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A viceroy () is an official who runs a
polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social relation, social relations, and have a capacity to mobilize resourc ...
in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix ''vice-'', meaning "in the place of" and the French word ''roy'', meaning "king". A viceroy's territory may be called a
viceroyalty A viceroyalty was an entity headed by a viceroy. It dates back to the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 16th century. France *Viceroyalty of New France Portuguese Empire In the scope of the Portuguese Empire, the term "Viceroyalty of ...
, though this term is not always applied. The
adjective In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langu ...
form is viceregal, less often viceroyal. The term vicereine is sometimes used to indicate a female viceroy ''
suo jure ''Suo jure'' is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic ...
'', although viceroy can serve as a gender-neutral term. Vicereine is more commonly used to indicate a viceroy's wife. The term has occasionally been applied to the governors-general of the
Commonwealth realms A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state that has Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state. Each realm functions as an independent state, equal with the other realms. In 1952, Elizabeth II was the monarch and head of state of seven in ...

Commonwealth realms
, who are ''viceregal'' representatives of the monarch. ''Viceroy'' is a form of royal appointment rather than noble rank. An individual viceroy often also held a noble title, however, such as
Bernardo de Gálvez, 1st Viscount of Galveston Bernardo: a given name and less frequently an Italian, Portuguese and Spanish surname In some cultures, a surname, family name, or last name is the portion of one's personal name that indicates their family, tribe or community. Practices va ...
who was also
Viceroy of New Spain The following is a list of Viceroys of New Spain. In addition to viceroys, the following lists the highest Spanish governors of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, before the appointment of the first viceroy or when the office of viceroy was vacant. Mos ...
.


Spanish Empire

The title was originally used by the
Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Corona de Aragón)' ()' (, , )' ()' (). was a composite monarchy A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger ...
, where, beginning in the 14th century, it referred to the Spanish governors of
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the Mediterranean islands#By area, second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, and one of the Regions of Italy, 20 regions of Italy. It is located west of the Italian Penin ...

Sardinia
and
Corsica Corsica (, Upper , Southern , ; french: link=no, Corse ; lij, link=no, Còrsega) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north ...

Corsica
. After the unification, at the end of the 15th century, later
kings of Spain This is a list of Spanish Heads of State A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of it ...

kings of Spain
came to appoint numerous viceroys to rule over various parts of the increasingly vast
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish Empire
in Europe, the Americas, and overseas elsewhere.


In Spanish ruled Europe

In Europe, until the 18th century, the Habsburg crown appointed viceroys of
Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_n ...
,
Valencia Valencia ( va, València) is the capital of the autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_name ...
,
Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in the northeastern corner of Spain, designated as a ''nationalities and regions of Spain, na ...
,
Navarre Navarre (; es, Navarra ; eu, Nafarroa ), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre ( es, Comunidad Foral de Navarra, links=no ; eu, Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea, links=no ), is a Fuero, foral autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous co ...

Navarre
,
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
,
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the Mediterranean islands#By area, second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, and one of the Regions of Italy, 20 regions of Italy. It is located west of the Italian Penin ...

Sardinia
,
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
, and
Naples Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ), from grc, Νεάπολις, Neápolis, lit=new city. is the regional capital of and the third-largest city of , after and , with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of ...

Naples
. With the ascension of the
House of Bourbon The House of Bourbon (, also ; ) is a European of French origin, a branch of the , the royal . Bourbon kings first ruled France and in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the held thrones in , , , and . Spain and have monarchs ...

House of Bourbon
to the Spanish throne, the historic Aragonese viceroyalties were replaced by new captaincies general. At the end of
War of the Spanish Succession The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was an early-18th-century European war, triggered by the death in November 1700 of the childless Charles II of Spain. It established the principle that dynastic rights were secondary to maintaini ...
, the Spanish monarchy was shorn of its Italian possessions. These Italian territories, however, continued to have viceroys under their new rulers for some time; Naples until 1734, Sicily until 1816 and Sardinia until 1848. :See also: *
List of Spanish Viceroys of AragonThis is a list of viceroys (or lieutenants) of the Kingdom of Aragon The Kingdom of Aragon ( an, Reino d'Aragón, ca, Regne d'Aragó, la, Regnum Aragoniae, es, Reino de Aragón) was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of ...
*
List of Spanish Viceroys of Valencia This is a list of viceroys of the Kingdom of Valencia from 1520 to 1707. *1520 : Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, 1st Count of Melito *1523 : Germaine of Foix and Johann of Brandenburg-Ansbach *1526 : Germaine of Foix and Ferdinand of Aragon, Duque de C ...
*
List of Spanish Viceroys of CataloniaThis is a list of Crown of Castile, Spanish viceroys (also called lieutenants) of the Principality of Catalonia from 1479 to 1713. *1479–1493: Enrique de Aragón *1493–1495: Juan de Lanuza y Garabito *1495–1496: Juan Fernández de ...
*
List of Spanish Viceroys of Navarre This is a list of Spanish Viceroy A viceroy () is an official who runs a polity in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix ''vice-'', meaning "in the place of" and the Frenc ...
*
List of Spanish Viceroys of SardiniaThis is a list of viceroys of Kingdom of Sardinia, Sardinia. Aragonese Viceroys From 1418 to 1516 Sardinia was ruled by viceroys from the Crown of Aragon, which merged into the Monarchy of Spain in 1516. 1. Lluís de Pontons (1418-1419) 2. Joan de ...
*
List of Spanish Viceroys of SicilyThis is a list of viceroys of Sicily: Aragonese direct rule 1409–1516 * John II of Aragon, John of Aragon, Duke of Peñafiel, later king John II of Aragon, 1458–1479, acted 1409–1416. * Domingo Ram y Lanaja, Bishop of Lleida 1416–1419 * Anto ...
*
List of Spanish Viceroys of Naples This is a list of viceroys of the Kingdom of Naples. Following the conquest of Naples by Louis XII of France in 1501, Naples was subject to the rule of the foreign rulers, the Kings of France, Aragon and Spain and the Habsburg Archdukes of Austria ...


In the Americas

The Americas were incorporated into the
Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Kingdom of Castile, Castile and Kin ...

Crown of Castile
. With the
Spanish colonization of the Americas The Spanish colonization of the Americas began under the Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decad ...

Spanish colonization of the Americas
, the institution of viceroys was adapted to govern the highly populated and wealthy regions of the north overseas:
New Spain New Spain, officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain ( es, Virreinato de Nueva España, ), or Kingdom of New Spain, was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as th ...
(Mexico and Philippines) and the south overseas:
Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_type = National seal , national_motto ...
and South America. The viceroys of these two areas had oversight over the other provinces, with most of the North American, Central American,
Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles ...
and East Indian areas supervised by the viceroy in
Mexico City Mexico City ( es, link=no, Ciudad de México, ; abbreviated as CDMX; nah, Āltepētl Mēxihco) is the capital city, capital and largest city of Mexico, as well as the List of North American cities by population, most populous city in North Americ ...

Mexico City
and the South American ones by the viceroy in
Lima Lima ( ; ) is the capital and the largest city of Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_t ...

Lima
, (with the exception of most of today's
Venezuela Venezuela (; ), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela ( es, link=no, República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continent A continent is any of several large l ...

Venezuela
, which was overseen by the high court, or
Audiencia of Santo Domingo The Real Audiencia of Santo Domingo was the first court of the Crown of Castile, Spanish crown in America. It was created by Ferdinand II of Aragon, Ferdinand V of Castile in his decree of 1511, but due to disagreements between the governor of H ...
on the island of Hispaniola for most of the colonial period). These large administrative territories became known as ''Viceroyalties'' (Spanish term: ''Virreinatos''). There were only two
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas."America." ''The Oxford Companion to the English Language'' (). McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 33: "
Bourbon_Dynasty The_House_of_Bourbon_(,_also_;_)_is_a_European_dynasty A_dynasty_(,_)_is_a_sequence_of_rulers_from_the_same__family,''Oxford_English_Dictionary'',__"dynasty,_''n.''"_Oxford_University_Press Oxford_University_Press_(OUP)_is_the_unive_...
_established_two_additional_viceroyalties_to_promote_economic_growth_and_new_settlements_on_South_America._New_viceroyalties_were_created_for_Viceroyalty_of_New_Granada.html" ;"title="Bourbon_Reforms.html" "title="6c: from ...
viceroyalties until the 18th century, when the new Bourbon Reforms">Bourbon Dynasty The House of Bourbon (, also ; ) is a European dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n.''" Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the unive ...
established two additional viceroyalties to promote economic growth and new settlements on South America. New viceroyalties were created for Viceroyalty of New Granada">New Granada in 1717 (capital, Bogotá) and Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, the Río de la Plata in 1776 (capital, Buenos Aires). The viceroyalties of the Spanish Americas and the Spanish East Indies were subdivided into smaller, autonomous units, the Audiencias (
tribunal A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington Samuel Phillips Huntington (April 18, 1927 – December 24, 2008) was an American political scientist, adviser and academic. He spent ...

tribunal
with the authority to judge), and the Captaincies General (military districts), which in most cases became the bases for the independent countries of modern
Hispanic America Hispanic America (Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disamb ...

Hispanic America
. These units gathered the local provinces which could be governed by either a crown official, a
corregidor Corregidor Island ( tl, Pulo ng Corregidor ) is an island located at the entrance of Manila Bay in the southwestern part of Luzon in the Philippines. Due to this location, Corregidor has historically been fortification, fortified with coastal ar ...
(sometimes ''alcalde mayor'') or by a cabildo or town council. Audiencias primarily functioned as superior judicial tribunals, but unlike their European counterparts, the New World audiencias were granted by law both administrative and legislative powers. Captaincies General were primarily military districts set up in areas with a risk of foreign or
Indian Indian or Indians refers to people or things related to India, or to the indigenous people of the Americas, or Aboriginal Australians until the 19th century. People South Asia * Indian people, people of Indian nationality, or people who come ...
attack, but the captains general were usually given political powers over the provinces under their command. Because the long distances to the viceregal capital would hamper effective communication, both audiencias and captains general were authorized to communicate directly with the crown through the
Council of the Indies The Council of the Indies; officially, the Royal and Supreme Council of the Indies ( es, Real y Supremo Consejo de las Indias, ), was the most important administrative organ of the Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, Imperio Español; la, I ...
. The Bourbon Reforms introduced the new office of the
intendant An intendant (french: intendant , Portuguese language, Portuguese and es, intendente) was and sometimes still is a usually public official, especially in France, Spain, Portugal, and Latin America. The intendancy system was a centralizing admi ...
, which was appointed directly by the crown and had broad fiscal and administrative powers in political and military issues. See also: * Viceroyalty of the Indies (1492–1526) *
Viceroyalty of New Spain New Spain, officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain ( es, Virreinato de Nueva España, ), or Kingdom of New Spain, was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as t ...
(1535–1821) – '' List of Viceroys of New Spain'' *
Viceroyalty of Peru The Viceroyalty of Peru ( es, Virreinato del Perú, links=no) was a Monarchy of Spain, Spanish imperial provincial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained modern-day Peru and most of the Spanish Empire in South Amer ...
(1542–1824) – ''
List of Viceroys of Peru The following is a list of Viceroys of Peru. The viceroys of Peru ruled the Viceroyalty of Peru The Viceroyalty of Peru ( es, Virreinato del Perú, links=no) was a Spanish imperial provincial administrative district, created in 1542, that or ...
'' *
Viceroyalty of New Granada The Viceroyalty of New Granada ( es, Virreinato de Nueva Granada, links=no ) also called Viceroyalty of the New Kingdom of Granada or Viceroyalty of Santafé was the name given on 27 May 1717, to the jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire The S ...

Viceroyalty of New Granada
(1717–1819) – '' List of Viceroys of New Granada'' *
Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata ( es, Virreinato del Río de la Plata, meaning "River of the Silver", also called "Viceroyalty A viceroyalty was an entity headed by a viceroy. It dates back to the Spanish colonization of the Americas ...
(1776–1814) – '' List of Viceroys of the Río de la Plata''


Portuguese


India

The title of Viceroy being awarded to members of the nobility, Viceroys,
Governors A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (p ...
and Governing Commissions were many times interleaved until the last Viceroy
Afonso, Prince Royal of Portugal Infante Dom (honorific), D. Afonso of Braganza, Duke of Porto (; 31 July 1865 in Palace of Ajuda, Lisbon – 21 February 1920 in Naples, Italy) was a Portuguese people, Portuguese Infante of the House of Braganza,"While remaining Patrilineali ...
, in 1896. From 1505 to 1896
Portuguese India The State of India ( pt, Estado da Índia), also referred as the Portuguese State of India (''Estado Português da Índia'', EPI) or simply Portuguese India (''Índia Portuguesa''), was a List of states of the Portuguese Empire, colonial state ...

Portuguese India
 – the name "India" and the official name "Estado da India" (''State of India'') including all Portuguese possessions in the Indian Ocean, from southern Africa to Southeast Asia and Australasia, until 1752 - was governed either by a Viceroy (Portuguese ''Vice-Rei'') or Governor from its headquarters, in
Goa Goa () is a state on the southwestern coast of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the ...

Goa
from 1510. The government started six years after the discovery of sea route to India by
Vasco da Gama Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira Count of Vidigueira (in Portuguese ''Conde da Vidigueira'') was a Portuguese comital title of nobility awarded by King Manuel I of Portugal to Don (honorific), Dom Vasco da Gama, who discovered the marit ...

Vasco da Gama
, in 1505, under first Viceroy
Francisco de Almeida Dom Francisco de Almeida (), also known as the Great Dom Francisco (c. 1450 – 1 March 1510), was a Portuguese nobleman, soldier and explorer Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information Information ...

Francisco de Almeida
(b.1450–d.1510). Initially, King
Manuel I of Portugal Manuel I (; 31 May 146913 December 1521), known as the Fortunate ( pt, O Venturoso), was King of Portugal This is a list of Portuguese monarchs who ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1139, to the deposition of the Por ...

Manuel I of Portugal
tried a power distribution with three governors in different areas of jurisdiction: a government covering the area and possessions in East Africa,
Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...
and
Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf ( fa, خلیج فارس, translit=xalij-e fârs, lit=Gulf of , ) is a in . The body of water is an extension of the () through the and lies between to the northeast and the to the southwest.United Nations Group of Exper ...
, overseeing up
Cambay Cambay, Kambay or Khambhat, was a during the . The town of (Cambay) in present-day was its capital. The state was bounded in the north by the and in the south by the . Cambay was the only state in the Kaira Agency of the Gujarat division ...
(Gujarat); a second one ruling the possessions in
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
(Hindustan) and
Ceylon Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO; ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island ...

Ceylon
, and a third one from
Malacca Malacca, officially the State of Malacca, is a Federated state, state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca. Its capital is Malacca City, dubbed the Historic City, which has been liste ...

Malacca
to the Far East. However the post was centered by governor
Afonso de Albuquerque Afonso de Albuquerque, Duke of Goa (; 1453 – 16 December 1515) (also spelled Aphonso or Alfonso) was a Portuguese general, admiral, and statesman. He served as List of governors of Portuguese India, Governor of Portuguese India from 1509 to 1 ...

Afonso de Albuquerque
(1509–1515), who became plenipotentiary, and remained so. The duration in office was usually three years, possibly longer, given the power represented: of the thirty-four governors of India in the 16th century, only six had longer mandates. * List of Viceroys and colonial heads of Portuguese India (1505–1961)


Portugal

During some periods of the
Iberian Union The Iberian Union was the dynastic union of the Kingdom of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = ...
, between 1580 and 1640, the
King of Spain , coatofarms = Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch.svg , coatofarms_article = Coat of arms of the King of Spain , image = King Felipe VI of Spain.jpg , incumbent = Felipe VI Felipe VI or Philip VI (; Felipe Juan ...

King of Spain
, who was also
King of Portugal This is a list of Portuguese monarchs who ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1139, to the deposition of the Portuguese monarchy and creation of the Portugal, Portuguese Republic with the 5 October 1910 revolution. Throug ...
, appointed Viceroys to govern Portugal itself, as the king had multiple realms throughout Europe and delegated his powers to various viceroys.


Brazil

After the end of the
Iberian Union The Iberian Union was the dynastic union of the Kingdom of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = ...
in 1640, the governors of
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...
that were members of the Portuguese high nobility started to use the title of Viceroy. Brazil became a permanent
Viceroyalty A viceroyalty was an entity headed by a viceroy. It dates back to the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 16th century. France *Viceroyalty of New France Portuguese Empire In the scope of the Portuguese Empire, the term "Viceroyalty of ...
in 1763, when the capital of the
State of Brazil The State of Brazil ( pt, Estado do Brasil) was one of the states of the Portuguese Empire, in the Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North and South America South ...
(''Estado do Brasil'') was transferred from
Salvador Salvador, meaning "salvation" (or "saviour") in Catalan, Spanish, and Portuguese may refer to: * Salvador (name) Arts, entertainment, and media Music *Salvador (band), a Christian band that plays both English and Spanish music **Salvador (Salvado ...

Salvador
to
Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro (; ), or simply Rio, is the List of largest cities in Brazil, second-most populous city in Brazil and the Largest cities in the Americas, sixth-most populous in the Americas. Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the Rio de Janeiro (s ...

Rio de Janeiro
.


British Empire


British India

Following adoption of the
Government of India Act 1858 The Government of India Act 1858 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a Poli ...
, which transferred control of India from the
East India Company The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC), East India Trading Company (EITC), the English East India Company or (after 1707) the British East India Company, and informally known as John Company, Com ...
to the
British Crown The Crown is the state (polity), state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their subdivisions (such as the Crown Dependencies, British Overseas Territories, overseas territories, Provinces and territorie ...

British Crown
, the Governor-General as representing the Crown became known as the Viceroy. The designation "Viceroy," although it was most frequently used in ordinary parlance, had no statutory authority, and was never employed by
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
. Although the Proclamation of 1858 announcing the assumption of the government of India by the Crown referred to
Lord Canning Charles John Canning, 1st Earl Canning, (14 December 1812 – 17 June 1862), also known as The Viscount Canning and Clemency Canning was an British statesman and Governor-General of India The Governor-General of India (1773-1950, f ...
as "first Viceroy and Governor-General," none of the Warrants appointing his successors referred to them as "viceroys," and the title, which was frequently used in warrants dealing with precedence and in public notifications, was basically one of ceremony used in connection with the state and social functions of the sovereign's representative. The Governor-General continued to be the sole representative of the Crown, and the Government of India continued to be vested in the Governor-General-in-Council. The Viceroys reported directly to the
Secretary of State for India A secretary, administrative professional, or personal assistant A personal assistant, also referred to as personal aide (PA) or personal secretary (PS), is a job title describing a person who assists a specific person with their daily busine ...
in London and were advised by the
Council of India The Council of India was the name given at different times to two separate bodies associated with British rule in India. The original Council of India was established by the Charter Act of 1833 as a council of four formal advisors to the Governo ...
. They were largely unencumbered in the exercise of their authority and were among the most powerful men on earth in the
Victorian Victorian or Victorians may refer to: 19th century * Victorian era, British history during Queen Victoria's 19th-century reign ** Victorian architecture ** Victorian house ** Victorian decorative arts ** Victorian fashion ** Victorian literature ...
and
Edwardian The Edwardian era or Edwardian period of British history The British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands in the North Atlantic off the north-western coast of continental Europe Mainland or continental Europe is t ...
eras, ruling over an entire
subcontinent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered from largest in area to smallest, these ...
with a large military force at their disposal in the form of the
British Indian Army The British Indian Army was the main military of the British Indian Empire The British Raj (; from ''rāj'', literally, "rule" in Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam' ...
. Under the terms of the
Government of India Act 1919 The Government of India Act 1919 (9 & 10 Geo. 5 c. 101) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom, supreme Legislature, legislative body ...
, viceroys shared some limited aspects of their authority with the
Central Legislative Assembly The Central Legislative Assembly was the lower house of the Imperial Legislative Council, the legislature of British Raj, British India. It was created by the Government of India Act 1919, implementing the Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms. It was a ...
, one of the first steps in the establishment of Indian
home rule Home rule is government of a colony, dependent country, or region by its own citizens. It is thus the power of a part (administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative ...

home rule
. This process was accelerated by the
Government of India Act 1935 The Government of India Act, 1935 was an Act of Parliament, Act adapted from the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It originally received royal assent in August 1935. It was the longest Act of (British) Parliament ever enacted until Greater Lond ...
and ultimately led to the independence of
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...
and
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...
as
dominion The term dominion was used to refer to one of several self-governing nations of the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other D ...

dominion
s in 1947. Both countries finally severed complete ties with Britain when they became
republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...

republic
s – India as a
secular Secularity, also the secular or secularness (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through t ...

secular
republic in 1950 and Pakistan as an
Islamic republic An Islamic republic can be considered a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institution ...
in 1956. Alongside the
Commander-in-Chief, India During the period of the Company rule in India and the British Raj The British Raj (; from ''rāj'', literally, "rule" in Sanskrit and Hindustani language, Hindustani) was the rule by the The Crown, British Crown on the Indian subconti ...
, the Viceroy was the public face of the British presence in India, attending to many ceremonial functions as well as political affairs. As the representative of the Emperors and Empresses of India, who were also the Kings and Queens of the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some f ...

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
, the Viceroy served as the Grand Master of the two principal
orders of chivalry An order of chivalry, order of knighthood, chivalric order, or equestrian order is an order Order, ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is a quality that is characterized by a person’s interest in keeping their surroundi ...
of British India: the
Order of the Star of India The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India was an order of chivalry An order of chivalry, order of knighthood, chivalric order, or equestrian order is an order of knights typically founded during or inspired by the original Catholic mili ...

Order of the Star of India
and the
Order of the Indian Empire The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire was an order of chivalry An order of chivalry, order of knighthood, chivalric order, or equestrian order is an order of knights typically founded during or inspired by the original Catholic mil ...

Order of the Indian Empire
. During the office's history, the Governors-General of India were based in two cities:
Calcutta Kolkata ( or , ; also known as Calcutta , the official name until 2001) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upperca ...
during the 19th century and New Delhi during the 20th century. Additionally, whilst Calcutta was the capital of British India, the viceroys spent the summer months at
Simla Shimla (; ; also known as Simla, the official name until 1972) is the capital and the largest city of the Northern Indian state of Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; "snow-laden province") is a state in the northern part of India. Situ ...

Simla
. The two historic residences of the Viceroys still stand: the
Viceroy's House The Rashtrapati Bhavan (, rásh-tra-pa-ti bha-vun; ; formerly Viceroy's House) is the official residence An official residence is the House, residence at which a nation's head of state, head of government, governor, Clergy, religious ...

Viceroy's House
in New Delhi and
Government House Government House is the name of many of the residences of governors-general, governors and lieutenant-governor A lieutenant governor, lieutenant-governor, or vice governor is a high officer of state, whose precise role and rank vary by jurisdictio ...
in Kolkata. They are used today as the official residences of the
President of India The president of India (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scienc ...
and the Governor of West Bengal, respectively. The portraits of the Governors-General still hang in a room on the ground floor of the Presidential Palace, one of the last vestiges of both the Viceroys and the British Raj. Notable Governors-General of India include
Warren Hastings Warren Hastings (6 December 1732 – 22 August 1818), an English statesman, was the first Governor of the Presidency of Fort William (Bengal), the head of the Supreme Council of Bengal, and thereby the first ''de facto'' Governor-General of Ben ...

Warren Hastings
,
Lord Cornwallis Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis, (31 December 1738 – 5 October 1805), styled Viscount Brome between 1753 and 1762 and known as the Earl Cornwallis between 1762 and 1792, was a British Army The British Army is the princip ...
,
Lord Curzon George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, (11 January 1859 – 20 March 1925), was styled as Lord Curzon of Kedleston between 1898 and 1911, and as Earl Curzon of Kedleston between 1911 and 1921, was a British Conservative ...
, The Earl of Minto, Lord Chelmsford, and
Lord Mountbatten Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (born Prince Louis of Battenberg; 25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979), was a British Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's N ...
. Lord Mountbatten served as the last Viceroy of British India, but continued on as the first Governor-General of the
dominion of India The Dominion of India, officially the Union of India,* Quote: “The first collective use (of the word "dominion") occurred at the Colonial Conference (April to May 1907) when the title was conferred upon Canada and Australia. New Zealand and N ...
.


Ireland

The Lords Lieutenant of Ireland were often referred to as "Viceroy" after 1700 until 1922, even though the
Kingdom of Ireland The Kingdom of Ireland ( ga, label= Classical Irish, an Ríoghacht Éireann; ga, label=Modern Irish Irish ( in ), sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a of the branch of the , which is a part of the . Irish is to the and was the po ...

Kingdom of Ireland
had been merged in 1801 into the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some f ...

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
.


Commonwealth realms

The term has occasionally been applied to the governors-general of the
Commonwealth realms A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state that has Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state. Each realm functions as an independent state, equal with the other realms. In 1952, Elizabeth II was the monarch and head of state of seven in ...

Commonwealth realms
, for example
Gough Whitlam Edward Gough Whitlam (; 11 July 191621 October 2014) was the 21st prime minister of Australia The prime minister of Australia is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the ex ...
in 1973 told the Australian House of Representatives: 'The Governor-General is the viceroy of the Queen of Australia'. The Governor General of Canada, governor general of Canada, the Lieutenant Governor (Canada), lieutenant governors of the Canadian provinces and the List of Governors-General of Australia, governors-general of Australia and governors of the Australian states are viceroys in terms of the Balfour Declaration of 1926. The Australia Act 1986 also provide that all royal powers in Australia, except the actual appointment of the governor-general and the governors, are exercisable by the viceregal representatives. The noun 'viceroy' is rarely used but the adjective 'viceregal' is standard usage.


Russian Empire

Namestnik (russian: link=no, наме́стник, ) was an official position in the history of the Russian Empire. It can be translated as "viceroy", "deputy", "lieutenant" (in the broadest sense of the word) or literally ''in place wikt:appointment, appointee''. The term has two periods of usage, with different meanings. Namestnik replaced the obsolete position of Voivode, voyevoda (ruler of krai or uyezd) by Peter I of Russia, Peter I. *In the 12th–16th centuries, ''namestniks'' (more correctly ''knyaz namestniks'', or "knyaz deputies") were in charge of local administration. In particular, they ruled uyezds. *In the 18th–20th centuries, a namestnik was a person in charge of namestnichestvo, with plenipotentiary powers. The latter has traditionally been translated as
viceroyalty A viceroyalty was an entity headed by a viceroy. It dates back to the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 16th century. France *Viceroyalty of New France Portuguese Empire In the scope of the Portuguese Empire, the term "Viceroyalty of ...
and "namestnik" as viceroy or vicegerent (or, as a common blunder, "viceregent"). For example, Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov, Mikhail Vorontsov was namestnik of Bessarabia (1823–44) and of the Caucasus (1844–1854). Sometimes the term is confused with Governor General (генерал-губернатор). For example, during Vorontsov's term of office in Bessarabia, seven governor-generals were in, and at the same time he held the office of Governor General of Novorossiya. The following namestniks existed under the House of Romanov Emperors of Russia: **Congress Poland#Government, Congress Kingdom of Poland, while under the Emperors of Russia as Kings (styled Tsar; 20 June 1815 – 5 November 1916), had only one Viceroy, 9 December 1815 – 1 December 1830: Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich of Russia, Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich Romanov (1779–1831)Thomas Mitchell, ''Handbook for Travellers in Russia, Poland, and Finland'', 1888, p. 460. Google Prin

/ref> **Caucasus Viceroyalty (1844-1881), Viceroyalty of the Caucasus – Transcaucasia (Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia; first under Governors in Tbilisi 1802–1844) had Viceroys of Transcaucasia. The Tsar Paul of Russia, Paul I's 1799 formation of the Russian-American Company obviated viceroys in the Russian colonization of the Americas, colonization of the northwestern New World.


Other viceroyalties


French colonies

New France, in present Canada, after a single Governor (24 July 1534 – 15 January 1541 Jacques Cartier) had Lieutenant General of New France, Lieutenants-general and Viceroys 15 January 1541 – September 1543 Jean-François de la Roque de Roberval, Jean François de la Rocquet, sieur de Robervalle ( 1500 – 1560), after September 1543 – 3 January 1578 Abandonment again 3 January 1578 – February 1606 Troilus de Mesgouez, marquis de la Roche-Mesgouez (died 1606) (viceroy and from 12 January 1598, lieutenant-general), February 1606 – 1614 Jean de Biencourt de Poutrincourt et de Saint-Just, Jean de Biencourt, sieur de Poutrincourt, baron de St. Just (1557–1615); next a series of ''Viceroys'' (resident in France) 8 October 1611 – 1672, later Governors and Governors-general. The office of the President of France retains the title of Co-Princes of Andorra, Co-Prince in the neighboring microstate of Andorra and continues to send a List of Representatives of the Co-Princes of Andorra, personal representative, a ''de facto'' viceroy to rule on their behalf (as does their co-ruler, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Urgell, Bishop of Urgell).


Italian colonies

In Italian ''Viceré'': The highest colonial representatives in the "federation" of Italian East Africa (six provinces, each under a governor; together Ethiopia, Eritrea and Italian Somaliland) were no longer styled "High Commissioner", but "Viceroy and Governor-general" from 5 May 1936, when Italian forces occupied Ethiopia, until 27 November 1941, when the last Italian administrator surrendered to the Allies. On 7 April 1939, Italy invaded the Kingdom of Albania (1928–39), Kingdom of Albania (today Albania). As Viceré of Albania of Victor Emmanuel III of Italy were the Marchese Francesco Jacomoni di San Savino and after his departure General Alberto Pariani.


Ban of Bosnia

Ban Borić was the first ruler and Viceroy of Bosnia, appointed by Géza II of Hungary by 1154. His war affairs are documented as he fought several notable battles. He also maintained ties with knights Templar and donated lands in Bosnia (region), Bosnia and Slavonia to their Order. His own biological brother Dominic was on record as a knight Templar. Due to the vast powers over Bosnian politics and essential veto powers has the modern-day position of the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina been compared to that of a viceroy.


Ban of Croatia

From the earliest medieval period in the Kingdom of Croatia (medieval), Kingdom of Croatia, the position of viceroy was held by Ban of Croatia who acted as king's representative in Croatian lands and supreme commander of Croatian army. In the 18th century, Croatian bans eventually become chief government officials in Croatia. They were at the head of Ban's Government, effectively the first prime ministers of Croatia. The last ban held his position until 1941 and the collapse of Yugoslavia in World War II.


Ancient antecedents

An equivalent office, called the Exarch, was created in the Byzantine Empire, Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire towards the end of the sixth century for governors of important areas too far from the imperial capital of Constantinople to receive regular instruction or reinforcement. The chosen governors of these provinces were empowered to act in place of the monarch (hence ex-arch) with more discretion and autonomy than was granted other categories of governor. This was an extraordinary break from the centralized traditions of the Roman Empire and was an early example of the principle of Viceroyalty.


Non-Western counterparts

As with many princely and administrative titles, viceroy is often used, generally unofficially, to render somewhat equivalent titles and offices in non-western cultures.


Africa

In cultures all over the continent of Africa, the role of viceroy has been subsumed into a hereditary noble as opposed to strictly administrative position. In the Arabo-Berber north, for example, the title of Khalifa is often used by individuals who derive their authority to rule from someone else in much the same way as a viceroy would. Elsewhere, subordinate ''inkosis'' under the rule of a paramount chief like the King of the Zulu Nation of Southern Africa or subordinate ''baales'' in the realms of the reigning Oba (ruler), obas of West African Yorubaland continue to occupy statutorily recognized positions in the contemporary countries of South Africa and Nigeria as the customary representatives of their respective principals in the various areas that are under their immediate control.


Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire had a system of administration which involved both official governors appointed from the capital, and local officials (zamindars). Subahdars were the former, and can be seen as equivalents of viceroys, governing the provinces (subahs) by appointment from the capital. Mansabdars were military governors who were also appointed to provincial government, but they were appointed for military rather than civilian government.


Maratha Empire

Marathas from the time of Shivaji sent various empire insiders to run foreign parts such as Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Andra Paradesh, where the Maratha empire extended.


Ottoman Empire

The Khedive of Egypt, especially during the reign of Muhammad Ali Pasha (1805–1848). This officer established an almost autonomous regime in Egypt, which officially still was under Ottoman rule. Although Mehemet Ali/Muhammad Ali used different symbols to mark his independence from the Sublime Porte, he never openly declared himself independent. Adopting the title of viceroy was yet another way to walk the thin line between challenging the Sultan's power explicitly and respecting his jurisdiction. Muhammad Ali Pasha's grandson, Isma'il Pasha, Ismail Pasha, subsequently received the title of Khedive which was almost an equivalent to viceroy. Other titles, such as Sharif (as in the Sharifate of Mecca), or Khan (title), Khan (as in the Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Kazan), denoted hereditary rulers of Ottoman vassal states, under the Sultan's titles of Caliph and Great Khan, respectively. Titles such as pasha, beylerbey, bey, and agha (title), agha denote officials who were, at least nominally, appointed to their positions by the Sublime Porte rather than hereditary privilege. Pashas and beylerbeys were appointed to govern provinces called eyalets, until the promulgation of the Vilayet Law in 1867 ended the eyalet system, replacing it with more centrally-controlled vilayets. the beylerbey of the Rumelia Eyalet was the only provincial governor entitled to a seat in the Imperial Council (Ottoman Empire), Imperial Council, but only when a matter fell within his jurisdiction.


Vietnamese Empire

The post of Tổng Trấn (''governor of all military provinces'') was a political post in the early period of the Vietnamese Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1830). From 1802, under the reign of emperor Gia Long, there were two ''Tổng Trấn'' who administered Vietnam's northern part named Northern Vietnam, Bắc thành with administrative center in Hanoi and the southern part Southern Vietnam, Gia Định thành with administrative center in Ho Chi Minh City, Gia Định, while Nguyen emperors ruled only the central region Central Vietnam, Kinh Kỳ from capital Huế, Phú Xuân. ''Tổng Trấn'' is sometimes translated to English as viceroy.Philip Taylor (2004)
Goddess on the rise: pilgrimage and popular religion in Vietnam
University of Hawaii Press, p. 36.
In 1830, emperor Minh Mạng abolished the post in order to increase the imperial direct ruling power in all over Vietnam.


Chinese Empires

During the Han Dynasty, Han, Ming Dynasty, Ming and Qing Dynasty, Qing dynasties, there existed positions of viceroys having control over various provinces (e.g., Liangguang = Guangdong and Guangxi, Huguang = Hubei and Hunan).


Siam

In Siam before 1885, the title was used for the heir-apparent or heir presumptive (Thai: กรมพระราชวังบวรสถานมงคล) The title was abolished and replaced with that of the Crown Prince of Thailand, Crown Prince of Siam.


See also

*Governor *Governor-general, Governor-General *Regent *Vicegerent


Notes


Sources

*Aznar, Daniel/Hanotin, Guillaume/May, Niels F. (dir.), À la place du roi. Vice-rois, gouverneurs et ambassadeurs dans les monarchies française et espagnole (XVIe-XVIIIe siècles). Madrid: Casa de Velázquez, 2014. *Elliott, J. H., ''Imperial Spain, 1469–1716''. London: Edward Arnold, 1963. *Fisher, Lillian Estelle. ''Viceregal Administration in the Spanish American Colonies''. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1926. *Harding, C. H., ''The Spanish Empire in America''. New York: Oxford University Press, 1947. *


Further reading

* Andrada (undated). ''The Life of Dom John de Castro: The Fourth Vice Roy of India''. Jacinto Freire de Andrada. Translated into English by Peter Wyche. (1664) Henry Herrington, New Exchange, London. Facsimile edition (1994) AES Reprint, New Delhi. .
h''rono.ru'': namestnik
{{Authority control Gubernatorial titles Noble titles Spanish colonization of the Americas Viceroys, * Positions of subnational authority Titles of national or ethnic leadership Portuguese colonization of the Americas