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A work song is a piece of music closely connected to a form of work, either sung while conducting a task (usually to coordinate timing) or a song linked to a task which might be a connected narrative, description, or protest song.


Definitions and categories

Records of work songs are as old as historical records, and anthropological evidence suggests that most agrarian societies tend to have them. Most modern commentators on work songs have included both songs sung while working as well as songs about work since the two categories are seen as interconnected. Norm Cohen divided collected work songs into domestic, agricultural or pastoral,
sea shanties A sea shanty, chantey, or chanty is a genre of traditional folk song Folk music includes traditional folk music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th-century folk revival. Some types of folk music may be called world music. Tra ...
, African-American work songs, songs and chants of direction, and
street cries Street cries are the short lyrical calls of merchants hawking their products and services in open-air markets. The custom of hawking led many vendors to create custom melodic phrases. During the 18th and 19th century, the street cries of major urba ...
.
Ted Gioia Ted Gioia (born 21 October 1957) is an United States, American jazz critic and music historian. Gioia is an editor-in-chief of the ''Encyclopedia of Jazz Musicians'' and has authored a number of books on jazz such as ''The Jazz Standards: A Guide t ...
further divided agricultural and pastoral songs into hunting, cultivation and herding songs, and highlighted the industrial or proto-industrial songs of cloth workers (see
Waulking song Image:Waulking 18th century engraving.jpg, 350px, Engraving of Scotswomen singing while waulking cloth, c. 1770 Waulking songs (Scots Gaelic: ''Òrain Luaidh'') are Scottish folk songs, traditionally sung in the Scots Gaelic, Gaelic language by wom ...
),
factory worker A factory, manufacturing plant or a production plant is an industrial site, often a complex consisting of several buildings filled with machinery A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control movement to per ...
s, ,
lumberjacks Lumberjacks are mostly North American workers in the logging industry who perform the initial harvesting and transport of trees for ultimate processing into forest products. The term usually refers to loggers in the era (before 1945 in the United ...

lumberjacks
,
cowboy A cowboy is an animal herder who tends cattle on ranches in North America, traditionally on horseback, and often performs a multitude of other ranch-related tasks. The historic American cowboy of the late 19th century arose from the ''vaquero'' ...

cowboy
s and
miners A miner is a person who extracts ore, coal Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as stratum, rock strata called coal seams. Coal is mostly carbon with variable amounts of other Chemical element, elements ...

miners
. He also added
prisoner A prisoner (also known as an inmate or detainee) is a person who is deprived of liberty against their will. This can be by confinement, captivity, or forcible restraint. The term applies particularly to serving a prison sentence in a prison. ...
songs and modern work songs.E. Gioia, ''Work Songs'' (Duke University Press, 2006).


Hunting and pastoral songs

In societies without mechanical time keeping, songs of mobilisation, calling members of a community together for a collective task, were extremely important. Both hunting and the keeping of livestock tended to involve small groups or individuals, usually boys and young men, away from the centres of settlement and with long hours to pass. As a result, these activities have tended to produce long narrative songs, often sung individually, which might dwell on the themes of pastoral activity or animals, designed to pass the time in the tedium of work. Hunting songs, like those of the
Mbuti The Mbuti people, or Bambuti, are one of several indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinc ...
of the Congo, often incorporated distinctive whistles and yodels so that hunters could identify each other's locations and those of their prey.


Agricultural work songs

Most agricultural work songs were
rhythm Rhythm (from , ''rhythmos'', "any regular motion, " generally means a " marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions". This general meaning of regular recurrence or pattern in time can ap ...
ic
a cappella A cappella (, also , ; ) music is group or solo performance without instrumental An instrumental is a recording normally without any vocals, although it might include some inarticulate vocal The human voice consists of sound Voice produc ...
song A song is a musical composition Musical composition can refer to an piece or work of , either or , the of a musical piece or to the process of creating or writing a new piece of music. People who create new compositions are called s ...

song
s intended to increase productivity while reducing feelings of boredom.P. M. Peek and K. Yankah, ''African Folklore: An Encyclopedia'' (London: Taylor & Francis, 2004), p. 520. Rhythms of work songs, similar to an African drum beat, served to synchronize physical movement in groups, coordinating sowing, hoeing, and harvesting. The usage of verses in work songs were sometimes improvised and sung differently each time. Improvisation provided singers with a subversive form of expression. Slaves sang improvised verses to mock their overseers, express frustrations, and share dreams of escaping. Many work songs served to create connection and familiarity between workers.
Yankee Doodle "Yankee Doodle" is a well-known American song and a nursery rhyme, the early versions of which predate the Seven Years' War and American Revolution. It is often sung patriotically in the United States today and is the state anthem of Connectic ...
is thought to have started out as a harvest song, its words possibly originating from farmers in 15th century
Holland Holland is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (en ...

Holland
. It contained mostly nonsensical and out-of-place words that were presumably sang to a similar—if not the same—tune: "Yanker, didel, doodle down, Diddle, dudel, lanther, Yanke viver, voover vown, ''Botermilk'' und ''tanther''." Farm laborers in Holland at the time received as their wages "as much
buttermilk Buttermilk is a Fermented milk products, fermented dairy drink. Traditionally, it was the liquid left behind after churning butter out of Microbial food cultures, cultured cream. As most modern butter is not made with cultured cream but uncult ...

buttermilk
(''Botermilk'') as they could drink, and a tenth (''tanther'') of the grain".


African-American work songs

African-American work songs originally developed in the era of slavery, between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. Because they were part of an almost entirely oral culture, they had no fixed form and only began to be recorded as the era of slavery came to an end after 1865.
Slave Songs of the United States ''Slave Songs of the United States'' was a collection of African American music consisting of 136 songs. Published in 1867, it was the first, and most influential, collection of spiritual (music), spirituals to be published. The collectors of t ...
was the first collection of African-American "slave songs." It was published in 1867 by
William Francis Allen William Francis Allen (September 5, 1830December 9, 1889) was an American classical scholar and an editor of the first book of American slave songs. Allen was born in Northborough, Massachusetts in 1830. He graduated Harvard College Harvard ...

William Francis Allen
,
Charles Pickard WareCharles Pickard Ware (1840–1921), was an American educator and music transcriber. An abolitionist, he served as a civilian administrator in the Union Army , a regiment serving in the Western Theater of the American Civil War, Western Theater. ...
, and
Lucy McKim Garrison Lucy McKim Garrison (October 30, 1842 - May 11, 1877), was an American song collector and co-editor of ''Slave Songs of the United States ''Slave Songs of the United States'' was a collection of African American music consisting of 136 songs. P ...
. Though this text included many songs by enslaved people, other texts have also been published that include work songs. Many songs sung by enslaved individuals have their origins in African song traditions, and may have been sung to remind the Africans of home, while others were instituted by the captors to raise morale and keep Africans working in rhythm. They have also been seen as a means of withstanding hardship and expressing anger and frustration through creativity or covert verbal opposition. Similarly, work songs have been used as a form of rebellion and resistance. Specifically, African-American women work songs have a particular history and center around resistance and self-care.Hill Collins, Patricia. Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. New York: Routledge, 2000. Work songs helped to pass down information about the lived experience of enslaved people to their communities and families. A common feature of African American songs was the ''
call-and-response Call and response is a form of interaction between a speaker and an audience in which the speaker's statements ("calls") are punctuated by responses from the listeners. This form is also used in music, where it falls under the general category of ...
'' format, where a leader would sing a verse or verses and the others would respond with a chorus. This came from African traditions of agricultural work song and found its way into the
spirituals Spirituals (also known as Negro spirituals, Spiritual music, or African-American spirituals) is a genre of Christian music Christian music is music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the e ...
that developed once Africans in bondage began to convert to Christianity and from there to both
gospel music Gospel music is a genre of Christian music Christian music is music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cult ...
and the
blues Blues is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from ''musical form'' and musical style, although in ...

blues
. The call and response format showcases the ways in which work songs foster dialogue. The importance of dialogue is illuminated in many African American traditions and continues on to the present day. Particular to the African call and response tradition is the overlapping of the call and response.Brooks, Tilford, America’s Black Musical Heritage. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1984. The leader's part might overlap with the response, thus creating a unique collaborative sound. Similarly, African-American folk and traditional music focuses on
polyphony Polyphony is a type of musical texture Texture may refer to: Science and technology * Surface texture, the texture means smoothness, roughness, or bumpiness of the surface of an object * Texture (roads), road surface characteristics with wave ...
rather than a melody with a harmony. Often, there will be multiple rhythmic patterns used in the same song "resulting in a counterpoint of rhythms." The focus on polyphony also allows for improvisation, a component that is crucial to African-American work songs. As scholar Tilford Brooks writes, "improvisation is utilized extensively in Black folk songs, and it is an essential element especially in songs that employ the call-and-response pattern." Brooks also notes that often in a work song, "the leader has license to improvise on the melody in
heir Inheritance is the practice of passing on private property Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities. Private property is distinguishable from public property Public property i ...
call, while the response usually repeats its basic melody line without change." Also evident were
field hollers The field holler or field call is mostly a historical type of vocal music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultura ...
, shouts, and moans, which may have been originally designed for different bands or individuals to locate each other and narrative songs that used folk tales and folk motifs, often making use of homemade instruments. In early African captivity drums were used to provide rhythm, but they were banned in later years because of the fear that Africans would use them to communicate in a rebellion; nevertheless, Africans managed to generate percussion and percussive sounds, using other instruments or their own bodies. Perhaps surprisingly, there are very few examples of work songs linked to cotton picking. Corn, however, was a very common subject of work songs on a typical plantation. Because the crop was the main component of most Africans' diet, they would often sing about it regardless of whether it was being harvested. Often, communities in the south would hold "corn-shucking jubilees," during which an entire community of planters would gather on one plantation. The planters would bring their harvests, as well as their enslaved workers, and work such as shucking corn, rolling logs, or threshing rice would be done, accompanied by the singing of Africans doing work. The following is an example of a song Africans would sing as they approached one of these festivals. It is from ex bonded African
William Wells Brown William Wells Brown (c. 1814 – November 6, 1884) was a prominent abolitionist Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, was the movement to end slavery. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historic movement that s ...

William Wells Brown
's memoir " My Southern Home." Work songs were used by African American railroad work crews in the southern United States before modern machinery became available in the 1960s. Anne Kimzey of the Alabama Center For Traditional Culture writes: "All-black gandy dancer crews used songs and chants as tools to help accomplish specific tasks and to send coded messages to each other so as not to be understood by the foreman and others. The lead singer, or caller, would chant to his crew, for example, to realign a rail to a certain position. His purpose was to uplift his crew, both physically and emotionally, while seeing to the coordination of the work at hand. It took a skilled, sensitive caller to raise the right chant to fit the task at hand and the mood of the men. Using tonal boundaries and melodic style typical of the blues, each caller had his own signature. The effectiveness of a caller to move his men has been likened to how a preacher can move a congregation." Another common type of African American work song was the "boat song." Sung by enslaved people who had the job of rowing, this type of work song is characterized by "plaintive, melancholy singing." These songs were not somber because the work was more troublesome than the work of harvesting crops. Rather, they were low-spirited so that they could maintain the slow, steady tempo needed for rowing. In this way, work songs followed the African tradition, emphasizing the importance of activities being accompanied by the appropriate song. The historian
Sylviane Diouf Sylviane Anna Diouf is a historian and curator of the African diaspora. She is a Visiting Scholar at the Center for the Study of Slavery and Justice, Brown University and a member of the Scientific Committee of the International Coalition of Sites ...
and
ethnomusicologist Ethnomusicology is the study of music from the cultural and social aspects of the people who make it. It encompasses distinct theoretical and methodical approaches that emphasize cultural, social, material, cognitive, biological, and other di ...
Gerhard Kubik Gerhard Kubik (born December 10, 1934) is an Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern par ...
identify
Islamic music Islamic music may refer to religious music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural Culture () is an umbrell ...
as an influence on field holler music. Diouf notes a striking resemblance between the Islamic call to prayer (originating from
Bilal ibn Rabah Bilal ibn Rabah ( ar, بِلَال ٱبْن رَبَاح, ''Bilāl ibn Rabāḥ'' , 580–640 AD) was one of the most trusted and loyal ''Sahabah Ottoman_miniature.html"_;"title="Muhammad_and_his_companions_on_an_Ottoman_miniature">Muhammad ...
, a famous Abyssinian African Muslim in the early 7th century) and 19th-century
field holler The field holler or field call is mostly a historical type of vocal music sung by field slaves in the United States (and later by African American convict leasing, forced laborers accused of violating vagrancy laws) to accompany their tasked work, ...
music, noting that both have similar lyrics praising God, melody, note changes, "words that seem to quiver and shake" in the vocal chords, dramatic changes in
musical scale In music theory Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural aspe ...

musical scale
s, and nasal intonation. She attributes the origins of field holler music to African Muslim slaves who accounted for an estimated 30% of African slaves in America. According to Kubik, "the vocal style of many blues singers using
melisma Melisma (Greek Language, Greek: , ''melisma'', song, air, melody; from , ''melos'', song, melody, plural: ''melismata'') is the singing of a single syllable of lyrics, text while moving between several different Musical note, notes in succession. ...
, wavy intonation, and so forth is a heritage of that large region of
West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania ...

West Africa
that had been in contact with the
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
-
Islamic world The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodne ...
of the
Maghreb The Maghreb (; ar, المغرب, al-Maghrib, lit=the west), also known as Northwest Africa, is the western part of North Africa and the Arab world. The region includes Algeria, Libya, Mauritania (also considered part of West Africa), Morocco and ...

Maghreb
since the seventh and eighth centuries." There was particularly a significant trans-Saharan cross-fertilization between the musical traditions of the Mabhreb and the
Sahel The Sahel (; ar, ساحل ' , "coast, shore") is the ecoclimatic and of in between the to the north and the to the south. Having a , it stretches across the south-central latitudes of between the Atlantic Ocean and the . The Sahel part o ...

Sahel
.


Sea shanties

Work songs sung by sailors between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries are known as sea shanties. These songs were typically performed while adjusting the
rigging Rigging comprises the system of ropes, cables and chains, which support a sailing ship A sailing ship is a sea-going vessel that uses sails mounted on Mast (sailing), masts to harness the power of wind and propel the vessel. There is a v ...
, raising anchor, and other tasks where men would need to pull in rhythm. These songs usually have a very punctuated rhythm precisely for this reason, along with a ''call-and-answer'' format. Well before the nineteenth century, sea songs were common on rowing vessels. Such songs were also very rhythmic in order to keep the rowers together. Because many cultures used slaves to row, some of these songs might also be considered slave songs. Improvised verses sung by sailors spoke of ills with work conditions and captains. These songs were performed with and without the aid of a drum.


Cowboy songs

Western music was directly influenced by the folk music traditions of
immigrants Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ident ...

immigrants
in the nineteenth century as they moved west. They reflected the realities of the range and ranch houses where the music originated, played a major part in combating the
loneliness Loneliness is an unpleasant emotion Emotions are psychological state A mental state is a state of mind that an agent is in. Most simplistically, a mental state is a mental condition. It is a relation that connects the agent with a propo ...

loneliness
and
boredom In conventional usage, boredom is an emotion Emotions are mental state, psychological states brought on by neurophysiology, neurophysiological changes, variously associated with thoughts, feelings, behavioural responses, and a degree of pl ...

boredom
that characterised
cowboy A cowboy is an animal herder who tends cattle on ranches in North America, traditionally on horseback, and often performs a multitude of other ranch-related tasks. The historic American cowboy of the late 19th century arose from the ''vaquero'' ...

cowboy
life and
western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, countries that ide ...
life in general. Such songs were often accompanied on portable instruments of
guitars The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that typically has six string instrument, strings. It is held flat against the player's body and played by strumming or Plucked string instrument, plucking the strings with the dominant hand, while sim ...

guitars
, fiddles,
concertina A concertina is a Free-reed instrument, free-reed musical instrument, like the various accordions and the harmonica. It consists of expanding and contracting bellows, with buttons (or keys) usually on both ends, unlike accordion buttons, which a ...

concertina
and
harmonica The harmonica, also known as a French harp or mouth organ A mouth organ is any free reed aerophone A free reed aerophone is a musical instrument that produces sound as air flows past a vibrating reed (instrument), reed in a frame. Air press ...

harmonica
. In the nineteenth century cowboy bands developed and cowboy songs began to be collected and published from the early twentieth century with books like
John Lomax John Avery Lomax (September 23, 1867 – January 26, 1948) was an American teacher, a pioneering musicologist Musicology (from Greek 'μουσική' (mousikē) for 'music' and 'λογος' (logos) for 'domain of study') is the scholarly analys ...

John Lomax
's ''Cowboy Songs and Other Frontier Ballads'' (1910). As cowboys were romanticised in the mid-twentieth century they became extremely popular and played a part in the development of country and western music.V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine. ''All Music Guide to Country: The Definitive Guide to Country Music'' (Backbeat Books, 2003), p. 901.


Industrial folk song

Industrial folk song emerged in Britain in the eighteenth century, as workers took the forms of music with which they were familiar, including
ballads A ballad is a form of verse, often a narrative set to music. Ballads derive from the medieval French ''chanson balladée'' or ''Ballade (forme fixe), ballade'', which were originally "dance songs". Ballads were particularly characteristic of the ...
and agricultural work songs, and adapted them to their new experiences and circumstances.A. L. Lloyd, ''Folk song in England'' (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1967), p. 323-28. Unlike agricultural work songs, it was often unnecessary to use music to synchronise actions between workers, as the pace would be increasingly determined by water, steam, chemical and eventually electric power, and frequently impossible because of the noise of early industry. As a result, industrial folk songs tended to be descriptive of work, circumstances, or political in nature, making them amongst the earliest
protest songs A protest song is a song that is associated with a movement for social change and hence part of the broader category of ''topical'' songs (or songs connected to current events). It may be folk, classical, or commercial in genre. Among social movem ...
and were sung between work shifts or in leisure hours, rather than during work. This pattern can be seen in textile production, mining and eventually steel, shipbuilding, rail working and other industries. As other nations industrialised their folk song underwent a similar process of change, as can be seen for example in France, where Saint-Simon noted the rise of 'Chansons Industriale' among cloth workers in the early nineteenth century, and in the USA where industrialisation expanded rapidly after the
Civil War A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
.
A.L. Lloyd Albert Lancaster Lloyd (29 February 1908 – 29 September 1982),Eder, Bruce. (29 September 1982A. L. Lloyd - Music Biography, Credits and Discography AllMusic. Retrieved on 2013-02-24. usually known as A. L. Lloyd or Bert Lloyd, was an English fol ...
defined the industrial work song as 'the kind of vernacular songs made by workers themselves directly out of their own experiences, expressing their own interest and aspirations...'. Lloyd also pointed to various types of song, including chants of labour, love and erotic occupational songs and industrial protest songs, which included narratives of disasters (particularly among miners), laments for conditions, as well as overtly political strike ballads. He also noted the existence of songs about heroic and mythical figures of industrial work, like the coal miners the 'Big Hewer' or 'Big Isaac' Lewis. This tendency was even more marked in early American industrial songs, where representative heroes like
Casey Jones John Luther "Casey" Jones (March 14, 1863 – April 30, 1900) was an American railroader who was killed when his passenger train collided with a stalled freight train at Vaughan, Mississippi. Jones was a locomotive engineer for the Illinois C ...
and John Henry were eulogised in blues ballads from the nineteenth century. Industrial folk songs were largely ignored by early folk song collectors, but gained attention in the second folk revival in the twentieth century, being noted and recorded by figures such as
George Korson George Korson (August 8, 1899 – May 23, 1967) was a folklorist Folklore studies, also known as folkloristics, and occasionally tradition studies or folk life studies in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Nort ...
,
Pete Seeger Peter Seeger (May 3, 1919 – January 27, 2014) was an American folk singer and social activist. A fixture on nationwide radio in the 1940s, Seeger also had a string of hit records during the early 1950s as a member of the Weavers, most no ...

Pete Seeger
and
Woody Guthrie Woodrow Wilson Guthrie (; July 14, 1912 – October 3, 1967) was an American singer-songwriter, who is considered to be one of the most significant figures in American folk music. His music, including songs such as " This Land Is Your Land" ...

Woody Guthrie
in the US and A. L. Lloyd and
Ewan MacColl James Henry Miller (25 January 1915 – 22 October 1989), better known by his stage name Ewan MacColl, was a folk Folk or Folks may refer to: Sociology *Nation *People * Folklore ** Folk art ** Folk dance ** Folk hero ** Folk music *** Folk meta ...
and
Peggy Seeger Margaret "Peggy" Seeger (born June 17, 1935) is an American folksinger. She is also well known in Britain, where she has lived for more than 60 years, and was married to the singer and songwriter Ewan MacColl until his death in 1989. First Ame ...
in Britain.M. Brocken, ''The British Folk Revival 1944-2002'' (Ashgate, Aldershot, 2003), p. 64. The genre declined in popularity with new forms of music and de-industrialisation in the twentieth century, but has continued to influence performers like
Billy Bragg Stephen William Bragg (born 20 December 1957) is an English singer-songwriter and left-wing Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism Egalitarianism (), or equalitarianism, is a school of thought within polit ...

Billy Bragg
and
Bruce Springsteen Bruce Frederick Joseph Springsteen (born September 23, 1949) is an American singer, songwriter, and musician who is both a solo artist and the leader of the E Street Band The E Street Band is an American rock band, and has been musician Bruc ...

Bruce Springsteen
.M. Willhardt, 'Available rebels and folk authenticities: Michelle Shocked and Billy Bragg' in I. Peddie, ed., ''The Resisting Muse: Popular Music and Social Protest'' (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006), pp. 30-48 and B. K. Garman, ''A Race of Singers: Whitman's Working-Class Hero from Guthrie to Springsteen (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2000), p. 241.


See also

*
Military cadence In the armed services, a military cadence or cadence call is a traditional call-and-response work song sung by military personnel while running or marching. In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the Un ...
*
Waulking song Image:Waulking 18th century engraving.jpg, 350px, Engraving of Scotswomen singing while waulking cloth, c. 1770 Waulking songs (Scots Gaelic: ''Òrain Luaidh'') are Scottish folk songs, traditionally sung in the Scots Gaelic, Gaelic language by wom ...
*
The Volga Boatmen's Song The "Song of the Volga Boatmen" (known in Russian language, Russian as Эй, ухнем! y, ukhnem!, "yo, heave-ho!" after the refrain) is a well-known traditional Russian song collected by Mily Balakirev, and published in his book of folk so ...
* Gandydancer


References

{{Authority control Work music