management include the product itself; look, price, the packaging, etc. The intangible elements are the experience that the consumer has had with the brand, and also the relationship that they have with that brand. A brand manager would oversee all of these things
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Brand Licensing
LICENSING means renting or leasing of an intangible asset . It is a process of creating and managing contracts between the owner of a brand and a company or individual who wants to use the brand in association with a product, for an agreed period of time, within an agreed territory. Licensing is used by brand owners to extend a trademark or character onto products of a completely different nature. Examples of intangible assets include a song ("Somewhere Over The Rainbow"), a character ( Donald Duck ), a name ( Michael Jordan
Michael Jordan
), or a brand (The Ritz-Carlton ). An arrangement to license a brand requires a licensing agreement. A licensing agreement authorizes a company which markets a product or service (a licensee) to lease or rent a brand from a brand owner who operates a licensing program (a licensor)
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Co-creation
CO-CREATION is a management initiative, or form of economic strategy , that brings different parties together (for instance, a company and a group of customers), in order to jointly produce a mutually valued outcome. Co-creation
Co-creation
brings the unique blend of ideas from direct customers or viewers (who are not the direct users of the product)which in turn gives a plethora of new ideas to the organization. Co-created value arises in the form of personalized, unique experiences for the customer (value-in-use) and ongoing revenue, learning and enhanced market performance drivers for the firm (loyalty, relationships, customer word of mouth)
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Account-based Marketing
ACCOUNT-BASED MARKETING (ABM), also known as KEY ACCOUNT MARKETING, is a strategic approach to business marketing based on ACCOUNT AWARENESS in which an organization considers and communicates with individual prospect or customer accounts as markets of one. Account-based marketing is typically employed in enterprise level sales organisations. Account based marketing can help companies to: * Increase account relevance * Engage earlier and higher with deals * Align marketing activity with account strategies * Get the best value out of marketing * Inspire customers with compelling contentWhile business marketing is typically organized by industry, product/solution or channel (direct/social/PR), account-based marketing brings all of these together to focus on individual accounts. As markets become increasingly commoditized, customers see little or no difference between suppliers and their competitors, with price as the only obvious differentiators
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