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Abbasid Caliphate
The Abbasid Caliphate (/əˈbæsɪd/ or /ˈæbəsɪd/ Arabic: ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة‎, al-Khilāfah al-ʿAbbāsīyah) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It was founded by a dynasty descended from Muhammad's uncle, Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib (566–653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name. They ruled as caliphs for most of the caliphate from their capital in Baghdad in modern-day Iraq, after having overthrown the Umayyad Caliphate in the Abbasid Revolution of 750 CE (132 AH). The Abbasid Caliphate first centred its government in Kufa, modern-day Iraq, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur founded the city of Baghdad, near the ancient Sasanian capital city of Ctesiphon
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Rawadid Dynasty
Rawwadid or Ravvadid (also Revend or Revendi) or Banū rawwād (955–1071), was a Muslim ruling family of Arab descent during the Medieval era, centered on Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan). Originally of Arab descent, the Rawadids ruled Tabriz and northeastern Azerbaijan in the late 8th and early 9th centuries. The family be
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Gold Dinar
The gold dinar (Arabic: ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ ذهبي‎) is an Islamic medieval gold coin first issued in AH 77 (696–697 CE) by Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan. The weight of the dinar is 1 mithqal (4.25 grams). The word dinar stems from the Latin denarius aureus or "gold coin". The name "dinar" is in use for Sasanid gold coins, and also for Kushan and Kidarite gold. It is not known how these coins were named in their day. The first dinars were issued by the Umayyad Caliphate
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Minaeans
The Minaean people were the inhabitants of the kingdom of Ma'in (Old South Arabian mʿn, vocalized Maʿīn; modern Arabic معين Maʿīn) in modern-day Yemen, dating back to the 6th century BCE-150 BCE. It was located along the strip of desert called Ṣayhad by medieval Arab geographers, which is now known as Ramlat Dehem. The Minaean people were one of four ancient Yemeni groups mentioned by Eratosthenes. The others were the Sabaeans, Ḥaḑramites and Qatabānians
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Lihyan
Lihyan (Arabic: لحيان) (Greek: Lechienoi) or Dadan or Dedan is an Ancient North Arabian kingdom. It was located in northwestern Arabia, and is known for its Ancient North Arabian inscriptions dating to ca. the 6th to 4th centuries BC. Dedanite is used for the older phase of the history of this kingdom since their capital name was Dedan (see Biblical Dedan), which is now called Al-`Ula oasis located in northwestern Arabia, some 110 km southwest of Teima. The Lihyanites later became the enemies of the Nabataeans. The Romans invaded the Nabataeans and destroyed their kingdom in 106 AD. This encouraged the Lihyanites to establish an independent Kingdom to manage their country. This was headed by the King (Timmy), one of the former royal family, which governed Al-Hijr before the Nabataean invasion. The Arab genealogies consider the Banu Lihyan to be descended from the Ishmaelite Arabs from Ishmael
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Nabataean Kingdom
The Nabataean Kingdom (Arabic: المملكة النبطية‎), also named Nabatea, was a political state of the Arab Nabataeans during classical antiquity. Nabataea remained independent from the 4th century BC until it was annexed by the Roman Empire in AD 106, which renamed it Arabia Petraea.
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Dirham
Dirham, dirhem or dirhm (درهم) was and, in some cases, still is a unit of currency in several Arab states. It was formerly the related unit of mass (the Ottoman dram) in the Ottoman Empire and old Persian states
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Kingdom Of Himyar
The Ḥimyarite Kingdom or Ḥimyar (Arabic: مملكة حِمْيَر‎, Mamlakat Ḥimyar, Musnad: 𐩢𐩣𐩺𐩧𐩣, Hebrew: ממלכת חִמְיָר‬) (fl. 110 BCE–520s CE), historically referred to as the Homerite Kingdom by the Greeks and the Romans, was a kingdom in ancient Yemen. Established in 110 BCE, it took as its capital the ancient city of Zafar, to be followed at the beginning of the 4th century by what is the modern-day city of Sana'a. The kingdom conquered neighbouring Saba' (Sheba) in c. 25 BCE (for the first time), Qataban in c. 200 CE, and Haḍramaut c. 300 CE
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Royal Family Of Emesa
In the context of human society, a family (from Latin: familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family" [...] from Latin familia 'family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,' thus also 'members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,' abstract noun formed from famulus 'servant, slave [...]') or some combination of these. Members of the immediate family may include spouses, parents, brothers, sisters, sons, and daughters. Members of the extended family may include grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, nephews, nieces, and siblings-in-law
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Ghassanids
The Ghassanids (Arabic: الغساسنة‎‏; al-Ghasāsinah, also Banū Ghassān "Sons of Ghassān") were an Arab kingdom, founded by descendants of the Azd tribe from Yemen who immigrated in the early 3rd century to the Levant region, where some merged with Hellenized Christ
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Kaysites
The Kaysite dynasty was a Muslim Arab dynasty that ruled an emirate centered in Manzikert from c. 860 until 964
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Kufa
Kufa (Arabic: الكوفةal-Kūfah) is a city in Iraq, about 170 kilometres (110 mi) south of Baghdad, and 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) northeast of Najaf. It is located on the banks of the Euphrates River. The estimated population in 2003 was 110,000. Presently, Kufa and Najaf are joined into a single urban area that is mostly commonly known to the outside world as 'Najaf'. Along with Samarra, Karbala, Kadhimiya and Najaf, Kufa is one of five Iraqi cities that are of great importance to Shi'ite Muslims. The city was the final capital of the fourth Rashidun Caliph, that is Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was founded during 639 CE (17 Hijrah) by the second Rashidun Caliph, that is Umar ibn Al-Khattab. It is also related that, Muslims after conquest of Al-Madain were searching to have a suitable place for habitation. Likewise others, Salman and Hudhayfa bin al-Yamman were also looking for
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Sabaeans
The Sabaeans or Sabeans (Arabic: اَلـسَّـبَـئِـيُّـون‎, as-Saba’iyyūn; Hebrew: שבא‬; Musnad: 𐩪𐩨𐩱) were an ancient people speaking an Old South Arabian language who lived in the southern Arabian Peninsula. The kingdom of Saba’ (Arabic: سَـبَـأ‎) has been identified with the biblical land of Sheba. The view that the biblical kingdom of Sheba was the ancient Semitic civilization of Saba in Southern Arabia is controversial
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