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Acromyrmex
Acromyrmex
Acromyrmex
is a genus of New World
New World
ants of the subfamily Myrmicinae. This genus is found in South America
South America
and parts of Central America
Central America
and the Caribbean Islands, and contains 31 known species. Commonly known as "leafcutter ants" they comprise one of the two genera of advanced attines within the tribe Attini, along with Atta.Contents1 Anatomy 2 Ecology2.1 Reproduction 2.2 Colony hierarchy 2.3 Ant-fungus mutualism 2.4 Waste management 2.5 Foraging behaviour3 Interactions with humans 4 Species 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksAnatomy[edit]Profile view of an A. balzani worker Acromyrmex
Acromyrmex
species' hard outer covering, the exoskeleton or cuticle, functions as armour, protection against dangerous solar waves, an attachment base for internal muscles, and to prevent water loss
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Glands
A gland is a group of cells[1] in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).Contents1 Structure1.1 Development2 Function2.1 Endocrine glands 2.2 Exocrine glands3 Clinical significance 4 Other's animals 5 Additional images 6 References 7 External linksStructure[edit] Main article: List of glands of the human body Development[edit]This image shows some of the various possible glandular arrangements. These are the simple tubular, simple branched tubular, simple coiled tubular, simple acinar, and simple branched acinar glands.This image shows some of the various possible glandular arrangements. These are the compound tubular, compound acinar, and compound tubulo-acinar glands.Every gland is formed by an ingrowth from an epithelial surface
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Spine (zoology)
In a zoological context, a spine is a hard, needle-like anatomical structure. Spines are found in a wide range of animals both vertebrate and invertebrate. In most spiny mammals, the spines are modified hairs, with a spongy center covered in a thick, hard layer of keratin, and a sharp, sometimes barbed, tip.Contents1 Occurrence1.1 Mammals 1.2 Fish 1.3 Invertebrates2 Function 3 Treating injuries caused by spines 4 Human uses 5 ReferencesOccurrence[edit] Mammals[edit] Spines in mammals include the prickles of hedgehogs and the quills of porcupines as well as the prickly fur of spiny mice and Tenrec
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Head
A head is the part of an organism which usually includes the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth, each of which aid in various sensory functions such as sight, hearing, smell, and taste, respectively. Some very simple animals may not have a head, but many bilaterally symmetric forms do, regardless of size. Heads develop in animals by an evolutionary trend known as cephalization. In bilaterally symmetrical animals, nervous tissues concentrate at the anterior region, forming structures responsible for information processing
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Thorax
The thorax or chest (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet"[1] via Latin: thorax) is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen.[2][3] The thorax includes the thoracic cavity and the thoracic wall. It contains organs including the heart, lungs, and thymus gland, as well as muscles and various other internal structures. Many diseases may affect the chest, and one of the most common symptoms is chest pain.Contents1 Structure1.1 Contents 1.2 The chest 1.3 Bones 1.4 Anatomical landmarks2 Clinical significance2.1 Injury 2.2 Pain2.2.1 Non-cardiac causes of chest pain2.3 Atelectasis 2.4 Pneumothorax3 Other animals3.1 In tetrapods 3.2 In arthropods4 Additional Images 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksStructure[edit] In humans and other hominids, the thorax is the chest region of the body between the neck and the abdomen, along with its internal organs and other contents
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Abdomen
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates. The region occupied by the abdomen is termed the abdominal cavity. In arthropods it is the posterior tagma of the body; it follows the thorax or cephalothorax.[1][2] The abdomen stretches from the thorax at the thoracic diaphragm to the pelvis at the pelvic brim. The pelvic brim stretches from the lumbosacral joint (the intervertebral disc between L5 and S1) to the pubic symphysis and is the edge of the pelvic inlet. The space above this inlet and under the thoracic diaphragm is termed the abdominal cavity
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Petiole (insect)
In entomology, petiole is the technical term for the narrow waist of some hymenopteran insects, especially ants, bees, and wasps in the order Apocrita. The petiole can consist of either one or two segments, a characteristic that separates major subfamilies of ants. Structure[edit] The term 'petiole' is most commonly used to refer to the constricted first (and sometimes second) metasomal (posterior) segment of members of the hymenopteran suborder Apocrita
Apocrita
(ants, bees, and wasps). It is sometimes also used to refer to other insects with similar body shapes, where the metasomal base is constricted
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Antenna (biology)
Antennae (singular: antenna), sometimes referred to as "feelers," are paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods. Antennae are connected to the first one or two segments of the arthropod head. They vary widely in form, but are always made of one or more jointed segments. While they are typically sensory organs, the exact nature of what they sense and how they sense it is not the same in all groups. Functions may variously include sensing touch, air motion, heat, vibration (sound), and especially smell or taste.[1][2] Antennae are sometimes modified for other purposes, such as mating, brooding, swimming, and even anchoring the arthropod to a substrate.[2] Larval arthropods have antennae that differ from those of the adult. Many crustaceans, for example, have free-swimming larvae that use their antennae for swimming
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Fight
Combat
Combat
(French for fight) is a purposeful violent conflict meant to weaken, establish dominance over, or kill the opposition, or to drive the opposition away from a location where it is not wanted or needed. Combat
Combat
is typically between opposing military forces in warfare. Combat
Combat
violence can be unilateral, whereas fighting implies at least a defensive reaction. A large-scale fight is known as a battle. A verbal fight is commonly known as an argument. Combat
Combat
effectiveness, in the strategic field, requires combat readiness
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Compound Eye
A compound eye is a visual organ found in arthropods such as insects and crustaceans. It may consist of thousands[1] of ommatidia which are tiny independent photoreception units that consist of a cornea, lens, and photoreceptor cells which distinguish brightness and color. The image perceived by the arthropod is a combination of inputs from the numerous ommatidia, which are oriented to point in slightly different directions
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Ommatidia
The compound eyes of arthropods like insects, crustaceans and millipedes[1] are composed of units called ommatidia (singular: ommatidium). An ommatidium contains a cluster of photoreceptor cells surrounded by support cells and pigment cells. The outer part of the ommatidium is overlaid with a transparent cornea. Each ommatidium is innervated by one axon bundle (usually consisting of 6-9 axons, depending on the number of rhabdomeres)[2] and provides the brain with one picture element. The brain forms an image from these independent picture elements
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Ocelli
A simple eye (sometimes called a pigment pit[1][2]) refers to a type of eye form or optical arrangement that contains a single lens. A "simple eye" is so called in distinction from a multi-lensed "compound eye", and is not necessarily at all simple in the usual sense of the word. The eyes of humans and large animals, and camera lenses are classed as "simple" because in both cases a single lens collects and focuses light onto the retina or film. Many insects have compound eyes consisting of multiple lenses (up to tens of thousands), each focusing light onto a small number of retinula cells. The structure of an animal's eye is determined by the environment in which it lives, and the behavioural tasks it must fulfill to survive. Arthropods differ widely in the habitats in which they live, as well as their visual requirements for finding food or conspecifics, and avoiding predators
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Anatomy
Anatomy
Anatomy
(Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.[1] Anatomy
Anatomy
is a branch of natural science dealing with the structural organization of living things. It is an old science, having its beginnings in prehistoric times.[2] Anatomy
Anatomy
is inherently tied to embryology, comparative anatomy, evolutionary biology, and phylogeny,[3] as these are the processes by which anatomy is generated over immediate (embryology) and long (evolution) timescales. Human anatomy is one of the basic essential sciences of medicine.[4] Anatomy and physiology, which study (respectively) the structure and function of organisms and their parts, make a natural pair of related disciplines, and they are often studied together. The discipline of anatomy is divided into macroscopic and microscopic anatomy
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Jaw
The jaw is any opposable articulated structure at the entrance of the mouth, typically used for grasping and manipulating food. The term jaws is also broadly applied to the whole of the structures constituting the vault of the mouth and serving to open and close it and is part of the body plan of most animals.Contents1 Arthropods 2 Vertebrates2.1 Fish 2.2 Amphibians, reptiles, and birds 2.3 Mammals3 Sea urchins 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksArthropods[edit] Further information: Mandible (arthropod mouthpart)
Mandible (arthropod mouthpart)
and Mandible (insect mouthpart)The mandibles of a bull antIn arthropods, the jaws are chitinous and oppose laterally, and may consist of mandibles or chelicerae. These jaws are often composed of numerous mouthparts. Their function is fundamentally for food acquisition, conveyance to the mouth, and/or initial processing (mastication or chewing)
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Sun
The Sun
Sun
is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma,[14][15] with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process.[16] It is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth. Its diameter is about 1.39 million kilometers, i.e. 109 times that of Earth, and its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth, accounting for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System.[17] About three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen (~73%); the rest is mostly helium (~25%), with much smaller quantities of heavier elements, including oxygen, carbon, neon, and iron.[18] The Sun
Sun
is a G-type main-sequence star
G-type main-sequence star
(G2V) based on its spectral class. As such, it is informally referred to as a yellow dwarf
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Brain
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. The brain is located in the head, usually close to the sensory organs for senses such as vision. The brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate's body. In a human, the cerebral cortex contains approximately 15–33 billion neurons,[1] each connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells. Physiologically, the function of the brain is to exert centralized control over the other organs of the body. The brain acts on the rest of the body both by generating patterns of muscle activity and by driving the secretion of chemicals called hormones. This centralized control allows rapid and coordinated responses to changes in the environment
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