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AM-2201
AM-2201
AM-2201
(1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole) is a recreational designer drug that acts as a potent but nonselective full agonist for the cannabinoid receptor.[1] It is part of the AM series of cannabinoids discovered by Alexandros Makriyannis at Northeastern University.Contents1 Hazards 2 Pharmacology2.1 Pharmacokinetics3 Detection 4 See also 5 ReferencesHazards[edit] Convulsions
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Regulation Of Therapeutic Goods
The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. In some countries, such as the United States, they are regulated at the national level by a single agency. In other jurisdictions they are regulated at the state level, or at both state and national levels by various bodies, as is the case in Australia. The role of therapeutic goods regulation is designed mainly to protect the health and safety of the population. Regulation is aimed at ensuring the safety, quality, and efficacy of the therapeutic goods which are covered under the scope of the regulation. In most jurisdictions, therapeutic goods must be registered before they are allowed to be marketed
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Northeastern University
Northeastern University
Northeastern University
(NU, formerly NEU) is a private research university in Boston, Massachusetts, established in 1898. It is categorized as an R1 institution (Doctoral Universities: Highest Research Activity) by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education.[5] The university offers undergraduate and graduate programs on its main campus in the Fenway-Kenmore, Roxbury, South End, and Back Bay
Back Bay
neighborhoods of Boston. The university has satellite campuses in Charlotte, North Carolina; Seattle, Washington; and San Jose, California
California
that exclusively offer graduate degrees
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Echinacea
Brauneria Necker ex T.C.Porter & Britton Helichroa Raf. Echinacea
Echinacea
/ˌɛkɪˈneɪʃiə/[1] is a genus, or group of herbaceous flowering plants in the daisy family. The Echinacea
Echinacea
genus has nine species, which are commonly called coneflowers. They are found only in eastern and central North America, where they grow in moist to dry prairies and open wooded areas. They have large, showy heads of composite flowers, blooming from early to late summer. The generic name is derived from the Greek word ἐχῖνος (ekhinos), meaning "hedgehog," due to the spiny central disk. These flowering plants and their parts have different uses. Some species are cultivated in gardens for their showy flowers. Echinacea purpurea
Echinacea purpurea
is used in folk medicine.[2] Two of the species, E. tennesseensis and E
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AM-2233
AM-2233
AM-2233
is a drug that acts as a highly potent full agonist for the cannabinoid receptors, with a Ki of 1.8 nM at CB1 and 2.2 nM at CB2 as the active (R) enantiomer.[1] It was developed as a selective radioligand for the cannabinoid receptors and has been used as its 131I derivative for mapping the distribution of the CB1 receptor in the brain.[2][3][4][5][6][7] AM-2233
AM-2233
was found to fully substitute for THC in rats, with a potency lower than that of JWH-018 but higher than WIN 55,212-2.[8] Legal Status[edit] As of October 2015 AM-2233
AM-2233
is a controlled substance in China.[9] See also[edit]AM-679 AM-694 AM-1220 AM-1221 AM-1235 AM-1241 AM-2232 Cannabipiperidiethanone FUBIMINA JWH-018 List of AM cannabinoids List of JWH cannabinoidsReferences[edit]^ Hongfeng Deng (2000)
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Alkane
In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon. In other words, an alkane consists of hydrogen and carbon atoms arranged in a tree structure in which all the carbon-carbon bonds are single.[1] Alkanes have the general chemical formula CnH2n+2. The alkanes range in complexity from the simplest case of methane, CH4 where n = 1 (sometimes called the parent molecule), to arbitrarily large molecules. Besides this standard definition by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, in some authors' usage the term alkane is applied to any saturated hydrocarbon, including those that are either monocyclic (i.e. the cycloalkanes) or polycyclic.[2] In an alkane, each carbon atom has 4 bonds (either C-C or C-H), and each hydrogen atom is joined to one of the carbon atoms (so in a C-H bond)
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Pentane
Pentane
Pentane
is an organic compound with the formula C5H12—that is, an alkane with five carbon atoms. The term may refer to any of three structural isomers, or to a mixture of them: in the IUPAC nomenclature, however, pentane means exclusively the n-pentane isomer; the other two are called isopentane (methylbutane) and neopentane (dimethylpropane). Cyclopentane
Cyclopentane
is not an isomer of pentane because it has only 10 hydrogen atoms where pentane has 12. Pentanes are components of some fuels and are employed as specialty solvents in the laboratory. Their properties are very similar to those of butanes and hexanes.Contents1 Industrial uses 2 Laboratory
Laboratory
use 3 Physical properties 4 Reactions 5 References 6 External linksIndustrial uses[edit] Pentanes are some of the primary blowing agents used in the production of polystyrene foam and other foams
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Dealkylation
Alkylation
Alkylation
is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another. The alkyl group may be transferred as an alkyl carbocation, a free radical, a carbanion or a carbene (or their equivalents).[1] An alkyl group is a piece of a molecule with the general formula CnH2n+1, where n is the integer depicting the number of carbons linked together. For example, a methyl group (n = 1, CH3) is a fragment of a methane molecule (CH4). Alkylating agents utilize selective alkylation by adding the desired aliphatic carbon chain to the previously chosen starting molecule. This is one of many known chemical syntheses. Alkyl
Alkyl
groups can also be removed in a process known as dealkylation. In oil refining contexts, alkylation refers to a particular alkylation of isobutane with olefins
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Metabolism
Metabolism
Metabolism
(from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments
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Functional Analog (chemistry)
In chemistry and pharmacology, functional analogs are chemical compounds that have similar physical, chemical, biochemical, or pharmacological properties. Functional analogs are not necessarily structural analogs with a similar chemical structure.[1] An example of pharmacological functional analogs are morphine, heroin and fentanyl, which have the same mechanism of action, but fentanyl is structurally quite different from the other two.[2]MorphineHeroinFentanylSee also[edit]Federal Analogue ActReferences[edit]^ Martin, Yvonne C.; Kofron, James L.; Traphagen, Linda M. (2002). "Do Structurally Similar Molecules Have Similar Biological Activity?". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 45 (19): 4350. doi:10.1021/jm020155c. PMID 12213076.  ^ Mutschler, Ernst; Schäfer-Korting, Monika (2001). Arzneimittelwirkungen (in German) (8 ed.). Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft
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Dissociation Constant
In chemistry, biochemistry, and pharmacology, a dissociation constant ( K d displaystyle K_ d ) is a specific type of equilibrium constant that measures the propensity of a larger object to separate (dissociate) reversibly into smaller components, as when a complex falls apart into its component molecules, or when a salt splits up into its component ions. The dissociation constant is the inverse of the association constant
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Acute Toxicity
Acute toxicity describes the adverse effects of a substance that result either from a single exposure[1] or from multiple exposures in a short period of time (usually less than 24 hours).[2] To be described as acute toxicity, the adverse effects should occur within 14 days of the administration of the substance.[2] Acute toxicity is distinguished from chronic toxicity, which describes the adverse health effects from repeated exposures, often at lower levels, to a substance over a longer time period (months or years). It is widely considered unethical to use humans as test subjects for acute (or chronic) toxicity research. However, some information can be gained from investigating accidental human exposures (e.g., factory accidents)
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Convulsions
A convulsion is a medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly, resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body.[1] Because epileptic seizure is often a cause of convulsion, the term convulsion is sometimes used as a synonym for seizure. However, not all epileptic seizures lead to convulsions, and not all convulsions are caused by epileptic seizures. Convulsions are also consistent with an electric shock and improper enriched air scuba diving. For non-epileptic convulsions, see non-epileptic seizures. The word "fit" is sometimes used to mean a convulsion or epileptic seizure.[2]Contents1 Signs and symptoms1.1 Generalized seizures2 Causes 3 References 4 External linksSigns and symptoms[edit] When a person is having a convulsion, they may experience several different symptoms
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Controlled Substances Act
The Controlled Substances Act
Controlled Substances Act
(CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated. It was passed by the 91st United States Congress
91st United States Congress
as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970
Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970
and signed into law by President Richard Nixon.[1] The Act also served as the national implementing legislation for the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. The legislation created five Schedules (classifications), with varying qualifications for a substance to be included in each
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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