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The ''Vigiles'' or more properly the ''Vigiles Urbani'' ("watchmen of the
City A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...

City
") or ''Cohortes Vigilum'' ("
cohort Cohort or cohortes may refer to: * Cohort (educational group), a group of students working together through the same academic curriculum * Cohort (floating point), a set of different encodings of the same numerical value * Cohort (military unit), ...
s of the watchmen") were the
firefighter A firefighter is a rescuer extensively trained in firefighting, primarily to extinguish conflagration, hazardous fires that threaten life, property, and the environment as well as to rescue people and in some cases or jurisdictions also animals ...

firefighter
s and
police The police are a Law enforcement organization, constituted body of Law enforcement officer, persons empowered by a State (polity), state, with the aim to law enforcement, enforce the law, to ensure the safety, health and possessions of citize ...

police
of
Ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who stud ...
.


History

The ''Triumviri Nocturni'' (meaning ''three men of the night'') were the first men, being privately owned slaves, organized into a group that combated the common problems of fire and
conflagration A conflagration is a large and destructive fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction Product (chemistry), products. Fire is hot because ...
s in Rome. The privately operated system became ineffective, so in the interest of keeping himself and Rome safe,
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles through ...

Augustus
instituted a new public firefighting force called the ''Vigiles''. Augustus modelled the new firefighters after the fire brigade of
Alexandria, Egypt ) , name = Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; Coptic: Rakodī; el, Αλεξάνδρεια ''Alexandria'') is the third-largest city in Egypt Egypt ( ; ar, مِصر ...
. The Vigiles were also known by their nickname ''Spartoli'' or "little bucket fellows" which was given to them because of the buckets they carried water in, which were made of rope sealed with
pitch Pitch may refer to: Acoustic frequency * Pitch (music), the perceived frequency of sound including "definite pitch" and "indefinite pitch" ** Absolute pitch or "perfect pitch" ** Pitch class, a set of all pitches that are a whole number of octaves ...
. In AD 6, Augustus levied a 4%
tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act accord ...
on the sale of
slave Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property Property is a system of rights that gives ...
s and used the proceeds to set up the new force. The first Vigiles units were under the command of
Aedile Aedile ( ; la, aedīlis , from , "temple edifice") was an elected office of the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the , run through of the . Beginning with the of the (traditionally dated to ...
s and the '' Vicomagistri''. There were only 6000 ''Vigiles'' and they were all slaves. In 22 AD they were commanded by the ''
praefectus vigilum The ''Vigiles'' or more properly the ''Vigiles Urbani'' ("watchmen of the Rome, City") or ''Cohortes Vigilum'' ("Cohort (military unit), cohorts of the watchmen") were the firefighters and police of Ancient Rome. History The ''Triumviri Nocturni ...
'', who was of
equestrian The word equestrian is a reference to Equestrianism, horseback riding, derived from Latin ' and ', "horse". Horseback riding (or Riding in British English) Notable examples of this are: *List of equestrian sports, Equestrian sports *Equestrianism, ...
rank, and ''subpraefectus'' and were divided into seven
cohort Cohort or cohortes may refer to: * Cohort (educational group), a group of students working together through the same academic curriculum * Cohort (floating point), a set of different encodings of the same numerical value * Cohort (military unit), ...
s commanded by a
tribune Tribune () was the title of various elected officials in ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the ...

tribune
. Usually tribunes would begin their career by commanding a unit of the Vigiles. Each cohort was divided into seven
centuries A century is a period of 100 year A year is the orbital period of a planetary body, for example, the Earth, moving in Earth's orbit, its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the season ...
, each of 70–80 men commanded by a ''
centurion A centurion (; la, centurio , . la, centuriones, label=none; grc-gre, κεντυρίων, kentyríōn, or ) was a position in the Roman army during classical antiquity, nominally the commander of a centuria, century (), a military unit of aro ...

centurion
''. Each cohort patrolled two of the city's fourteen administrative ''regiones''. The cohorts were doubled in size in AD 205. The ''Vigiles'' were made up of
freedman A freedman or freedwoman is a formerly enslaved person who has been released from slavery Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, a ...

freedman
by this time. The ''Vigiles'' also acted as a night watch, keeping an eye out for burglars and hunting down runaway slaves, and were on occasion used to maintain order in the streets. Their most famous prefect,
Naevius Sutorius Macro Quintus Naevius Cordus Sutorius Macro (21 BC – 38 AD) was a Praetorian prefect, prefect of the Praetorian Guard, from 31 until 38, serving under the Roman Emperors Tiberius and Caligula. Upon falling out of favour, he committed suicide. Biograph ...
, succeeded
Lucius Aelius Sejanus Lucius Aelius Sejanus (3 June 20 BC – 18 October AD 31), commonly known as Sejanus (), was an ambitious soldier, friend and confidant of the Roman Emperor The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman ...
as Prefect of the
Praetorian Guard The Praetorian Guard (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of th ...
after his men had been used by the Emperor
Tiberius Tiberius Caesar Augustus (; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March AD 37) was the second Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors use ...

Tiberius
to retake control of the city from Sejanus's soldiers. ''Vigiles'' were stationed at the harbour cities of Ostia and
Portus Portus was a large artificial harbour of Ancient Rome. Sited on the north bank of the north mouth of the Tiber, on the Tyrrhenian Sea, Tyrrhenian coast, it was established by Claudius and enlarged by Trajan to supplement the nearby port of Ostia A ...

Portus
. A ''
vexillatio A ''vexillatio'' (plural ''vexillationes'') was a detachment of a Roman legion The Roman legion ( la, legiō, ) was the largest military unit of the Roman army The Roman army (: ) was the armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout th ...
'' (detachment) of four centuries was detached from Rome for four months at a time, with two centuries being stationed at each city. During the
Great Fire of Rome The Great Fire of Rome ( la, incendium magnum Romae), was an urban fire that occurred in July AD 64. The fire began in the merchant shops around Rome's chariot stadium, Circus Maximus The Circus Maximus (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a cla ...
the Vigiles took to looting the city rather than enforcing law and fighting the fires. The ''Vigiles'' appear to have lost their status as an independent unit and come under the authority of the
Praetorian prefects Praetorian is an adjective derived from the ancient Roman office of praetor. It may refer to: Government and military *Legatus (Praetorian legate), the title of a high military rank in the Roman Empire *Praetorian Guard, a special force of skill ...
sometime in the early 3rd century.


Organization

In the beginning, the corps had difficulty recruiting men. In an effort to entice men to enlist the ''
Lex Visellia Lex or LEX may refer to: Arts and entertainment * ''Lex'', a daily featured column Financial Times#The Lex column, in the ''Financial Times'' Games * Lex, the mascot of the word-forming puzzle video game Bookworm (video game), ''Bookworm'' * Lex, ...
'' was passed in 24 AD, granting full
citizenship Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditions under which it will recognize persons as its citizens, and t ...
and a bonus cash
stipend A stipend is a regular fixed sum of money paid for services or to defray expenses, such as for scholarship, internship, or apprenticeship. It is often distinct from an income or a salary because it does not necessarily represent payment for work pe ...
to ''Vigiles'' after six years of service. By the 2nd century, citizens were also allowed to enlist. The ''Vigiles'' were accommodated in barracks and patrolled the streets, especially at night, on the lookout for any unsupervised fires. Every householder was obliged to keep equipment for fighting fires, and the men themselves were equipped with pumps, buckets, hooks (for pulling down burning material), picks,
mattock A mattock is a hand tool A hand tool is any tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use simple tools, only human beings, whose use of ston ...

mattock
s and axes. They also used ''
ballista The ballista (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roma ...

ballista
e'' for knocking down burning houses and creating
firebreak A firebreak is a gap in vegetation or other combustible material that acts as a barrier to slow or stop the progress of a bushfire or wildfire A wildfire, bushfire, wildland fire or rural fire is an unplanned, unwanted, uncontrolled fire in an ...
s. They even had their own medical support (''medici''), with four doctors attached to each cohort, and their own chaplains (''victimarii''). A ''siphonarius'' operated a pump and an ''aquarius'' supervised the supply of water. The ordinary firefighters were called ''milites'' (soldiers). The Vigiles were organized into seven cohorts each 1,000 men strong. The cohorts contained seven
centuries A century is a period of 100 year A year is the orbital period of a planetary body, for example, the Earth, moving in Earth's orbit, its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the season ...
. The centuries were commanded by
centurion A centurion (; la, centurio , . la, centuriones, label=none; grc-gre, κεντυρίων, kentyríōn, or ) was a position in the Roman army during classical antiquity, nominally the commander of a centuria, century (), a military unit of aro ...

centurion
s, and the cohort was commanded by a
tribune Tribune () was the title of various elected officials in ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the ...

tribune
. The commander of the Vigiles was the ''Praefectus Vigilum.'' The centurions of the ''Vigiles'' would often go on to become centurions in the Urban Cohorts, followed by becoming a centurion in the Praetorian Guard. They would then transfer to the Legions, where they could reach the rank of
Primus Pilus The ''Primus pilus'' or ''Primipilus'' was the senior centurion A centurion (; la, centurio , . la, centuriones, label=none; grc-gre, κεντυρίων, kentyríōn, or ) was a position in the Roman army during classical antiquity, nomina ...
. The prefect was also known as the
Prefect Prefect (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of th ...
of the Watch. The prefect was an eques appointed by the emperor to command the seven cohorts. It was not a particularly sought after office until the 3rd century. Prominent
jurists A jurist is a person with expert knowledge of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influence ...
with a legal background began serving as Prefect to fulfil the magisterial capacity of the office. As a judge, the Prefect made rulings in his court for the common thieves caught during the night. Eventually, the Prefect was given
jurisdiction Jurisdiction (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be i ...
over daytime
petty crime A summary or petty offence is a violation of law, violation in some common law jurisdictions that can be proceeded against summarily, without the right to a jury trial and/or indictment (required for an indictable offence). In the law of the United ...
s as well. According to Justinian, in the event of more serious crimes the decision was made by the
praefectus urbi The ''praefectus urbanus'', also called ''praefectus urbi'' or urban prefect in English, was prefect Prefect (from the Latin ''praefectus'', substantive adjectival form of ''praeficere'': "put in front", meaning in charge) is a Magistrate, m ...
, "if the offender is a person of such thuggish and infamous character ... the case is sent on to the prefect of the city". Often times ''Praefectus Vigilum'' would go on to be prefects of the Praetorian Guard. Beyond the office of the prefect, the Vigiles were ordered by rank similar to the military. While some terms of service could extend beyond twenty years, most commissioned ranks were much shorter. Since the ''Vigiles'' never achieved the prestige of the Praetorian Guard or the Urban Cohorts, serving in the corps was usually only a means of achieving more honourable and lucrative posts. One known ''praefectus'', Placidianus was put in charge of an expeditionary force sent to Gaul by
Claudius II Marcus Aurelius Claudius 'Gothicus' (10 May 214 – January 270), also known as Claudius II, was Roman emperor The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). Th ...
(Gothicus) on his accession in 269 AD to secure the lower Rhone valley against the so-called
Gallic Empire The Gallic Empire or the Gallic Roman Empire are names used in modern historiography for a breakaway part of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rh ...
. This is the only known instance of the holder of this office being given a substantive command outside Rome. Whether or not his force included ''vigiles'' from the city is uncertain. Whether or not the ''Praefectus Vigilum'' had his headquarters in any of the ''stationes'' identified above or whether he had an entirely separate ''praefectura'' is not known. If he is associated with one of the barracks it is likely to have been that of I Cohort in the ''Via Lata''.


Duties


Fighting fires

Every cohort was equipped with standard firefighting equipment. The ''sipho'' or
fire engine A fire engine (also known in some places as a fire truck or fire lorry) is a road vehicle (usually a truck mining truck A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary greatly in size, power, and configu ...

fire engine
was pulled by horses and consisted of a large double action pump that was partially submerged in a reservoir of water. The Vigiles designated as ''aquarii'' needed to have an accurate knowledge of where water was located, and they also formed
bucket brigade A bucket brigade or human chain is a method for transporting items where items are passed from one (relatively stationary) person to the next. The method was important in firefighting up Kaman K-MAX helicopter fighting wildfires in Utah Fire ...
s to bring water to the fire. Attempts were made to smother the fire by covering it with patchwork quilts (''centones'') soaked with water. There is even evidence that
chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of atoms, which ...

chemical
firefighting methods were used by throwing a
vinegar Vinegar is an aqueous solution of acetic acid and trace compounds that may include flavorings. Vinegar typically contains 5–8% acetic acid by volume. Usually, the acetic acid is produced by a double fermentation; converting simple sugars to eth ...

vinegar
based substance called ''acetum'' into fires. In many cases the best way to prevent the spread of flames was to tear down the burning building with hooks and levers. For fires in multiple story buildings, cushions and mattresses were spread out on the ground for people to jump onto from the upper levels. A major duty of the Vigiles was to enforce preventative measures against conflagrations. Adequate fire fighting equipment was required in every home. The
Digest of Justinian Image:Digesto 02.jpg, , 1581. Biblioteca Comunale "Renato Fucini" di Empoli The ''Digest'', also known as the Pandects ( la, Digesta seu Pandectae, adapted from grc, πανδέκτης , "all-containing"), is a name given to a compendium or digest ...
decrees that Vigiles are "ordered to remind every one to have a supply of water ready in his upper room". While the Vigiles only had advising authority, their recommendations were often followed to avoid repercussions for negligence. Corporal punishment was the most common punishment for negligence according to the Digest of Justinian, "where persons have paid insufficient attention to their fire, the prefect ... orders them to be beaten". During the
Great Fire of Rome The Great Fire of Rome ( la, incendium magnum Romae), was an urban fire that occurred in July AD 64. The fire began in the merchant shops around Rome's chariot stadium, Circus Maximus The Circus Maximus (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a cla ...
in AD 64 over one third of Rome was destroyed by flames. The young Emperor
Nero Nero ( ; full name: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December AD 37 – 9 June AD 68) was the fifth emperor of Rome. He was Adoption in Ancient Rome, adopted by the Roman emperor Claudius at the age of 13 and s ...

Nero
helped to direct the Vigiles in fighting the flames. It was rumoured that the Vigiles intentionally allowed the city to burn under orders from Nero, who later built his palace on land that was cleared by the fire. Regardless, Nero enacted fire code laws following the Great Fire to avoid further conflagrations. These laws called for more public access to water and prohibited buildings from sharing a common wall.


Police force

Starting about 27 BC, Augustus added a police function to the Vigiles to counterbalance the urban mobs that had run rampant during the latter days of the Republic. In addition to extinguishing fires, the Vigiles were the nightwatch of Rome. Their duties included apprehending thieves and robbers and capturing runaway slaves. The task of guarding the baths was added as a duty of the Vigiles during the reign of
Alexander Severus Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander (1 October 208 – 19/22 March 235) was a Roman emperor, who reigned from 222 until 235. He was the last emperor from the Severan dynasty. He succeeded his slain cousin Elagabalus in 222. Alexander himself was ev ...

Alexander Severus
when the baths remained open during the night. They dealt primarily with petty crimes and looked for disturbances of the peace while they patrolled the streets.
Sedition Sedition is overt conduct, such as speech Speech is human vocal communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin ...

Sedition
, riots and violent crimes were handled by the ''
Cohortes urbanae The ''cohortes urbanae'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of ...
'' and (to a lesser extent) the
Praetorian Guard The Praetorian Guard (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of th ...
, though Vigiles could provide a supporting role in these situations. The ''Vigiles'' were not considered a
para-military Paramilitary forces usually tend to wear similar but different uniforms to the military, for instance gray " urban camouflage". A paramilitary organization (also listed as quasi military) is a semi-militarized force whose organizational stru ...
unit.


Quarters

The first Vigiles sequestered private homes and buildings to use as their
command post A watchstander at her station in the USS ''Carl Vinson'' in the year 2001. Command and control (C2) is a "set of organizational and technical attributes and processes ...
hat A collection of 18th and 19th century men's beaver felt hats A hat is a head covering which is worn for various reasons, including protection against weather conditions, ceremonial reasons such as university graduation, religious reasons, safet ...

hat
employs human, physical, and information resources to solve proble ...
s. It was not until the mid-2nd century that official stations were built explicitly for the Vigiles' use. By the early 3rd century sub-stations (''excubitoria''), which held forty to fifty men, were constructed to accommodate the expanding city and the surrounding suburbs. The locations of four of the seven cohort ''stationes'' or barracks have been fairly definitively identified: * I Cohort: On the east side of the
Via Lata File:101PzaPopolo.jpg, 220px, Via del Corso from Piazza del Popolo The Via del Corso is a main street in the historical centre of Rome. It is straight in an area otherwise characterized by narrow meandering alleys and small piazzas. Considered ...

Via Lata
opposite the
Saepta The Saepta Julia was a building in the Campus Martius of Rome, where citizens gathered to cast votes. The building was conceived by Julius Caesar and dedicated by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa in 26 BCE. The building replaced an older structure, called t ...
; * III Cohort: On Viminal; * IV Cohort: Near
Baths of Caracalla , native_name_lang = , alternate_name = it, Terme di Caracalla , image = File:Baths of Caracalla, facing Caldarium.jpg , image_size = 250px , alt = , caption = The baths as viewed from the south-west. The cal ...

Baths of Caracalla
; * V Cohort: On Caelian Hill near present site of S. Maria in Domnica. The VII Cohort was probably housed in a ''statio'' provisionally identified near the Aemiian Bridge. As mentioned elsewhere detachments of watchmen were stationed at ''Ostia'' and ''Portus'' and there were sub-stations throughout the city. What arrangements were made for policing the outer suburbs of the city is not known. (Certainly after the governmental reforms of
Diocletian Diocletian (; la, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus; born Diocles; 22 December c. 244 – 3 December 311) was from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in , Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become a commander of ...
the jurisdiction of the ''
Praefectus Urbi The ''praefectus urbanus'', also called ''praefectus urbi'' or urban prefect in English, was prefect Prefect (from the Latin ''praefectus'', substantive adjectival form of ''praeficere'': "put in front", meaning in charge) is a Magistrate, m ...
'' extended as far as the east coast and for in every direction. This might suggest that his subordinate, the ''Praefectus'' ''Vigilum'', had a commensurate responsibility.)


In popular culture

The Vigiles often play a prominent role in the
Marcus Didius Falco Marcus Didius Falco is the fictional central character and narrator in a series of historical mystery crime novel Crime fiction, detective story, murder mystery, mystery novel, and police novel are terms used to describe narratives that cen ...
novels of
Lindsey Davis Lindsey Davis (born 1949) is an English historical novelist, best known as the author of the Marcus Didius Falco, Falco series of historical mystery, historical crime stories set in ancient Rome and its empire. She is a recipient of the Cartier Di ...
, providing assistance in Falco's investigations. In particular, Falco's old army friend Lucius Petronius Longus is a 'Watch Captain' in ''Regio'' XIII. In '' Death in Vesunna'' by
Harry Turtledove Harry Norman Turtledove (born June 14, 1949) is an American author who is best known for his work in the genres of alternate history, historical fiction, fantasy, science fiction, and mystery fiction. He is a student of history and completed hi ...
, the vigiles of Vesunna,
Roman Gaul Roman Gaul refers to Gaul Gaul ( la, Gallia) was a region of Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by con ...

Roman Gaul
(now modern
Périgueux Périgueux (, ; oc, Peireguers or ) is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concret ...

Périgueux
,
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
) are tasked to hunt down two murderers , whose victim was a prominent citizen in the city whom they murdered with a
pistol A pistol is a handgun, more specifically one with the chamber integral to its gun barrel with its massive bore and the stacked barrel A barrel or cask is a hollow cylindrical container with a bulging center, longer than it is wide. Th ...

pistol
.


See also

*
Praetorian Guard The Praetorian Guard (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of th ...
* Urban cohort *
History of firefighting The history of organized firefighting began in ancient Rome while under the rule of Augustus. Prior to that, Ctesibius, a Greek citizen of Alexandria, developed the first fire pump in the third century BC, which was later improved upon in a desig ...
*
List of fire departments This is a list of fire departments in the world. A fire department A fire department (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the ...
*
List of Roman army unit types This is a list of Roman army The Roman army (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', me ...
*
Vigili del Fuoco The Vigili del Fuoco is Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, ...

Vigili del Fuoco


References


Primary sources

* Tacitus, Publius Cornelius. The Annals. In: The Complete Works of Tacitus. (1942) Translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb. * Justinian I. (529) The Digest of Justinian. Book I, XV. Translated by Monro, Charles Henry. (1904) Cambridge University Press. pp. 50–51.


Secondary sources

* Bunson, Matthew. (1994) Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire. Facts on File Inc., New York, NY * Cambridge Ancient History. (1996) 2nd Ed, Vol. X: The Augustan Empire, 43B.C.-A.D.69 Ed. Bowman, Alan K.; Champlin, Edward; Lintott, Andrew. Cambridge University Press, New York. * Canter, H.V. (1932) * H. V. Canter
"Conflagrations in Ancient Rome"
'' Classical Journal'', 27 (1932), pp. 270–288 * Daugherty, Gregory N
"The Cohortes Vigilum and the Great Fire of 64 AD"
''Classical Journal'', Vol. 87 (1992), pp. 229–240. * Originally published in 1926 by Oxford University Press, London. {{Authority control Infantry units and formations of ancient Rome Military units and formations of the Roman Empire Defunct law enforcement agencies Fire departments History of firefighting Military units and formations established in the 1st century 0s establishments in the Roman Empire 1st-century establishments in Italy