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Acromyrmex
ACROMYRMEX is a genus of New World ants of the subfamily Myrmicinae
Myrmicinae
. This genus is found in South America
South America
and parts of Central America and the Caribbean Islands , and contains 31 known species . Commonly known as "leafcutter ants " they comprise one of the two genera of advanced attines within the tribe Attini, along with Atta . CONTENTS * 1 Anatomy * 2 Ecology * 2.1 Reproduction * 2.2 Colony hierarchy * 2.3 Ant-fungus mutualism * 2.4 Waste management * 2.5 Foraging behaviour * 3 Interactions with humans * 4 Species * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ANATOMY Profile view of an A. balzani worker Acromyrmex
Acromyrmex
species' hard outer covering, the exoskeleton or cuticle, functions as armour , protection against dangerous solar waves, an attachment base for internal muscles , and to prevent water loss. It is divided into three main parts; the head , thorax , and abdomen . A small segment between the thorax and abdomen, the petiole , is split into two nodes in Acromyrmex
Acromyrmex
species. Diagram of an ant's anatomy The antennae are the most important sense organs Acromyrmex
Acromyrmex
species possess, and are jointed so the ant can extend them forward to investigate an object
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Acromyrmex Octospinosus
Acromyrmex
Acromyrmex
guentheri (Forel , 1893) Formica octospinosa Reich, 1793 ACROMYRMEX OCTOSPINOSUS is a species of New World ants of the subfamily Myrmicinae
Myrmicinae
of the genus Acromyrmex. It is found in the wild naturally in Central America ranging from southern Mexico
Mexico
down to Panama
Panama
; and across northern South America
South America
in Venezuela
Venezuela
. Head view of ant Acromyrmex
Acromyrmex
octospinosus specimen Foundresses of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex
Acromyrmex
octospinosus forage for leaves as garden substrate (semi-claustral foundation). The fungal pellet and substrate usually are attached to rootlets, which are used as a platform for the garden. This arrangement keeps the garden suspended away from the earthen chamber of the underground nest during early colony growth, and it serves to minimize contact between the garden and contaminants. A. octospinosus foundresses produce from 3 to 7 workers in 2.7 months after founding the nest, but workers do not forage for substrate at this time. Incipient nests died or were abandoned at a monthly rate of about 50%. The ants routinely clean their legs before manipulating the garden substrate
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις _(taxis )_, meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία _(-nomia)_, meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
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Animal
ANIMALS are multicellular , eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom ANIMALIA (also called METAZOA). The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the sister group to the choanoflagellates . Animals are motile , meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop , although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs : they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance . Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion , about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates . Vertebrates have a backbone or spine (vertebral column ), and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species . They include fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds and mammals . The remaining animals are the invertebrates, which lack a backbone. These include molluscs (clams , oysters , octopuses , squid , snails ); arthropods (millipedes , centipedes , insects , spiders , scorpions , crabs , lobsters , shrimp ); annelids (earthworms , leeches ), nematodes (filarial worms , hookworms ), flatworms (tapeworms , liver flukes ), cnidarians (jellyfish , sea anemones , corals ), ctenophores (comb jellies), and sponges
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Arthropod
Condylipoda Latreille, 1802 An ARTHROPOD (from Greek ἄρθρον _arthron_, "joint" and πούς _pous_, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton ), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages . Arthropods form the phylum ARTHROPODA, which includes insects , arachnids , myriapods , and crustaceans . Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin , often mineralised with calcium carbonate . The arthropod body plan consists of segments , each with a pair of appendages . The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting . Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments. They have over a million described species, making up more than 80% of all described living animal species, some of which, unlike most animals, are very successful in dry environments. Arthropods range in size from the microscopic crustacean _ Stygotantulus _ up to the Japanese spider crab . Arthropods' primary internal cavity is a hemocoel , which accommodates their internal organs , and through which their haemolymph – analogue of blood – circulates; they have open circulatory systems . Like their exteriors, the internal organs of arthropods are generally built of repeated segments
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Insect
See text . INSECTS or INSECTA (from Latin _insectum_, a calque of Greek ἔντομον , "cut into sections") are by far the largest group of hexapod invertebrates within the arthropod phylum . Definitions and circumscriptions vary; in one approach insects comprise a class within the Phylum Arthopoda. As the term is used here, it is synonymous with ECTOGNATHA. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton , a three-part body (head , thorax and abdomen ), three pairs of jointed legs , compound eyes and one pair of antennae . They are the most diverse group of animals on the planet, including more than a million described species and representing more than half of all known living organisms . The number of extant species is estimated at between six and ten million, and potentially represent over 90% of the differing animal life forms on Earth. Insects may be found in nearly all environments , although only a small number of species reside in the oceans, a habitat dominated by another arthropod group, crustaceans . The life cycles of insects vary but most hatch from eggs . Insect growth is constrained by the inelastic exoskeleton and development involves a series of molts . The immature stages can differ from the adults in structure, habit and habitat, and can include a passive pupal stage in those groups that undergo 4-stage metamorphosis (see holometabolism )
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Hymenoptera
Apocrita Symphyta HYMENOPTERA is a large order of insects , comprising the sawflies , wasps , bees , and ants . Over 150,000 living species of Hymenoptera have been described, in addition to over 2,000 extinct ones. Females typically have a special ovipositor for inserting eggs into hosts or places that are otherwise inaccessible. The ovipositor is often modified into a stinger . The young develop through holometabolism (complete metamorphosis )—that is, they have a worm-like larval stage and an inactive pupal stage before they mature. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Evolution * 3 Anatomy * 4 Reproduction * 4.1 Sex determination * 4.2 Thelytoky * 5 Diet * 6 Classification * 6.1 Symphyta * 6.2 Apocrita * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Bibliography * 10 External links ETYMOLOGYThe name Hymenoptera refers to the wings of the insects, but the original derivation is ambiguous. :42 All references agree that the derivation involves the Ancient Greek πτερόν (_pteron_) for wing. The Ancient Greek ὑμήν (_hymen_) for membrane provides a plausible etymology for the term because species in this order have membranous wings
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Ant
Martialinae Leptanillinae Amblyoponinae Paraponerinae Agroecomyrmecinae Ponerinae Proceratiinae Ecitoninae‡ Aenictinae‡ Dorylini ‡ Aenictogitoninae‡ Cerapachyinae‡* Leptanilloidinae‡ Dolichoderinae Aneuretinae Pseudomyrmecinae Myrmeciinae Ectatomminae Heteroponerinae Myrmicinae Formicinae A phylogeny of the extant ant subfamilies . *Cerapachyinae is paraphyletic ‡ The previous dorylomorph subfamilies were synonymized under Dorylinae by Brady _et al_. in 2014 ANTS are eusocial insects of the family FORMICIDAE and, along with the related wasps and bees , belong to the order Hymenoptera . Ants evolved from wasp-like ancestors in the Cretaceous period, about 99 million years ago, and diversified after the rise of flowering plants . More than 12,500 of an estimated total of 22,000 species have been classified. They are easily identified by their elbowed antennae and the distinctive node-like structure that forms their slender waists. Ants form colonies that range in size from a few dozen predatory individuals living in small natural cavities to highly organised colonies that may occupy large territories and consist of millions of individuals
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Gustav Mayr
GUSTAV L. MAYR (12 October 1830 in Vienna
Vienna
– 14 July 1908 in Vienna) was an Austrian entomologist and professor in Budapest
Budapest
and Vienna. He specialised in Hymenoptera
Hymenoptera
, being particularly known for his studies of Formicidae
Formicidae
. In 1868, he was the first to describe the Argentine ant
Argentine ant
. He is credited with naming the harvesting ant species, Aphaenogaster treatae, for naturalist Mary Davis Treat in honor of her research on the species. WORKS * Formicidae
Formicidae
. Vienna
Vienna
1865. * Die Ameisen des baltischen Bernsteins. Königsberg: Koch, 1868. * Feigeninsecten. Vienna: Hölder, 1885. * Hymenopterologische Miscellen. Vienna: Hölder, 1902. * Formiciden aus Ägypten und dem Sudan. (1903).REFERENCES * Portrait Obits. * ^ 1908. Obituary. Prof. Gustav Mayr. Entomological News 19:396 Bibliography * ^ Managing Linepithema Humile (Mayr), the Argentine Ant, in South Carolina by Brittany Russ Ellis * ^ Early American Nature Writers: A Biographical Encyclopedia edited by Daniel Patterson, Roger Thompson, J
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Type Species
In zoological nomenclature , a TYPE SPECIES (_species typica_) is the species name with which the name of a genus or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e., the species that contains the biological type specimen(s). A similar concept is used for suprageneric groups called a type genus . In botanical nomenclature , these terms have no formal standing under the code of nomenclature , but are sometimes borrowed from zoological nomenclature. In botany, the type of a genus name is a specimen (or, rarely, an illustration) which is also the type of a species name. The species name that has that type can also be referred to as the type of the genus name. Names of genus and family ranks, the various subdivisions of those ranks, and some higher-rank names based on genus names, have such types. In bacteriology , a type species is assigned for each genus. Every named genus or subgenus in zoology, whether or not currently recognized as valid , is theoretically associated with a type species. In practice, however, there is a backlog of untypified names defined in older publications when it was not required to specify a type. CONTENTS * 1 Use in zoology * 2 Citing * 3 See also * 4 References USE IN ZOOLOGY See also: Types in zoology A type species is both a concept and a practical system that is used in the classification and nomenclature (naming) of animals
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Acromyrmex Hystrix
ACROMYRMEX HYSTRIX is a species of leaf-cutter ant , a New World ant of the subfamily Myrmicinae
Myrmicinae
of the genus Acromyrmex. CONTENTS * 1 Distribution * 2 Subspecies * 2.1 Synonyms * 3 See also * 4 References DISTRIBUTIONThis species can be found in regions including the Amazon and Ecuador
Ecuador
. SUBSPECIES * Acromyrmex
Acromyrmex
hystrix ajax Santschi , 1925 * Acromyrmex
Acromyrmex
hystrix hystrix Latreille
Latreille
, 1802 SYNONYMS * Acromyrmex
Acromyrmex
emilii Santschi , 1925 * Atta hystrix Latreille
Latreille
, 1802 * Formica hystrix Latreille, 1802SEE ALSO * List of leafcutter ants REFERENCES * ^ " Acromyrmex
Acromyrmex
hystrix (Latreille, 1802) - Encyclopedia of Life". Eol.org. 2009-01-15. Retrieved 2010-08-20. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-06-16. Retrieved 2010-08-22. * ^ http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/274/1621/1971.full.pdf * ^ "Catalogue of Life : 2008 Annual Checklist : Acromyrmex
Acromyrmex
hystrix ajax". www.catalogueoflife.org. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Acromyrmex_hystrix additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Pierre André Latreille
PIERRE ANDRé LATREILLE (29 November 1762 – 6 February 1833) was a French zoologist , specialising in arthropods . Having trained as a Roman Catholic priest before the French Revolution , Latreille was imprisoned, and only regained his freedom after recognising a rare beetle species he found in the prison, Necrobia ruficollis
Necrobia ruficollis
. He published his first important work in 1796 (Précis des caractères génériques des insectes), and was eventually employed by the Muséum National d\'Histoire Naturelle . His foresighted work on arthropod systematics and taxonomy gained him respect and accolades, including being asked to write the volume on arthropods for George Cuvier 's monumental work, Le Règne Animal , the only part not by Cuvier himself. Latreille was considered the foremost entomologist of his time, and was described by one of his pupils as "the prince of entomologists"
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Biodiversity
BIODIVERSITY, a portmanteau of "biological diversity," generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth
Earth
. According to the United Nations Environment Programme , biodiversity typically measures variation at the genetic , the species , and the ecosystem level. Terrestrial biodiversity tends to be greater near the equator , which seems to be the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity . Biodiversity
Biodiversity
is not distributed evenly on Earth
Earth
, and is richest in the tropics. These tropical forest ecosystems cover less than 10 per cent of earth's surface, and contain about 90 percent of the world's species. Marine biodiversity tends to be highest along coasts in the Western Pacific , where sea surface temperature is highest and in the mid-latitudinal band in all oceans. There are latitudinal gradients in species diversity . Biodiversity
Biodiversity
generally tends to cluster in hotspots, and has been increasing through time, but will be likely to slow in the future. Rapid environmental changes typically cause mass extinctions
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Genus
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. _ Felis catus _ and _ Felis silvestris _ are two species within the genus _ Felis _. _Felis_ is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera. There are some general practices used, however, including the idea that a newly defined genus should fulfill these three criteria to be descriptively useful: * monophyly – all descendants of an ancestral taxon are grouped together (i.e. phylogenetic analysis should clearly demonstrate both monophyly and validity as a separate lineage ). * reasonable compactness – a genus should not be expanded needlessly; and * distinctness – with respect to evolutionarily relevant criteria, i.e
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New World
The NEW WORLD is one of the names used for the majority of Earth 's Western Hemisphere , specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda ). The term originated in the early 16th century after Europeans made landfall in what would later be called the Americas in the age of discovery , expanding the geographical horizon of classical geographers , who had thought of the world as consisting of Africa , Europe , and Asia , collectively now referred to as the Old World (a.k.a. Afro-Eurasia ). The term was coined by Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci . The Americas were also referred to as the "fourth part of the world". CONTENTS * 1 Usage * 2 Origin of term * 2.1 Prior usage * 2.2 Acceptance * 2.3 Cartographic representation * 3 See also * 4 References USAGEThe terms "Old World " vs. "New World" are meaningful in historical context and for the purpose of distinguishing the world's major ecozones , and to classify plant and animal species that originated therein. One can speak of the "New World" in a historical context, e.g., when discussing the voyages of Christopher Columbus , the Spanish conquest of Yucatán and other events of the colonial period
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Subfamily
In biological classification , a SUBFAMILY ( Latin
Latin
: subfamilia, plural subfamiliae) is an auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic rank , next below family but more inclusive than genus . Standard nomenclature rules end subfamily botanical names with "-oideae", and zoological names with "-inae". SEE ALSO * International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants * International Code of Zoological Nomenclature * Rank (botany) * Rank (zoology) SOURCES * ^ McNeill, J.; Barrie, F.R.; Buck, W.R.; Demoulin, V.; Greuter, W.; Hawksworth, D.L.; Herendeen, P.S.; Knapp, S.; Marhold, K.; Prado, J.; Prud'homme Van Reine, W.F.; Smith, G.F.; Wiersema, J.H.; Turland, N.J. (2012). International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code) adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011. Regnum Vegetabile 154. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag KG. ISBN 978-3-87429-425-6 . Article 19. * ^ International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1999). "Article 29.2. Suffixes for family-group names". International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (Fourth ed.). International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, XXIX. p. 306
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