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A walnut is the
nut Nut often refers to: * Nut (fruit), a fruit composed of a hard shell and a seed * Nut (food), collective noun for dry and edible fruits or seeds * Nut (hardware), a fastener used with a bolt Nut or Nuts may also refer to: Places * Nomenclature of ...
of any
tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only wood plants with se ...

tree
of the genus ''
Juglans Walnut trees are any species of tree in the plant genus ''Juglans'', the type genus In biological taxonomy the type genus is the genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classificat ...
'' (family
Juglandaceae The Juglandaceae are a plant family known as the walnut family. They are trees, or sometimes shrubs, in the order Fagales. Members of this family are native to the Americas, Eurasia, and Southeast Asia. The nine or ten genera in the family have a ...
), particularly the Persian or English walnut, ''
Juglans regia ''Juglans regia'', the Persian walnut, English walnut, Carpathian walnut, Madeira walnut, or especially in Great Britain, common walnut, is an Old World The Old World consists of Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and s ...

Juglans regia
''. A walnut is the edible seed of a
drupe ), showing both fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fruits, in ...
, and thus not a true
botanical nut A nut is a fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fruits, in pa ...
. It is commonly consumed as a nut. After full ripening for its edible seed when the
shell Shell may refer to: Architecture and design * Shell (structure)A shell is a type of structural element which is characterized by its geometry, being a three-dimensional solid whose thickness is very small when compared with other dimensions, and ...
has been discarded, it is used as a
garnish Garnish may refer to: * To decorate an object or space by the addition of ornaments * Garnishment, withholding of one's wages by one's employer to pay one's debt owed to a third party * Garnish Island, is an island in Glengarriff harbour (County Co ...
or a
snack A snack is a small portion of food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organism ...

snack
. Nuts of the eastern black walnut (''
Juglans nigra ''Juglans nigra'', the eastern American black walnut, is a species of deciduous tree in the walnut family, Juglandaceae, native to North America. It grows mostly in riparian zones, from southern Ontario, west to southeast South Dakota, south to ...

Juglans nigra
'') and butternuts (''
Juglans cinerea ''Juglans cinerea'', commonly known as butternut or white walnut,Snow, Charles Henry ''The Principal Species of Wood: Their Characteristic Properties'' 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1908. p. 56. is a species of walnut A walnut ...

Juglans cinerea
'') are less commonly consumed.


Characteristics

Walnuts are rounded, single-seeded
stone fruits ), showing both fruit and seed A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process ...
of the walnut tree commonly used for the meat after fully ripening between September and November, in which the removal of the husk at this stage reveals a browning wrinkly walnut shell, which is usually commercially found in two segments (three or four-segment shells can also form). During the ripening process, the husk will become brittle and the shell hard. The shell encloses the kernel or meat, which is usually made up of two halves separated by a partition within a fibrous sheath that splits when ripened. The seed kernels – commonly available as shelled walnuts – are enclosed in a brown seed coat which contains antioxidants. The antioxidants protect the oil-rich seed from atmospheric oxygen, thereby preventing rancidity. Walnuts are late to grow leaves, typically not until more than halfway through the spring. They secrete chemicals into the soil to prevent competing vegetation from growing. Because of this, flowers or vegetable gardens should not be planted close to them.


History and cultivation

During the
Byzantine era The Byzantine calendar, also called "Creation Era of Constantinople" or "Era of the World" ( grc, Ἔτη Γενέσεως Κόσμου κατὰ Ῥωμαίους, also or , abbreviated as ε.Κ.; literal translation of ancient Greek "Roman yea ...
, the walnut was also known by the name "royal nut". An article on walnut tree cultivation in
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
is included in
Ibn al-'Awwam Ibn al-'Awwam ( ar, ابن العوام), also called Abu Zakariya Ibn al-Awwam ( ar, أبو زكريا بن العوام) and Abū l-Khayr al-Ishbīlī, was a Muslim Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233: , ...
's 12th-century ''Book on Agriculture''.


Types

The two most common major species of walnuts are grown for their seeds – the Persian or English walnut and the black walnut. The English walnut (''J. regia'') originated in
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
(
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...
), and the black walnut (''J. nigra'') is native to eastern
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
. The black walnut is of high flavor, but due to its hard shell and poor hulling characteristics it is not commercially cultivated in orchards. Numerous walnut
cultivars A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture or carefully controlled seed production. Most cultivars arise from purposeful human ...
have been developed commercially, which are nearly all hybrids of the English walnut. Other species include '' J. californica'', the
California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States. With over 39.3million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the List of states and territories of the United States by population, most populous and the List of ...

California
black walnut (often used as a root stock for commercial breeding of ''J. regia''), ''J. cinerea'' (butternuts), and ''J. major'', the Arizona walnut. Other sources list ''J. californica californica'' as native to southern California, and ''Juglans californica hindsii'', or just ''J. hindsii'', as native to northern California; in at least one case these are given as "geographic variants" instead of subspecies (Botanica).


Production

In 2019, world production of walnuts (in shell) was 4.5 million
tonnes The tonne ( or ; symbol: t) is a metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilogram The kilogram (also kilogramme) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), the current metric system, having the unit symbol kg. I ...
, with
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
contributing 56% of the total (table). Other major producers (in the order of decreasing harvest) were the United States,
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
, and
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and ...

Turkey
.


Storage

Walnuts, like other tree nuts, must be processed and stored properly. Poor storage makes walnuts susceptible to insect and fungal mold infestations; the latter produces
aflatoxin Aflatoxins are poisonous In biology, poisons are Chemical substance, substances that can cause death, injury or harm to organs, Tissue (biology), tissues, Cell (biology), cells, and DNA usually by chemical reactions or other activity (chemistr ...
– a potent carcinogen. A mold-infested walnut batch should be entirely discarded. The ideal temperature for the extended storage of walnuts is with low humidity for industrial and home storage. However, such refrigeration technologies are unavailable in developing countries where walnuts are produced in large quantities; there, walnuts are best stored below with low humidity. Temperatures above , and humidities above 70 percent can lead to rapid and high spoilage losses. Above 75 percent humidity threshold, fungal molds that release dangerous aflatoxin can form.


Food use

Walnut meats are available in two forms: in their shells or de-shelled. The meats may be whole, halved, or in smaller portions due to processing. All walnuts can be eaten on their own (raw, toasted or pickled), or as part of a mix such as
muesli Muesli ( ) is a cold oatmeal dish based on rolled oats and ingredients such as grains, nuts, seeds and fresh or dried fruits. Muesli was traditionally prepared with milk or cream, a squeeze of citrus juice, often with a sweetener such as honey, a ...

muesli
, or as an ingredient of a
dish Dish, dishes or DISH may refer to: Culinary * Dish (food), something prepared to be eaten * Dishware, plates and bowls for eating, cutting boards, silverware Communications * Dish antenna a type of antenna * Dish Network, a satellite television ...
: e.g. walnut soup,
walnut pie Walnut pie is a pie A pie is a baked Baking is a method of preparing food that uses dry heat, typically in an oven, but can also be done in hot ashes, or on hot stones. The most common baked item is bread but many other types of foods are ...
, ,
banana cake Banana cake is a cake Cake is a form of sweet food made from flour, sugar, and other ingredients, that is usually baked Baking is a method of preparing food that uses dry heat, typically in an oven, but can also be done in hot a ...

banana cake
, ,
fudge Fudge is a type of sugar candy Sugar candy is any candy Candy, also called sweets (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is ...
. Walnuts are often candied or pickled. Pickled walnuts that are the whole fruit can be savory or sweet depending on the preserving solution. Walnut butters can be homemade or purchased in both raw and roasted forms. Walnuts may be used as an ingredient in other foodstuffs. Walnut is the main ingredient in
baklava Baklava (, or ; ota, باقلوا) is a layered pastry dessert made of filo Filo or phyllo is a very thin unleavened dough Image:Dough.jpg, Freshly mixed dough in the bowl of a Mixer (cooking), stand mixer Dough is a thick, malleable, so ...

baklava
,
Circassian chicken Circassian chicken ( Adyghe: ''Jed de ships sch'etu'') is a dish of shredded boiled chicken The chicken (''Gallus gallus domesticus''), a subspecies of the red junglefowl, is a type of domestication, domesticated fowl, originally from Asia ...
, chicken in walnut sauce, and poultry or meat ball
stew A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been Cooking, cooked in Soup, liquid and served in the resultant gravy. Ingredients in a stew can include any combination of vegetables and may include meat, especially tougher meats su ...
from
Iranian cuisine Iranian cuisine () refers to the culinary practices of Iran. Due to the historically common usage of the term "Name of Iran, Persia" to refer to Iran in the Western world,Yarshater, EhsaPersia or Iran, Persian or Farsi, ''Iranian Studies'', vol ...
. Walnuts are also popular as an
ice cream Ice cream is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert. It may be made from milk or cream and is flavoured with a sweetener A sugar substitute is a food additive that provides a sweetness, sweet taste like that of sug ...

ice cream
topping, and walnut pieces are used as a
garnish Garnish may refer to: * To decorate an object or space by the addition of ornaments * Garnishment, withholding of one's wages by one's employer to pay one's debt owed to a third party * Garnish Island, is an island in Glengarriff harbour (County Co ...
on some foods.
Nocino Nocino is a dark brown liqueur from the Emilia-Romagna region in northern Italy. It is made from unripe green walnuts. The walnuts and the liquor are handled using ceramic or wooden tools (to avoid oxidation) and placed in an alcoholic base. Afte ...

Nocino
is a
liqueur A liqueur (; ; ) is an alcoholic drink composed of Liquor, distilled spirits and additional flavorings such as sugar, fruits, herbs, and spices. Often served with or after dessert, they are typically heavily sweetened and un-aged beyond a restin ...
made from unripe green walnuts steeped in
alcohol In chemistry, alcohol is an organic compound that carries at least one hydroxyl functional group (−OH) bound to a Saturated and unsaturated compounds, saturated carbon atom. The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethan ...

alcohol
with syrup added.
Walnut oil Walnut oil is oil An oil is any nonpolar In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to ...
is available commercially and is chiefly used as a food ingredient particularly in
salad dressings A salad is a dish consisting of mixed pieces of food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any ...
. It has a low
smoke point The smoke point, also referred to as the burning point, is the temperature at which an oil or fat begins to produce a continuous bluish smoke that becomes clearly visible, dependent upon specific and defined conditions. Smoke point values can vary ...
, which limits its use for
frying Frying is the cooking Cooking, cookery, or culinary arts is the art, science, and craft of using heat In thermodynamics, heat is energy in transfer to or from a thermodynamic system, by mechanisms other than thermodynamic work or ...
.


Nutritional value

Walnuts with no shells are 4% water, 15%
protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a No ...

protein
, 65%
fat In nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. A sub-discipline of both chemistry and biology, biochemistry may be divided ...

fat
, and 14%
carbohydrates A carbohydrate () is a biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a ...
, including 7%
dietary fiber Dietary fiber (British spelling fibre) or roughage is the portion of plant-derived food that cannot be completely broken down by human digestive enzyme Digestive may refer to: Biology *Digestion Digestion is the breakdown of large insolub ...
(table). In a 100-gram reference serving, walnuts provide and rich content (20% or more of the
Daily Value The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) used in nutrition labeling on food and dietary supplement products in the U.S. and Canada is the daily intake level of a nutrient A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce. The ...
or DV) of several
dietary minerals In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemica ...
, particularly
manganese Manganese is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical e ...

manganese
at 163% DV, and
B vitamins B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamin A vitamin is an organic molecule , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen chemical bond ...
(table). While English walnuts are the most commonly consumed, their nutrient density and profile are generally similar to those of black walnuts. Unlike most nuts that are high in
monounsaturated fatty acids In nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical and physiological process by which an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies ...
,
walnut oil Walnut oil is oil An oil is any nonpolar In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to ...
is composed largely of
polyunsaturated fatty acidsPolyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids that contain more than one double bond in their backbone. This class includes many important compounds, such as essential fatty acids and those that give drying oil A drying oil is an oil that ...
(72% of total fats), particularly
alpha-linolenic acid α-Linolenic acid (ALA), (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxi ...

alpha-linolenic acid
(14%) and
linoleic acid Linoleic acid is an organic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, beha ...

linoleic acid
(58%), although it does contain
oleic acid Oleic acid is a fatty acid In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and t ...

oleic acid
as 13% of total fats.


Health claims

In 2016, the US
Food and Drug Administration The United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, st ...
(FDA) provided a ''Qualified Health Claim'' allowing products containing walnuts to state: "Supportive but not conclusive research shows that eating per day of walnuts, as part of a low
saturated fat A saturated fat is a type of fat In nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. A sub-discipline of both chemistry and ...
and low
cholesterol Cholesterol is any of a class of certain organic compound, organic molecules. A cholesterol is a sterol (or chemical modification, modified steroid), a type of lipid. Cholesterol is biosynthesis, biosynthesized by all animal Cell (biology)#Euk ...

cholesterol
diet and not resulting in increased caloric intake, may reduce the risk of
coronary heart disease Coronary artery disease (CAD), also called coronary heart disease (CHD), Ischemia, ischemic heart disease (IHD), or simply heart disease, involves the reduction of blood flow to the myocardium, heart muscle due to build-up of plaque (atherosclero ...
." The FDA had, in 2004, refused to authorize the claim that "Diets including walnuts can reduce the risk of heart disease" and had sent an
FDA Warning LetterAn FDA warning letter is an official message from the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. I ...
to Diamond Foods in 2010 stating there is "not sufficient evidence to identify a biologically active substance in walnuts that reduces the risk of coronary heart disease." A recent systematic review assessing the effect of walnut supplementation on blood pressure found insufficient evidence to support walnut consumption as a BP-lowering strategy. As of 2021, the relationship between walnuts and cognitive health is inconclusive.


Non-food applications


Folk medicine

Walnuts have been listed as one of the 38 substances used to prepare
Bach flower remedies Bach flower remedies (BFRs) are solutions of brandy and water—the water containing Homeopathic dilutions, extreme dilutions of flower material developed by Edward Bach, an English homeopath, in the 1930s. Bach claimed that the dew found on fl ...

Bach flower remedies
, a herbal remedy promoted in for its supposed effect on health. According to
Cancer Research UK Cancer Research UK is a cancer research Cancer research is research Research is "creativity, creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of informa ...
, "there is no scientific evidence to prove that flower remedies can control, cure or prevent any type of disease, including cancer".


Inks and dyes

Walnut husks can be used to make a durable ink for writing and drawing. It is thought to have been used by artists including
Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519) was an Italian of the who was active as a painter, , engineer, scientist, theorist, sculptor and architect. While his fame initially rested on his achievements as a painter, he als ...

Leonardo da Vinci
and
Rembrandt Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (, ; 15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669), usually simply known as Rembrandt, was a Dutch Golden Age painter, printmaker and Drawing, draughtsman. An innovative and prolific Old Masters, master in three art medi ...

Rembrandt
. Walnut husk pigments are used as a brown
dye A dye is a color Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the visual perception, visual perceptual Physical property, property corresponding in humans to the categories called ''blue'', ''green'', ''red'', etc. Colo ...

dye
for fabric as once applied in
classical Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic c ...
and
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...

medieval
Europe for dyeing hair.


Woodworking

The fine, straight-grained wood of the black walnut is highly valued as furniture wood and for gunstocks.


Cleaning

The
United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and consists ma ...
once used ground walnut shells for
abrasive blasting Abrasive blasting, more commonly known as sandblasting, is the operation of forcibly propelling a stream of abrasive material against a surface under high pressure Pressure (symbol: ''p'' or ''P'') is the force In physics ...
to clean aviation parts because of low cost and non-abrasive qualities. However, an investigation of a fatal
Boeing CH-47 Chinook The Boeing CH-47 Chinook is an American twin-engined, tandem rotor Tandem rotor helicopter A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by horizontally-spinning rotors. This allows the helicopter to take ...

Boeing CH-47 Chinook
helicopter crash (September 11, 1982, in Mannheim, Germany) revealed that walnut grit clogged an oil port, leading to the accident and the discontinuation of walnut shells as a cleaning agent. Commercially, crushed walnut shells are still used outside of aviation for low-abrasive, less-toxic cleaning and blasting applications.


Phytochemicals

Walnut hulls contain diverse
phytochemical Phytochemicals are chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together by che ...
s, such as
polyphenols Polyphenols () are a large family of naturally occurring organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen chemical bond, bonds. D ...
that stain hands and can cause skin irritation. Seven phenolic compounds, including
ferulic acid Ferulic acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid, an organic compound. It is an abundant phenolic phytochemical found in plant cell walls, covalently bonded as side chains to molecules such as arabinoxylans. As a component of lignin, ferulic acid is a pre ...
,
vanillic acid Vanillic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid) is a dihydroxybenzoic acid derivative used as a flavoring agent. It is an oxidized form of vanillin Vanillin is an organic compound with the molecular formula . It is a phenolic aldehyde. Its fu ...

vanillic acid
,
coumaric acidCoumaric acid is a phenolic derivative of cinnamic acid having a hydroxy group as substituent at one of the aromatic positions: * o-Coumaric acid, ''o''-Coumaric acid * m-Coumaric acid, ''m''-Coumaric acid * p-Coumaric acid, ''p''-Coumaric acid {{C ...

coumaric acid
,
syringic acid Syringic acid is a naturally occurring Phenols, phenolic compound and dimethoxybenzene that is commonly found as a plant metabolite. Natural occurrence Syringic acid can be found in several plants including ''Ardisia elliptica'' and ''Schumannia ...

syringic acid
,
myricetin Myricetin is a member of the flavonoid Flavonoids (or bioflavonoids; from the Latin word ''flavus'', meaning yellow, their color in nature) are a class of polyphenol Polyphenols () are a large family of naturally occurring organic compound ...

myricetin
, and
juglone Juglone, also called 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthalenedione (IUPAC The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC ) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries. It i ...

juglone
were identified in walnut husks. Juglone, the predominant phenolic, was found in concentrations of 2-4% fresh weight. Walnuts also contain the ellagitannin
pedunculagin Pedunculagin is an ellagitannin. It is formed from casuarictin via the loss of a gallic acid, gallate group. Natural occurrences Pedunculagin is found in plants in orders in the clade Rosidae. It can be found the pericarp of pomegranates (''Puni ...

pedunculagin
. Regiolone has been isolated with juglone,
betulinic acid Betulinic acid is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoid which has retrovirus, antiretroviral, antimalarial, and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as a more recently discovered potential as an anticancer agent, by inhibition of topoiso ...

betulinic acid
and
sitosterol β-Sitosterol (beta-sitosterol) is one of several phytosterolPhytosterols, which encompass plant sterols and stanols, are phytosteroid Phytosteroids, also known as plant steroids, are naturally occurring steroid , a steroid with 27 carbon a ...

sitosterol
from the stem bark of ''J. regia''.


Chinese culture

Large, symmetrically shaped, and sometimes intricately carved walnut shells (mainly from '' J. hopeiensis'' ) are valued collectibles in China where they are rotated in the hand as a plaything or as decoration. They are also an
investment Investment is the dedication of an asset to attain an increase in value over a period of time. Investment requires a sacrifice of some present asset, such as time, money, or effort. In finance Finance is the study of financial institution ...

investment
and
status symbol A status symbol is a visible, external symbol of one's social position, an indicator of economic or social status Social status is the level of social value a person is considered to hold. More specifically, it refers to the relative level of r ...
, with some carvings having high monetary value if unique. Pairs of walnuts are sometimes sold in their green husks for a form of gambling known as ''du qing pi''.


Cultivars


Gallery

File:Juglans regia 2009 G2.jpg, Common walnut in growth File:California Blackwalnut.jpg, California black walnut in growth File:Juglans regia polyploid fruit bottom.jpg, A three-segment shell which occurs rarely File:Noix3coquilles.jpg, Walnut in shell and a
nutcracker A nutcracker is a designed to open by cracking their shells. There are many designs, including levers, screws, and ratchets. The lever version is also used for cracking and shells. A decorative version portrays a person whose mouth forms the ...

nutcracker
utensil used to break the shell File:Benutzung eines Nussknackers.gif, Video of cracking a walnut File:Walnuts no shell.jpg, Walnuts as a snack File:Cerneaux de noix.jpg, A large serving of shelled walnuts File:Gozinaki with walnuts.jpg,
Georgian Georgian may refer to: Common meanings * Anything related to, or originating from Georgia (country) **Georgians, an indigenous Caucasian ethnic group **Georgian language, a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians **Georgian scripts, three scripts ...
snack Gozinaki made from roasted walnuts and honey File:Applesauce walnut coffee cake.jpg,
Applesauce Apple sauce or applesauce is a sauce In cooking, a sauce is a liquid, cream, or semi-solid food, served on or used in preparing other foods. Most sauces are not normally consumed by themselves; they add flavor, moisture, and visual appeal to ...

Applesauce
coffee cake Coffee cake may refer to a sponge Sponges, the members of the phylum In biology, a phylum (; plural The plural (sometimes list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical numb ...

coffee cake
garnished with walnuts File:A Pair Of Chnese Collectible Walnuts.jpg, Walnuts as collectibles File:Walnut murabba.jpg, Muraba made from young walnuts


See also

*
Kurumi is the Japanese word for walnut A walnut is the Nut (fruit), nut of any tree of the genus ''Juglans'' (family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, ''Juglans regia''. A walnut is the edible seed of a drupe, and thus no ...
*
List of unproven and disproven cancer treatments This is a non-exhaustive list of alternative treatments that have been promoted to treat or prevent cancer in humans but which lack scientific and medical evidence of effectiveness. In many cases, there is scientific evidence that the alleged trea ...


References


Further reading

* *


External links

* {{Nuts Crops Edible nuts and seeds Plant dyes Symbols of California