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Papyrus
Papyrus
/pəˈpaɪrəs/ is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface. It was made from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge.[1] Papyrus (plural: papyri) can also refer to a document written on sheets of such material, joined together side by side and rolled up into a scroll, an early form of a book.

An official letter on a papyrus of the 3rd century BCE

Papyrus
Papyrus
is first known to have been used in ancient Egypt (at least as far back as the First Dynasty), as the papyrus plant was once abundant across the Nile Delta. It was also used throughout the Mediterranean region and in the Kingdom of Kush. Apart from a writing material, ancient Egyptians employed papyrus in the construction of other artifacts, such as reed boats, mats, rope, sandals, and baskets.[2]

Contents

1 History 2 Etymology 3 Documents written on papyrus 4 Manufacture and use 5 Collections of papyri 6 See also 7 Papyrus
Papyrus
art 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

History[edit]

A section of the Egyptian Book of the Dead
Book of the Dead
written on papyrus

Roman portraiture
Roman portraiture
fresco of a young man with a papyrus scroll, from Herculaneum, 1st century AD

Papyrus
Papyrus
was first manufactured in Egypt as far back as the fourth millennium BCE.[3][not in citation given][4] The earliest archaeological evidence of papyrus was excavated in 2012 and 2013 at Wadi al-Jarf, an ancient Egyptian harbor located on the Red Sea
Red Sea
coast. These documents date from c. 2560–2550 BCE (end of the reign of Khufu).[3] The papyrus rolls describe the last years of building the Great Pyramid of Giza.[5] In the first centuries BCE and CE, papyrus scrolls gained a rival as a writing surface in the form of parchment, which was prepared from animal skins.[6] Sheets of parchment were folded to form quires from which book-form codices were fashioned. Early Christian writers soon adopted the codex form, and in the Græco-Roman world, it became common to cut sheets from papyrus rolls to form codices. Codices were an improvement on the papyrus scroll, as the papyrus was not pliable enough to fold without cracking and a long roll, or scroll, was required to create large-volume texts. Papyrus
Papyrus
had the advantage of being relatively cheap and easy to produce, but it was fragile and susceptible to both moisture and excessive dryness. Unless the papyrus was of perfect quality, the writing surface was irregular, and the range of media that could be used was also limited. Papyrus
Papyrus
was replaced in Europe by the cheaper, locally produced products parchment and vellum, of significantly higher durability in moist climates, though Henri Pirenne's connection of its disappearance with the Muslim conquest of Egypt is contested.[7] Its last appearance in the Merovingian
Merovingian
chancery is with a document of 692, though it was known in Gaul
Gaul
until the middle of the following century. The latest certain dates for the use of papyrus are 1057 for a papal decree (typically conservative, all papal bulls were on papyrus until 1022), under Pope Victor II,[8] and 1087 for an Arabic document. Its use in Egypt continued until it was replaced by more inexpensive paper introduced by Arabs
Arabs
who originally learned of it from the Chinese. By the 12th century, parchment and paper were in use in the Byzantine Empire, but papyrus was still an option.[9] Papyrus
Papyrus
was made in several qualities and prices. Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
and Isidore of Seville
Isidore of Seville
described six variations of papyrus which were sold in the Roman market of the day. These were graded by quality based on how fine, firm, white, and smooth the writing surface was. Grades ranged from the superfine Augustan, which was produced in sheets of 13 digits (10 inches) wide, to the least expensive and most coarse, measuring six digits (four inches) wide. Materials deemed unusable for writing or less than six digits were considered commercial quality and were pasted edge to edge to be used only for wrapping.[10] Until the middle of the 19th century, only some isolated documents written on papyrus were known, and that museums simply displayed them as curiosities.[11] They did not contain literary works.[12] The first modern discovery of papyri rolls was made at Herculaneum
Herculaneum
in 1752. Until then, the only papyri known had been a few surviving from medieval times.[13][14] Scholarly investigations began with the Dutch historian Caspar Jacob Christiaan Reuvens (1793–1835). He wrote about the content of the Leyden papyrus, published in 1830. The first publication has been credited to the British scholar Charles Wycliffe Goodwin (1817–1878), who published for the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, one of the Papyri Graecae Magicae V, translated into English with commentary in 1853.[11] Etymology[edit] The English word "papyrus" derives, via Latin, from Greek πάπυρος (papyros),[15] a loanword of unknown (perhaps Pre-Greek) origin.[16] Greek has a second word for it, βύβλος (byblos,[17] said to derive from the name of the Phoenician city of Byblos). The Greek writer Theophrastus, who flourished during the 4th century BCE, uses papyros when referring to the plant used as a foodstuff and byblos for the same plant when used for nonfood products, such as cordage, basketry, or writing surfaces. The more specific term βίβλος biblos, which finds its way into English in such words as 'bibliography', 'bibliophile', and 'bible', refers to the inner bark of the papyrus plant. Papyrus
Papyrus
is also the etymon of 'paper', a similar substance. In the Egyptian language, papyrus was called wadj (w3ḏ), tjufy (ṯwfy), or djet (ḏt). Documents written on papyrus[edit]

Bill of sale for a donkey, papyrus; 19.3 by 7.2 cm, MS Gr SM2223, Houghton Library, Harvard University

The word for the material papyrus is also used to designate documents written on sheets of it, often rolled up into scrolls. The plural for such documents is papyri. Historical papyri are given identifying names—generally the name of the discoverer, first owner or institution where they are kept—and numbered, such as "Papyrus Harris I". Often an abbreviated form is used, such as "pHarris I". These documents provide important information on ancient writings; they give us the only extant copy of Menander, the Egyptian Book
Book
of the Dead, Egyptian treatises on medicine (the Ebers Papyrus) and on surgery (the Edwin Smith papyrus), Egyptian mathematical treatises (the Rhind papyrus), and Egyptian folk tales (the Westcar papyrus). When, in the 18th century, a library of ancient papyri was found in Herculaneum, ripples of expectation spread among the learned men of the time. However, since these papyri were badly charred, their unscrolling and deciphering is still going on today. Manufacture and use[edit]

Different ways of cutting papyrus stem and making of papyrus sheet

Papyrus
Papyrus
plant Cyperus papyrus
Cyperus papyrus
at Kew Gardens, London

Papyrus
Papyrus
plants near Syracuse, Sicily

Papyrus
Papyrus
is made from the stem of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus. The outer rind is first removed, and the sticky fibrous inner pith is cut lengthwise into thin strips of about 40 cm (16 in) long. The strips are then placed side by side on a hard surface with their edges slightly overlapping, and then another layer of strips is laid on top at a right angle. The strips may have been soaked in water long enough for decomposition to begin, perhaps increasing adhesion, but this is not certain. The two layers possibly were glued together.[18] While still moist, the two layers are hammered together, mashing the layers into a single sheet. The sheet is then dried under pressure. After drying, the sheet is polished with some rounded object, possibly a stone or seashell or round hardwood.[19] Sheets could be cut to fit the obligatory size or glued together to create a longer roll. A wooden stick would be attached to the last sheet in a roll, making it easier to handle.[20] To form the long strip scrolls required, a number of such sheets were united, placed so all the horizontal fibres parallel with the roll's length were on one side and all the vertical fibres on the other. Normally, texts were first written on the recto, the lines following the fibres, parallel to the long edges of the scroll. Secondarily, papyrus was often reused, writing across the fibres on the verso.[4] Pliny the Elder describes the methods of preparing papyrus in his Naturalis Historia. In a dry climate, like that of Egypt, papyrus is stable, formed as it is of highly rot-resistant cellulose; but storage in humid conditions can result in molds attacking and destroying the material. Library papyrus rolls were stored in wooden boxes and chests made in the form of statues. Papyrus
Papyrus
scrolls were organized according to subject or author, and identified with clay labels that specified their contents without having to unroll the scroll.[21] In European conditions, papyrus seems to have lasted only a matter of decades; a 200-year-old papyrus was considered extraordinary. Imported papyrus once commonplace in Greece
Greece
and Italy
Italy
has since deteriorated beyond repair, but papyrus is still being found in Egypt; extraordinary examples include the Elephantine papyri
Elephantine papyri
and the famous finds at Oxyrhynchus
Oxyrhynchus
and Nag Hammadi. The Villa of the Papyri
Villa of the Papyri
at Herculaneum, containing the library of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, Julius Caesar's father-in-law, was preserved by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, but has only been partially excavated. Sporadic attempts to revive the manufacture of papyrus have been made since the mid-18th century. Scottish explorer James Bruce experimented in the late 18th century with papyrus plants from the Sudan, for papyrus had become extinct in Egypt. Also in the 18th century, Sicilian Saverio Landolina manufactured papyrus at Syracuse, where papyrus plants had continued to grow in the wild. During the 1920s, when Egyptologist Battiscombe Gunn
Battiscombe Gunn
lived in Maadi, outside Cairo, he experimented with the manufacture of papyrus, growing the plant in his garden. He beat the sliced papyrus stalks between two layers of linen, and produced successful examples of papyrus, one of which was exhibited in the Egyptian Museum
Egyptian Museum
in Cairo.[22][23] The modern technique of papyrus production used in Egypt for the tourist trade was developed in 1962 by the Egyptian engineer Hassan Ragab using plants that had been reintroduced into Egypt in 1872 from France. Both Sicily
Sicily
and Egypt have centres of limited papyrus production. Papyrus
Papyrus
is still used by communities living in the vicinity of swamps, to the extent that rural householders derive up to 75% of their income from swamp goods.[24] Particularly in East and Central Africa, people harvest papyrus, which is used to manufacture items that are sold or used locally. Examples include baskets, hats, fish traps, trays or winnowing mats, and floor mats.[25] Papyrus
Papyrus
is also used to make roofs, ceilings, rope and fences. Although alternatives, such as eucalyptus, are increasingly available, papyrus is still used as fuel.[26] Collections of papyri[edit]

The Heracles Papyrus

Amherst Papyri: This is a collection of William Tyssen-Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst of Hackney. It includes biblical manuscripts, early church fragments, and classical documents from the Ptolemaic, Roman, and Byzantine eras. The collection was edited by Bernard Grenfell
Bernard Grenfell
and Arthur Hunt
Arthur Hunt
in 1900–1901. It is housed at the Pierpont Morgan Library (New York). Archduke Rainer Papyri: One of the world's largest collection of papyri (about 180,000 objects) in the Austrian National Library.[27] Berlin
Berlin
Papyri: housed in the Egyptian Museum
Egyptian Museum
and Papyrus Collection.[28] Berliner griechische Urkunden: BGU, a publishing project ongoing since 1895 Bodmer Papyri: This collection was purchased by Martin Bodmer
Martin Bodmer
in 1955–1956. Currently it is housed in the Bibliotheca Bodmeriana in Cologny. It includes Greek and Coptic documents, classical texts, biblical books, and writing of the early churches. Brooklyn Papyrus: This papyrus focuses mainly on snakebites and its remedies. It speaks of remedial methods for poisons obtained from snakes, scorpions, and tarantulas. The Brooklyn Papyrus
Brooklyn Papyrus
currently resides in the Brooklyn Museum.[29] Chester Beatty Papyri: collection of 11 codices acquired by Alfred Chester Beatty in 1930–1931 and 1935. It is housed at the Chester Beatty Library. The collection was edited by Frederic G. Kenyon. Colt Papyri: it is housed at the Pierpont Morgan Library (New York). The Herculaneum
Herculaneum
papyri: These papyri were found in Herculaneum
Herculaneum
in the eighteenth century, carbonized by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. After some tinkering, a method was found to unroll and to read them. Most of them are housed at the Naples National Archaeological Museum.[30] The Heroninos Archive
Heroninos Archive
is a collection of around a thousand papyrus documents, dealing with the management of a large Roman estate, dating to the third century CE, found at the very end of the 19th century at Kasr El Harit, the site of ancient Theadelphia (de), in the Faiyum
Faiyum
area of Egypt by Bernard Pyne Grenfell and Arthur Surridge Hunt. It is spread over many collections throughout the world. The Houghton's papyri: the collection at Houghton Library, Harvard University was acquired between 1901 and 1909 thanks to a donation from the Egypt Exploration Fund.[31] Saite Oracle Papyrus: This papyrus located at the Brooklyn Museum records the petition of a man named Pemou on behalf of his father, Harsiese to ask their god for permission to change temples. Martin Schøyen Collection: biblical manuscripts in Greek and Coptic, Dead Sea Scrolls, classical documents Michigan Papyrus
Papyrus
Collection: this collection contains above 10 000 papyri fragments. It is housed at the University of Michigan. Oxyrhynchus
Oxyrhynchus
Papyri: these numerous papyri fragments were discovered by Grenfell and Hunt in and around Oxyrhynchus. The publication of these papyri is still in progress. A large part of the Oxyrhynchus
Oxyrhynchus
papyri are housed at the Ashmolean Museum
Ashmolean Museum
in Oxford, others in the British Museum in London, in the Egyptian Museum
Egyptian Museum
in Cairo, and many other places. Princeton Papyri: it is housed at the Princeton University[32] Papiri della Società Italiana (PSI): a series, still in progress, published by the Società per la ricerca dei Papiri greci e latini in Egitto and from 1927 onwards by the succeeding Istituto Papirologico "G. Vitelli" in Florence. These papyri are situated at the institute itself and in the Biblioteca Laurenziana. Rylands Papyri: this collection contains above 700 papyri, with 31 ostraca and 54 codices. It is housed at the John Rylands University Library. Tebtunis Papyri: housed by the Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley, this is a collection of more than 30,000 fragments dating from the 3rd century BCE through the 3rd century CE, found in the winter 1899–1900 at the site of ancient Tebtunis, Egypt, by an expedition team led by the British papyrologists Bernard P. Grenfell and Arthur S. Hunt.[33] Washington University Papyri Collection: includes 445 manuscript fragments, dating from the first century BCE to the eighth century AD. Housed at the Washington University Libraries. Will of Naunakhte: found at Deir el-Medina
Deir el-Medina
and dating to the 20th dynasty, it is notable because it is a legal document for a non-noble woman.[34] Yale Papyrus
Papyrus
Collection: numbers over six thousand inventoried items and is cataloged, digitally scanned, and accessible online for close study. It is housed at the Beinecke Library.

See also[edit]

Pliny the Elder Papyrology Papyrus
Papyrus
sanitary pad Palimpsest For Egyptian papyri:

List of ancient Egyptian papyri

Other papyri:

Elephantine papyri Magdalen papyrus Nag Hammadi
Nag Hammadi
library New Testament papyri Strasbourg papyrus

The papyrus plant in Egyptian art

Palmette

Papyrus
Papyrus
art[edit]

Drawing of a greater bird of paradise on papyrus

Other ancient writing materials:

Palm leaf manuscript
Palm leaf manuscript
(India) Amate
Amate
(Mesoamerica) Paper Ostracon Wax tablets Clay tablets Birch bark document Parchment

Notes[edit]

^ " Papyrus
Papyrus
definition". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 20 November 2008.  ^ "Ebers Papyrus". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2014.  ^ a b Tallet, Pierre (2012). "Ayn Sukhna and Wadi el-Jarf: Two newly discovered pharaonic harbours on the Suez Gulf" (PDF). British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
and Sudan. 18: 147–68. ISSN 2049-5021. Retrieved 21 April 2013.  ^ a b H. Idris Bell and T.C. Skeat, 1935. " Papyrus
Papyrus
and its uses" ( British Museum
British Museum
pamphlet). Archived 18 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Stille, Alexander. "The World's Oldest Papyrus
Papyrus
and What It Can Tell Us About the Great Pyramids". Retrieved 2015-09-27.  ^ Černý, Jaroslav. 1952. Paper
Paper
and Books in Ancient Egypt: An Inaugural Lecture Delivered at University College London, 29 May 1947. London: H. K. Lewis. (Reprinted Chicago: Ares Publishers Inc., 1977). ^ Pirenne, Mohammed and Charlemagne, critiqued by R.S. Lopez, "Mohammed and Charlemagne: a revision", Speculum (1943:14–38.). ^ David Diringer, The Book
Book
before Printing: Ancient, Medieval and Oriental, Dover Publications, New York 1982, p. 166. ^ Bompaire, Jacques and Jean Irigoin. La paleographie grecque et byzantine, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1977, 389 n. 6, cited in Alice-Mary Talbot (ed.). Holy women of Byzantium, Dumbarton Oaks, 1996, p. 227. ISBN 0-88402-248-X. ^ Lewis, N (1983). " Papyrus
Papyrus
and Ancient Writing: The First Hundred Years of Papyrology". Archaeology. 36 (4): 31–37.  ^ a b Hans Dieter Betz (1992). "The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation, Including the Demotic Spells, Volume 1".  ^ Frederic G. Kenyon, Palaeography of Greek papyri (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1899), p. 1. ^ Frederic G. Kenyon, Palaeography of Greek papyri (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1899), p. 3. ^ Diringer, David (1982). The Book
Book
Before Printing: Ancient, Medieval and Oriental. New York: Dover Publications. pp. 250–256. ISBN 0-486-24243-9.  ^ πάπυρος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus ^ R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 1151. ^ βύβλος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus ^ Introduction to Greek and Latin
Latin
Palaeography, Maunde Thompson. archive.org ^ Bierbrier, Morris Leonard, ed. 1986. Papyrus: Structure and Usage. British Museum
British Museum
Occasional Papers 60, ser. ed. Anne Marriott. London: British Museum
British Museum
Press. ^ Lyons, Martyn (2011). Books: A Living History. Los Angeles, California: Getty Publications. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-60606-083-4.  ^ Murray, Stuart (2009). The Library: An Illustrated History. New York, NY: Skyhorse. pp. 10–12. ISBN 9781602397064.  ^ Cerny, Jaroslav (1947). Paper
Paper
and books in Ancient Egypt. London: H. K. Lewis & Co. Ltd.  ^ Lucas, A. (1934). Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries, 2nd Ed. London: Edward Arnold and Co.  ^ (Maclean et al. 2003b; c). ^ Langdon, S. 2000. Papyrus
Papyrus
and its Uses in Modern Day Russia, Vol. 1, pp. 56–59. ^ Maclean, I.M.D., R. Tinch, M. Hassall and R.R. Boar. 2003c. Towards optimal use of tropical wetlands: an economic evaluation of goods derived from papyrus swamps in southwest Uganda. Environmental Change and Management Working Paper
Paper
No. 2003-10, Centre for Social and Economic Research into the Global Environment, University of East Anglia, Norwich. ^ Papyrus
Papyrus
Collection at the Austrian National Library ^ Egyptian Museum
Egyptian Museum
and Papyrus
Papyrus
Collection ^ "Ancient Egyptian Medical Papyri". Retrieved 17 June 2014.  ^ Diringer, David (1982). The Book
Book
Before Printing: Ancient, Medieval and Oriental. New York: Dover Publications. p. 252 ff. ISBN 0-486-24243-9.  ^ Digital Papyri at Houghton Library, Harvard University ^ Digital Images of Selected Princeton Papyri ^ The Center for the Tebtunis Papyri ^ Černý, Jaroslav. "The Will of Naunakhte and the Related Documents." The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 31 (1945): 29–53

References[edit]

Leach, Bridget, and William John Tait. 2000. "Papyrus". In Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology, edited by Paul T. Nicholson and Ian Shaw. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 227–253. Thorough technical discussion with extensive bibliography. Leach, Bridget, and William John Tait. 2001. "Papyrus". In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, edited by Donald Bruce Redford. Vol. 3 of 3 vols. Oxford, New York, and Cairo: Oxford
Oxford
University Press and The American University in Cairo
Cairo
Press. 22–24. Parkinson, Richard Bruce, and Stephen G. J. Quirke. 1995. Papyrus. Egyptian Bookshelf. London: British Museum
British Museum
Press. General overview for a popular reading audience.

Further reading[edit]

Horst Blanck: Das Buch in der Antike. Beck, München 1992, ISBN 3-406-36686-4 Rosemarie Drenkhahn: Papyrus. In: Wolfgang Helck, Wolfhart Westendorf (Hrsg.): Lexikon der Ägyptologie. Bd. IV, Wiesbaden 1982, Spalte 667–670 David Diringer, The Book
Book
before Printing: Ancient, Medieval and Oriental, Dover Publications, New York 1982, pp. 113–169, ISBN 0-486-24243-9. Victor Martin (Hrsg.): Ménandre. Le Dyscolos. Bibliotheca Bodmeriana, Cologny
Cologny
– Genève 1958 Otto Mazal: Griechisch-römische Antike. Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, Graz 1999, ISBN 3-201-01716-7 (Geschichte der Buchkultur; Bd. 1)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Papyrus.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Papyri.

Leuven Homepage of Papyrus
Papyrus
Collections Ancient Egyptian Papyrus
Papyrus
– Aldokkan Yale Papyrus
Papyrus
Collection Database at the Beinecke Rare Book
Book
and Manuscript
Manuscript
Library at Yale University Lund University Library Papyrus
Papyrus
Collection Ghent University Library Papyrus
Papyrus
Collection How Papyrus
Papyrus
Paper
Paper
is being made

v t e

Paper
Paper
data storage media

Antiquity

Writing
Writing
on papyrus (c. 3000 BCE) Paper
Paper
(105 CE)

Modern

Railroad/Transit Punch Photograph (1880s) Punched card
Punched card
(1890) Edge-notched card
Edge-notched card
(1896) Optical mark recognition Optical character recognition (1929) Barcode
Barcode
(1948)

v t e

Writing

Semi-permanent Writing
Writing
material

Plant based

Palm-leaf manuscript
Palm-leaf manuscript
( Borassus
Borassus
spp.) Ola leaf
Ola leaf
(manuscript) (C. umbraculifera) Birch bark manuscript Papyrus Paper Wax tablet
Wax tablet
(wood) Amate

Trema micrantha Ficus aurea

Parabaik
Parabaik
(S. asper) Bamboo and wooden slips

Other

Clay tablet Metals

Stamping (metalworking) Intaglio (printmaking)

Stone inscription animal skin Samut khoi
Samut khoi
kraing (paper usu. Mulberry
Mulberry
bark, metals, other) Oracle bone silk E-ink Textile printing Geoglyph Ink Photographic film

Inherently impermanent material

Electronic visual display Skywriting Sand writing Blood writing

Types

manuscript inscription book sign electronic storage codex bas-relief high-relief

Misc

Writing
Writing
systems

Authority control

GND: 4044571-9 N

.