Spanish EmpireThe title was originally used by the , where, beginning in the 14th century, it referred to the Spanish governors of and . After the unification, at the end of the 15th century, later came to appoint numerous viceroys to rule over various parts of the increasingly vast in Europe, the Americas, and overseas elsewhere.
In Spanish ruled EuropeIn Europe, until the 18th century, the Habsburg crown appointed viceroys of , , , , , , , and . With the ascension of the to the Spanish throne, the historic Aragonese viceroyalties were replaced by new captaincies general. At the end of , the Spanish monarchy was shorn of its Italian possessions. These Italian territories, however, continued to have viceroys under their new rulers for some time; Naples until 1734, Sicily until 1816 and Sardinia until 1848. :See also: * * * * * * *
In the AmericasThe Americas were incorporated into the . With the , the institution of viceroys was adapted to govern the highly populated and wealthy regions of the north overseas: (Mexico and Philippines) and the south overseas: and South America. The viceroys of these two areas had oversight over the other provinces, with most of the North American, Central American, and East Indian areas supervised by the viceroy in and the South American ones by the viceroy in , (with the exception of most of today's , which was overseen by the high court, or on the island of Hispaniola for most of the colonial period). These large administrative territories became known as ''Viceroyalties'' (Spanish term: ''Virreinatos''). There were only two _established_two_additional_viceroyalties_to_promote_economic_growth_and_new_settlements_on_South_America._New_viceroyalties_were_created_for_Viceroyalty_of_New_Granada.html" ;"title="Bourbon_Reforms.html" "title="6c: from ...
IndiaThe title of Viceroy being awarded to members of the nobility, Viceroys, and Governing Commissions were many times interleaved until the last Viceroy , in 1896. From 1505 to 1896 – the name "India" and the official name "Estado da India" (''State of India'') including all Portuguese possessions in the Indian Ocean, from southern Africa to Southeast Asia and Australasia, until 1752 - was governed either by a Viceroy (Portuguese ''Vice-Rei'') or Governor from its headquarters, in from 1510. The government started six years after the discovery of sea route to India by , in 1505, under first Viceroy (b.1450–d.1510). Initially, King tried a power distribution with three governors in different areas of jurisdiction: a government covering the area and possessions in East Africa, and , overseeing up (Gujarat); a second one ruling the possessions in (Hindustan) and , and a third one from to the Far East. However the post was centered by governor (1509–1515), who became plenipotentiary, and remained so. The duration in office was usually three years, possibly longer, given the power represented: of the thirty-four governors of India in the 16th century, only six had longer mandates. * List of Viceroys and colonial heads of Portuguese India (1505–1961)
PortugalDuring some periods of the , between 1580 and 1640, the , who was also , appointed Viceroys to govern Portugal itself, as the king had multiple realms throughout Europe and delegated his powers to various viceroys.
BrazilAfter the end of the in 1640, the governors of that were members of the Portuguese high nobility started to use the title of Viceroy. Brazil became a permanent in 1763, when the capital of the (''Estado do Brasil'') was transferred from to .
British IndiaFollowing adoption of the , which transferred control of India from the to the , the Governor-General as representing the Crown became known as the Viceroy. The designation "Viceroy," although it was most frequently used in ordinary parlance, had no statutory authority, and was never employed by . Although the Proclamation of 1858 announcing the assumption of the government of India by the Crown referred to as "first Viceroy and Governor-General," none of the Warrants appointing his successors referred to them as "viceroys," and the title, which was frequently used in warrants dealing with precedence and in public notifications, was basically one of ceremony used in connection with the state and social functions of the sovereign's representative. The Governor-General continued to be the sole representative of the Crown, and the Government of India continued to be vested in the Governor-General-in-Council. The Viceroys reported directly to the in London and were advised by the . They were largely unencumbered in the exercise of their authority and were among the most powerful men on earth in the and eras, ruling over an entire with a large military force at their disposal in the form of the . Under the terms of the , viceroys shared some limited aspects of their authority with the , one of the first steps in the establishment of Indian . This process was accelerated by the and ultimately led to the independence of and as s in 1947. Both countries finally severed complete ties with Britain when they became s – India as a republic in 1950 and Pakistan as an in 1956. Alongside the , the Viceroy was the public face of the British presence in India, attending to many ceremonial functions as well as political affairs. As the representative of the Emperors and Empresses of India, who were also the Kings and Queens of the , the Viceroy served as the Grand Master of the two principal of British India: the and the . During the office's history, the Governors-General of India were based in two cities: during the 19th century and New Delhi during the 20th century. Additionally, whilst Calcutta was the capital of British India, the viceroys spent the summer months at . The two historic residences of the Viceroys still stand: the in New Delhi and in Kolkata. They are used today as the official residences of the and the Governor of West Bengal, respectively. The portraits of the Governors-General still hang in a room on the ground floor of the Presidential Palace, one of the last vestiges of both the Viceroys and the British Raj. Notable Governors-General of India include , , , The Earl of Minto, Lord Chelmsford, and . Lord Mountbatten served as the last Viceroy of British India, but continued on as the first Governor-General of the .
IrelandThe Lords Lieutenant of Ireland were often referred to as "Viceroy" after 1700 until 1922, even though the had been merged in 1801 into the .
Commonwealth realmsThe term has occasionally been applied to the governors-general of the , for example in 1973 told the Australian House of Representatives: 'The Governor-General is the viceroy of the Queen of Australia'. The Governor General of Canada, governor general of Canada, the Lieutenant Governor (Canada), lieutenant governors of the Canadian provinces and the List of Governors-General of Australia, governors-general of Australia and governors of the Australian states are viceroys in terms of the Balfour Declaration of 1926. The Australia Act 1986 also provide that all royal powers in Australia, except the actual appointment of the governor-general and the governors, are exercisable by the viceregal representatives. The noun 'viceroy' is rarely used but the adjective 'viceregal' is standard usage.
Russian EmpireNamestnik (russian: link=no, наме́стник, ) was an official position in the history of the Russian Empire. It can be translated as "viceroy", "deputy", "lieutenant" (in the broadest sense of the word) or literally ''in place wikt:appointment, appointee''. The term has two periods of usage, with different meanings. Namestnik replaced the obsolete position of Voivode, voyevoda (ruler of krai or uyezd) by Peter I of Russia, Peter I. *In the 12th–16th centuries, ''namestniks'' (more correctly ''knyaz namestniks'', or "knyaz deputies") were in charge of local administration. In particular, they ruled uyezds. *In the 18th–20th centuries, a namestnik was a person in charge of namestnichestvo, with plenipotentiary powers. The latter has traditionally been translated as and "namestnik" as viceroy or vicegerent (or, as a common blunder, "viceregent"). For example, Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov, Mikhail Vorontsov was namestnik of Bessarabia (1823–44) and of the Caucasus (1844–1854). Sometimes the term is confused with Governor General (генерал-губернатор). For example, during Vorontsov's term of office in Bessarabia, seven governor-generals were in, and at the same time he held the office of Governor General of Novorossiya. The following namestniks existed under the House of Romanov Emperors of Russia: **Congress Poland#Government, Congress Kingdom of Poland, while under the Emperors of Russia as Kings (styled Tsar; 20 June 1815 – 5 November 1916), had only one Viceroy, 9 December 1815 – 1 December 1830: Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich of Russia, Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich Romanov (1779–1831)Thomas Mitchell, ''Handbook for Travellers in Russia, Poland, and Finland'', 1888, p. 460. Google Prin
French coloniesNew France, in present Canada, after a single Governor (24 July 1534 – 15 January 1541 Jacques Cartier) had Lieutenant General of New France, Lieutenants-general and Viceroys 15 January 1541 – September 1543 Jean-François de la Roque de Roberval, Jean François de la Rocquet, sieur de Robervalle ( 1500 – 1560), after September 1543 – 3 January 1578 Abandonment again 3 January 1578 – February 1606 Troilus de Mesgouez, marquis de la Roche-Mesgouez (died 1606) (viceroy and from 12 January 1598, lieutenant-general), February 1606 – 1614 Jean de Biencourt de Poutrincourt et de Saint-Just, Jean de Biencourt, sieur de Poutrincourt, baron de St. Just (1557–1615); next a series of ''Viceroys'' (resident in France) 8 October 1611 – 1672, later Governors and Governors-general. The office of the President of France retains the title of Co-Princes of Andorra, Co-Prince in the neighboring microstate of Andorra and continues to send a List of Representatives of the Co-Princes of Andorra, personal representative, a ''de facto'' viceroy to rule on their behalf (as does their co-ruler, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Urgell, Bishop of Urgell).
Italian coloniesIn Italian ''Viceré'': The highest colonial representatives in the "federation" of Italian East Africa (six provinces, each under a governor; together Ethiopia, Eritrea and Italian Somaliland) were no longer styled "High Commissioner", but "Viceroy and Governor-general" from 5 May 1936, when Italian forces occupied Ethiopia, until 27 November 1941, when the last Italian administrator surrendered to the Allies. On 7 April 1939, Italy invaded the Kingdom of Albania (1928–39), Kingdom of Albania (today Albania). As Viceré of Albania of Victor Emmanuel III of Italy were the Marchese Francesco Jacomoni di San Savino and after his departure General Alberto Pariani.
Ban of BosniaBan Borić was the first ruler and Viceroy of Bosnia, appointed by Géza II of Hungary by 1154. His war affairs are documented as he fought several notable battles. He also maintained ties with knights Templar and donated lands in Bosnia (region), Bosnia and Slavonia to their Order. His own biological brother Dominic was on record as a knight Templar. Due to the vast powers over Bosnian politics and essential veto powers has the modern-day position of the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina been compared to that of a viceroy.
Ban of CroatiaFrom the earliest medieval period in the Kingdom of Croatia (medieval), Kingdom of Croatia, the position of viceroy was held by Ban of Croatia who acted as king's representative in Croatian lands and supreme commander of Croatian army. In the 18th century, Croatian bans eventually become chief government officials in Croatia. They were at the head of Ban's Government, effectively the first prime ministers of Croatia. The last ban held his position until 1941 and the collapse of Yugoslavia in World War II.
Ancient antecedentsAn equivalent office, called the Exarch, was created in the Byzantine Empire, Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire towards the end of the sixth century for governors of important areas too far from the imperial capital of Constantinople to receive regular instruction or reinforcement. The chosen governors of these provinces were empowered to act in place of the monarch (hence ex-arch) with more discretion and autonomy than was granted other categories of governor. This was an extraordinary break from the centralized traditions of the Roman Empire and was an early example of the principle of Viceroyalty.
Non-Western counterpartsAs with many princely and administrative titles, viceroy is often used, generally unofficially, to render somewhat equivalent titles and offices in non-western cultures.
AfricaIn cultures all over the continent of Africa, the role of viceroy has been subsumed into a hereditary noble as opposed to strictly administrative position. In the Arabo-Berber north, for example, the title of Khalifa is often used by individuals who derive their authority to rule from someone else in much the same way as a viceroy would. Elsewhere, subordinate ''inkosis'' under the rule of a paramount chief like the King of the Zulu Nation of Southern Africa or subordinate ''baales'' in the realms of the reigning Oba (ruler), obas of West African Yorubaland continue to occupy statutorily recognized positions in the contemporary countries of South Africa and Nigeria as the customary representatives of their respective principals in the various areas that are under their immediate control.
Mughal EmpireThe Mughal Empire had a system of administration which involved both official governors appointed from the capital, and local officials (zamindars). Subahdars were the former, and can be seen as equivalents of viceroys, governing the provinces (subahs) by appointment from the capital. Mansabdars were military governors who were also appointed to provincial government, but they were appointed for military rather than civilian government.
Maratha EmpireMarathas from the time of Shivaji sent various empire insiders to run foreign parts such as Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Andra Paradesh, where the Maratha empire extended.
Ottoman EmpireThe Khedive of Egypt, especially during the reign of Muhammad Ali Pasha (1805–1848). This officer established an almost autonomous regime in Egypt, which officially still was under Ottoman rule. Although Mehemet Ali/Muhammad Ali used different symbols to mark his independence from the Sublime Porte, he never openly declared himself independent. Adopting the title of viceroy was yet another way to walk the thin line between challenging the Sultan's power explicitly and respecting his jurisdiction. Muhammad Ali Pasha's grandson, Isma'il Pasha, Ismail Pasha, subsequently received the title of Khedive which was almost an equivalent to viceroy. Other titles, such as Sharif (as in the Sharifate of Mecca), or Khan (title), Khan (as in the Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Kazan), denoted hereditary rulers of Ottoman vassal states, under the Sultan's titles of Caliph and Great Khan, respectively. Titles such as pasha, beylerbey, bey, and agha (title), agha denote officials who were, at least nominally, appointed to their positions by the Sublime Porte rather than hereditary privilege. Pashas and beylerbeys were appointed to govern provinces called eyalets, until the promulgation of the Vilayet Law in 1867 ended the eyalet system, replacing it with more centrally-controlled vilayets. the beylerbey of the Rumelia Eyalet was the only provincial governor entitled to a seat in the Imperial Council (Ottoman Empire), Imperial Council, but only when a matter fell within his jurisdiction.
Vietnamese EmpireThe post of Tổng Trấn (''governor of all military provinces'') was a political post in the early period of the Vietnamese Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1830). From 1802, under the reign of emperor Gia Long, there were two ''Tổng Trấn'' who administered Vietnam's northern part named Northern Vietnam, Bắc thành with administrative center in Hanoi and the southern part Southern Vietnam, Gia Định thành with administrative center in Ho Chi Minh City, Gia Định, while Nguyen emperors ruled only the central region Central Vietnam, Kinh Kỳ from capital Huế, Phú Xuân. ''Tổng Trấn'' is sometimes translated to English as viceroy.Philip Taylor (2004)
Chinese EmpiresDuring the Han Dynasty, Han, Ming Dynasty, Ming and Qing Dynasty, Qing dynasties, there existed positions of viceroys having control over various provinces (e.g., Liangguang = Guangdong and Guangxi, Huguang = Hubei and Hunan).
SiamIn Siam before 1885, the title was used for the heir-apparent or heir presumptive (Thai: กรมพระราชวังบวรสถานมงคล) The title was abolished and replaced with that of the Crown Prince of Thailand, Crown Prince of Siam.
See also*Governor *Governor-general, Governor-General *Regent *Vicegerent
Sources*Aznar, Daniel/Hanotin, Guillaume/May, Niels F. (dir.), À la place du roi. Vice-rois, gouverneurs et ambassadeurs dans les monarchies française et espagnole (XVIe-XVIIIe siècles). Madrid: Casa de Velázquez, 2014. *Elliott, J. H., ''Imperial Spain, 1469–1716''. London: Edward Arnold, 1963. *Fisher, Lillian Estelle. ''Viceregal Administration in the Spanish American Colonies''. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1926. *Harding, C. H., ''The Spanish Empire in America''. New York: Oxford University Press, 1947. *
Further reading* Andrada (undated). ''The Life of Dom John de Castro: The Fourth Vice Roy of India''. Jacinto Freire de Andrada. Translated into English by Peter Wyche. (1664) Henry Herrington, New Exchange, London. Facsimile edition (1994) AES Reprint, New Delhi. .