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A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a
mound A mound is a heaped pile of earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining 70.8% is ...

mound
of
earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining 70.8% is Water distribution on Earth, covered wi ...

earth
and
stone A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its chemical composition and the way in which it is formed. Rocks form the Earth's outer solid layer, th ...
s raised over a
grave A grave is a location where a dead body A cadaver or corpse is a dead human body that is used by medical students A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine, and award ...

grave
or graves. Tumuli are also known as barrows, burial mounds or
kurgan A kurgan (russian: link=no, курга́н, uk, link=no, курга́н, висока могила) is a type of tumulus File:Gamla uppsala.jpg, The Royal mounds of Gamla Uppsala in Sweden from the 5th and 6th centuries originally the site h ...

kurgan
s, and may be found throughout much of the world. A
cairn A cairn is a man-made pile (or stack) of stones. The word ''cairn'' comes from the gd, càrn (plural ). Cairns have been and are used for a broad variety of purposes, from prehistoric times to the present. In modern times, cairns are often ...

cairn
, which is a mound of stones built for various purposes, may also originally have been a tumulus. Tumuli are often categorised according to their external apparent shape. In this respect, a
long barrow Long barrows are a style of monument constructed across Western Europe in the fifth and fourth millennia BCE, during the Neolithic Europe, Early Neolithic period. Typically constructed from earth and either timber or stone, those using the latt ...
is a long tumulus, usually constructed on top of several
burial Burial, also known as interment or inhumation, is a method of wherein a dead person or non-human animal is placed into the ground, sometimes with objects. This is usually accomplished by excavating a pit or trench, placing the deceased and ob ...

burial
s, such as
passage grave 250px, A simple passage tomb in Carrowmore near Sligo in Ireland">Sligo.html" ;"title="Carrowmore near Sligo">Carrowmore near Sligo in Ireland A passage grave or passage tomb consists of one or more burial chambers covered in earth or with stone ...
s. A
round barrow A round barrow is a type of tumulus and is one of the most common types of archaeological monuments. Although concentrated in Europe, they are found in many parts of the world, probably because of their simple construction and universal purpose. ...
is a round tumulus, also commonly constructed on top of burials. The internal structure and architecture of both long and round barrows has a broad range; the categorization only refers to the external apparent shape. The method of may involve a
dolmen A dolmen () is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb A megalith is a large pre-historic stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. There are over 35,000 in Europe alone, l ...

dolmen
, a
cist Cist A cist ( or ; also kist ; from grc-gre, κίστη, Middle Welsh Middle Welsh ( cy, Cymraeg Canol, wlm, Kymraec) is the label attached to the Welsh language of the 12th to 15th centuries, of which much more remains than for any earlier ...
, a
mortuary enclosure A mortuary enclosure is a term given in archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, but ...
, a
mortuary house In archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, but archaeologists also draw from biolog ...
, or a
chamber tomb A chamber tomb is a tomb for burial used in many different culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, ...
. Examples of barrows include
Duggleby Howe Duggleby Howe (also known as Howe Hill, Duggleby) is one of the largest round barrow A round barrow is a type of tumulus File:Gamla uppsala.jpg, The Royal mounds of Gamla Uppsala in Sweden from the 5th and 6th centuries originally the site ha ...
and
Maeshowe Maeshowe (or Maes Howe; non, Orkhaugr) is a Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the world. It is first s ...

Maeshowe
. The word ''tumulus'' is
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
for 'mound' or 'small hill', which is derived from the
Proto-Indo-European Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the theorized common ancestor of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( ...
root *''teuh2-'' with extended zero grade *''tum-'', 'to bulge, swell' also found in ''tomb, tumor'', ''tumescent, thumb'', ''thigh'', and ''thousand''.


Tumulus burial accounts

The funeral of
Patroclus In Greek mythology, as recorded in Homer's ''Iliad'', Patroclus (pronunciation variable but generally ; Ancient Greek: Πάτροκλος ''Pátroklos'' "glory of the father") was a childhood friend, close wartime companion, and, in later traditio ...
is described in book 23 of the ''
Iliad The ''Iliad'' (; grc, Ἰλιάς, Iliás, ; sometimes referred to as the ''Song of Ilion'' or ''Song of Ilium'') is an in , traditionally attributed to . Usually considered to have been written down circa the 8th century BC, the ''Iliad'' i ...

Iliad
''. Patroclus is burned on a
pyre cremation ceremony in 2005 A pyre ( grc, πυρά; ''pyrá'', from , ''pyr'', "fire"), also known as a funeral pyre, is a structure, usually made of wood, for burning a body as part of a funeral rite or execution. As a form of cremation Cremati ...
, and his bones are collected into a golden
urn Ancient Greek cremation urn ca. 850 B.C. An urn is a vase A vase is an open container. It can be made from a number of materials, such as ceramics, glass art, glass, non-rusting metals, such as aluminium, brass, bronze, or stainless steel. Ev ...

urn
in two layers of fat. The barrow is built on the location of the pyre.
Achilles In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of s originally told by the , and a of . These stories concern the and , the lives and activities of , , and , and the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own and practices. ...

Achilles
then sponsors funeral games, consisting of a
chariot race Chariot racing ( grc-gre, ἁρματοδρομία, harmatodromia, la, ludi ''Ludi'' (Latin plural) were public games held for the benefit and entertainment of the SPQR, Roman people (''populus Romanus''). ''Ludi'' were held in conjunction wit ...
, boxing, wrestling, running, a duel between two champions to the first blood, discus throwing, archery and spear throwing.
Beowulf ''Beowulf'' (; ang, Bēowulf ) is an Old English epic poem An epic poem is a lengthy narrative poem Narrative poetry is a form of poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek language, Greek ''poiesis'', "making") is a form of literat ...

Beowulf
's body is taken to Hronesness, where it is burned on a funeral pyre. During cremation, the
Geats The Geats ( ; ang, gēatas ; non, gautar ; sv, götar ), sometimes called ''Geats#Goths, Goths'', were a large North Germanic peoples, North Germanic tribe who inhabited ("land of the Geats") in modern southern Sweden from antiquity until the ...
lament the death of their lord, a widow's lament being mentioned in particular, singing
dirge A dirge is a somber song A song is a musical composition Musical composition can refer to an piece or work of , either or , the of a musical piece or to the process of creating or writing a new piece of music. People who create n ...

dirge
s as they circumambulate the barrow. Afterwards, a mound is built on top of a hill, overlooking the sea, and filled with treasure. A band of twelve of the best warriors ride around the barrow, singing dirges in praise of their lord. Parallels have also been drawn to the account of
Attila Attila (; ), frequently called Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe between the 4th and 6th century AD. According to European tradition, ...
's burial in
Jordanes Jordanes (), also written as Jordanis or Jornandes, was a 6th-century bureaucrat widely believed to be of who became a historian later in life. Late in life he wrote two works, one on Roman history and the other on the Goths. The latter, alon ...
' ''
Getica ''De origine actibusque Getarum'' (''The Origin and Deeds of the Getae oths'), commonly abbreviated ''Getica'', written in by in or shortly after 551 AD, claims to be a summary of a voluminous account by of the origin and history of the , w ...
''. Jordanes tells that as Attila's body was lying in state, the best horsemen of the
Huns The Huns were a nomadic people A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation which regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherers, pastoral ...

Huns
circled it, as in circus games. An Old Irish ''Life of Columcille'' reports that every funeral procession "halted at a mound called Eala, whereupon the corpse was laid, and the mourners marched thrice solemnly round the spot."


Types of barrows

Archaeologists Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it. The technique h ...
often classify tumuli according to their location, form, and date of construction (see also
mound A mound is a heaped pile of earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining 70.8% is ...

mound
). Some British types are listed below: *
Bank barrow A bank barrow, sometimes referred to as a barrow-bank, ridge barrow, or ridge mound, is a type of tumulus first identified by O. G. S. Crawford, O.G.S. Crawford in 1938. In the United Kingdom, they take the form of a long, sinuous, parallel-sided ...
* Bell barrow *
Bowl barrow A bowl barrow is a type of burial mound or tumulus. A barrow is a mound of earth used to cover a tomb. The bowl barrow gets its name from its resemblance to an upturned bowl. Related terms include ''cairn circle'', ''cairn ring'', ''howe'', ''kerb ...
* D-shaped barrow – round barrow with a purposely flat edge at one side often defined by stone slabs. *
Disc barrow A disc barrow is a type of tumulus or round barrow, a variety of fancy barrow identified in English Heritage's Monument Class Descriptions. A disc barrow comprises a circular or oval-shaped flat platform, defined by a continuous earthen bank and ...
*
Fancy barrow of Gamla Uppsala in Sweden from the 5th and 6th centuries; originally the site had 2,000 to 3,000 tumuli, but due to quarrying and agriculture only 250 remain. File:Sulm valley tumulus.jpg, One of the Hallstatt culture-era tumuli in the Burgstal ...
– generic term for any
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
barrows more elaborate than a simple hemispherical shape. *
Long barrow Long barrows are a style of monument constructed across Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on context. Beginning with foreign exploration during the Age of D ...
*
Oval barrow An oval barrow is the name given by archaeologists to a type of prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past ...
– a
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
long barrow consisting of an elliptical, rather than rectangular or trapezoidal mound. * Platform barrow – The least common of the recognised types of round barrow, consisting of a flat, wide circular mound that may be surrounded by a ditch. They occur widely across southern England with a marked concentration in East and West
Sussex Sussex (), from the Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, e ...

Sussex
. *
Pond barrow A pond barrow is a burial mound The Royal mounds of Gamla Uppsala in Sweden from the 5th and 6th centuries originally the site had 2,000 to 3,000 tumuli, but due to quarrying and agriculture only 250 remain. A tumulus (plural tumuli) i ...
– a barrow consisting of a shallow circular depression, surrounded by a bank running around the rim of the depression, from the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
. *
Ring barrow A ring cairn (also correctly termed a ring bank enclosure, but sometimes wrongly described as a ring barrow) is a circular or slightly oval, ring-shaped, low (maximum 0.5 metres high) embankment, several metres wide and from 8 to 20 metres in ...
– a bank that encircles a number of burials. *
Round barrow A round barrow is a type of tumulus A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound A mound is a heaped pile of earth, gravel, sand, rocks, or debris. Most commonly, mounds are earthen formations such as hills and mountains, particularly ...
– a circular feature created by the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
peoples of Britain and also the later
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
,
Vikings Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a in , with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In ...

Vikings
, and
Saxons The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic langua ...

Saxons
. Divided into subclasses such as saucer and bell barrow – the
Six Hills The Six Hills are a collection of Roman barrows situated alongside the old Great North Road on Six Hills Common in Stevenage Stevenage ( ) is a town and borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English- ...
are a rare Roman example. * Saucer barrow – a circular Bronze Age barrow that features a low, wide mound surrounded by a ditch that may have an external bank. * Square barrow – burial site, usually of
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's pa ...
date, consisting of a small, square, ditched enclosure surrounding a central burial, which may also have been covered by a mound.


Modern barrows

There is a contemporary revival in barrow building in the UK. In 2015 the first long barrow in thousands of years, the Long Barrow at All Cannings, inspired by those built in the Neolithic era, was built on land just outside the village of
All Cannings All Cannings (pronounced "Allcannings") is a village and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government be ...
. The barrow was designed to have a large number of private niches within the stone and earth structure to receive cremation urns. This was followed by new barrows at: * the Willow Row Barrow at
St Neots St Neots is a town and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, o ...
. * The Soulton Long Barrow at Soulton in
Shropshire Shropshire (; alternatively Salop; abbreviated in print only as Shrops; demonym Salopian ) is a landlocked historic Counties of England, county in the West Midlands (region), West Midlands region of England. It is bordered by Wales to the we ...

Shropshire
. * Higher Ground Meadow in
Dorset Dorset (; archaically In language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system compose ...

Dorset
* Warwickshire. Plans have also been announced for a barrow in Milton Keynes and in Powis.


Sites


Africa


Horn of Africa

Salweyn in Somaliland contains a very large field of
cairn A cairn is a man-made pile (or stack) of stones. The word ''cairn'' comes from the gd, càrn (plural ). Cairns have been and are used for a broad variety of purposes, from prehistoric times to the present. In modern times, cairns are often ...

cairn
s, which stretches for a distance of around 8 km. An excavation of one of these tumuli by Georges Révoil in 1881 uncovered a tomb, beside which were artefacts pointing to an ancient, advanced civilization. The interred objects included pottery shards from
Samos Samos (, also ; el, Σάμος ) is a Greece, Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese, and off the coast of western Turkey, from which it is separated by the -wide Mycale Strait. It is also a sep ...

Samos
, some well-crafted enamels, and a mask of
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
design.


West Africa

Preceded by assumed earlier sites in the Eastern
Sahara The Sahara (, ; ar, الصحراء الكبرى, ', 'the Greatest Desert') is a desert on the African continent Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is any of several large landma ...

Sahara
, tumuli with
megalithic A megalith is a large stone A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its chemical composition and the way in which it is formed. Rocks form t ...
monuments developed as early as 4700 BCE in the Saharan region of
Niger ) , official_languages = French , languages_type = National language A national language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed languag ...

Niger
. These megalithic
monuments is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end o ...

monuments
in the Saharan region of Niger and the Eastern Sahara may have served as antecedents for the
mastaba A mastaba (, or ) or pr- djt (meaning "house of stability", " house of eternity" or "eternal house" in Ancient Egyptian Ancient Egypt was a civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is characteri ...

mastaba
s and
pyramids A pyramid (from el, πυραμίς ') is a structure whose outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single step at the top, making the shape roughly a pyramid in the geometric sense. The base of a pyramid can be trilateral, quadrilater ...
of
ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterized by , , a form of government, and systems of communication (such as ). Civilizations are intimately associated with additional char ...

ancient Egypt
. In
Niger ) , official_languages = French , languages_type = National language A national language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed languag ...

Niger
, there are two
monument A monument is a type of structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to ...

monument
al tumuli – a
cairn A cairn is a man-made pile (or stack) of stones. The word ''cairn'' comes from the gd, càrn (plural ). Cairns have been and are used for a broad variety of purposes, from prehistoric times to the present. In modern times, cairns are often ...

cairn
burial (5695 BP – 5101 BP) at
Adrar Bous Adrar Bous is a massif in the Aïr Mountains on the western edge of the Ténéré Desert, Niger. Archaeological research at Adrar Bous, conducted by J. Desmond Clark, has produced finds spanning the Late Acheulean (1.76 – 0.13 Myr, Ma) through t ...

Adrar Bous
, and a tumulus covered with gravel (6229 BP – 4933 BP) at Iwelen, in the
Aïr Mountains The Aïr Mountains or Aïr Massif ( tmh, Ayăr; Hausa language, Hausa: Eastern ''Azbin'', Western ''Abzin'') is a triangular massif, located in northern Niger, within the Sahara Desert. Part of the West Saharan montane xeric wood ...
. Tenerians did not construct the two monumental tumuli at Adrar Bous and Iwelen. Rather, Tenerians constructed cattle tumuli at a time before the two monumental tumuli were constructed. The Tichitt Tradition of eastern Mauritania dates from 2200 BCE to 200 BCE. Within the settled areas of Tichitt Culture (e.g.,
Dhar Tichitt Dhar Tichitt is a Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, a ...
,
Dhar Tagant The Tichitt Culture, or Tichitt Tradition, was created by Mande peoples Mande may refer to: * Mandé peoples of western Africa * Mande languages * Manding languages, Manding, a term covering a subgroup of Mande peoples, and sometimes used for one o ...
,
Dhar Walata The Tichitt Culture, or Tichitt Tradition, was created by Mande peoplesMande may refer to: * Mandé peoples of western Africa * Mande languages * Manding languages, Manding, a term covering a subgroup of Mande peoples, and sometimes used for one of ...
), with
stone walls in Fortress of Akkerman in Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi, Ukraine Image:Kumamoto_Castle_02n3200.jpg, Stone wall of Kumamoto Castle Stone walls are a kind of masonry construction that has been used for thousands of years. The first stone walls wer ...

stone walls
, which vary in scale from (e.g., 2
hectares The hectare (; SI symbol: ha) is a non-SI metric unit of area Area is the quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared in terms o ...
, 80 hectares), there were walled
agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors such as watching tele ...

agricultural
land utilized for
livestock Livestock are the domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictabl ...
or
gardening Gardening is the practice of growing and cultivating plants as part of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists ar ...

gardening
as well as land with
granaries A granary is a storehouse or room in a barn in Lubbock, Texas, U.S., was used as a teaching facility until 1967. , Coggeshall, England, originally part of the Cistercian monastery of Coggeshall. Dendrochronologically dated from 1237–126 ...
and tumuli. Based on the hundreds of tumuli present in Dhar Tichitt, compared to a dozen tumuli present in Dhar Walata, it is likely that Dhar Tichitt was the primary center of
religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...
for the people of Tichitt culture. At Wanar, Senegal,
megalithic A megalith is a large stone A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its chemical composition and the way in which it is formed. Rocks form t ...
monolith Monolithos fortress on Greece.html"_;"title="Rhodes,_Greece">Rhodes,_Greece_ A_monolith_is_a_geological_feature_consisting_of_a_single_massive_rock_(geology).html" "title="Greece">Rhodes,_Greece_.html" ;"title="Greece.html" ;"title="Rhodes, ...
-circles and tumuli (1300/1100 BCE – 1400/1500 CE) were constructed by West Africans who had a complex hierarchical society. In the mid-region of the
Senegal River The Senegal River ( ar, نهر السنغال ''Nahr As-sinigāl'', french: Fleuve Sénégal) is a long river in West Africa that forms the Mauritania–Senegal border, border between Senegal and Mauritania. It has a drainage basin of , a mean ...
Valley, the
Serer people The Serer people are a .
may have created tumuli (before 13th century CE),
shell middens A midden (also kitchen midden or shell heap) is an old landfill, dump for domestic waste which may consist of animal bone, feces, human excrement, botanical material, mollusc shells, potsherds, Lithic flake, lithics (especially debitage), and ...
(7th century CE – 13th century CE) in the central-west region, and shell middens (200 BCE – Present) in the southern region. The
funerary A funeral is a ceremony A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gesture A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication or non-vocal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare' ...
tumuli-building tradition of
West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania ...

West Africa
was widespread and a regular practice amid 1st millennium CE. More than ten thousand large funerary tumuli exist in Senegal. At the
Inner Niger Delta The Inner Niger Delta, also known as the Macina or Masina, is the inland delta of the Niger River. It is an area of fluvial wetlands, lakes and floodplains in the semi-arid Sahel area of central Mali, just south of the Sahara desert. Location a ...
, in the
Mali Mali (; ), officially the Republic of Mali (french: République du Mali; bm, ߡߊߟߌ ߞߊ ߝߊߛߏߖߊߡߊߣߊ, Mali ka Fasojamana, ff, 𞤈𞤫𞤲𞥆𞤣𞤢𞥄𞤲𞤣𞤭 𞤃𞤢𞥄𞤤𞤭, Renndaandi Maali, ar, جمهورية م ...

Mali
Lakes Region, there are two monumental tumuli constructed in the time period of the
Trans-Saharan trade Trans-Saharan trade requires travel across the Sahara between sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically and ethnoculturally, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara. According to the United Nations, i ...
for the
Sahelian kingdoms #REDIRECT Sahelian kingdoms#REDIRECT Sahelian kingdoms The Sahelian kingdoms were a series of centralized kingdoms or African empires, empires that were centered on the Sahel, the area of grasslands south of the Sahara, from the 8th century to the 1 ...
of
West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania ...

West Africa
. The El Oualadji monumental tumulus, which dates between 1030 CE and 1220 CE and has two human remains buried with
horse The horse (''Equus ferus caballus'') is a domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to ...

horse
remains and various items (e.g., horse harnesses, horse trappings with plaques and bells, bracelets, rings, beads, iron items), may have been, as highlighted by
al-Bakri Abū ʿUbayd ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Muḥammad ibn Ayyūb ibn ʿAmr al-Bakrī ( ar, أبو عبيد عبد الله بن عبد العزيز بن محمد بن أيوب بن عمرو البكري), or simply al-Bakrī (c. 1040&nd ...

al-Bakri
, the royal burial site of a king from the
Ghana Empire Wagadou ( ar, غانا), commonly known as the Ghana Empire, was a West Africa, West African empire based in the modern-day southeast of Mauritania and western Mali that existed from c. 300 until 1100. The Ghana empire, sometimes also known as ...
. The Koï Gourrey monumental tumulus, which may date prior to 1326 CE and has over twenty human remains that were buried with various items (e.g., iron accessories, an abundant amount of copper bracelets, anklets and beads, an abundant amount of broken, but whole pottery, another set of distinct, intact, glazed pottery, a wooden-beaded bone necklace, a bird figurine, a lizard figurine, a crocodile figurine), and is situated within the
Mali Empire The Mali Empire ( Manding: ''Mandé''Ki-Zerbo, Joseph: ''UNESCO General History of Africa, Vol. IV, Abridged Edition: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century'', p. 57. University of California Press, 1997. or Manden; ar, مالي, Mā ...
.


Asia


Central Asia

The word
kurgan A kurgan (russian: link=no, курга́н, uk, link=no, курга́н, висока могила) is a type of tumulus File:Gamla uppsala.jpg, The Royal mounds of Gamla Uppsala in Sweden from the 5th and 6th centuries originally the site h ...

kurgan
is of
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...

Turkic
origin, derives from
Proto-Turkic The Proto-Turkic language is the linguistic reconstruction Linguistic reconstruction is the practice of establishing the features of an unattested ancestor language of one or more given languages. There are two kinds of reconstruction: * Inter ...
*Kur- ("to erect (a building), to establish"). In Ukraine and Russia, there are royal kurgans of
Varangian The Varangians (; non, Væringjar; gkm, Βάραγγοι, ''Várangoi'';Varangian
" Online Etymolog ...
chieftains, such as the
Black Grave The Black Grave ( uk, Чорна Могила , translit=Chorna mohyla) is the largest burial mound (kurgan A kurgan (russian: link=no, курга́н, uk, link=no, курга́н, висока могила) is a type of tumulus constructed ...
in Ukrainian
Chernihiv Chernihiv ( uk, wikt:Чернігів, Чернігів, ) also known as Chernigov (russian: Черни́гов, p=tɕɪrˈnʲiɡəf; pl, Czernihów, ) is a List of cities in Ukraine, city and List of hromadas of Ukraine, municipality in norther ...
(excavated in the 19th century),
Oleg Oleg (russian: Олег), Oleh ( uk, Олег), or Aleh Aleh is a transliteration from Belarusian Belarusian may refer to: * Something of, or related to Belarus * Belarusians, people from Belarus, or of Belarusian descent * A citizen of Belarus, ...

Oleg
's Grave in Russian
Staraya Ladoga Staraya Ladoga ( rus, Ста́рая Ла́дога, p=ˈstarəjə ˈladəɡə); fi, Vanha-Laatokka) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, rural locality (a ''village#Russia, selo'') in Volkhovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, locat ...

Staraya Ladoga
, and vast, intricate Rurik's Hill near Russian
Novgorod Veliky Novgorod ( rus, links=yes, Великий Новгород, p=vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj ˈnovɡərət), also known as just Novgorod (russian: Новгород, lit=newtown, links=yes), is the largest city and administrative center of Novgorod O ...

Novgorod
. Other important kurgans are found in Ukraine and South Russia and are associated with much more ancient
steppe In physical geography, a steppe () is an ecoregion characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes. Steppe biomes may include: * the montane grasslands and shrublands biome * the temperate grassland ...

steppe
peoples, notably the
Scythian The Scythians (from grc, wiktionary:Σκύθης, Σκύθης , ) or Scyths, also known as Saka and Sakae ( ; egy, wiktionary:sk#Etymology 2, 𓋴𓎝𓎡𓈉, translit=sk, italic=no, ; grc, wikt:Σάκαι, Σάκαι ; la, Sacae), a ...
s (e.g., Chortomlyk, Pazyryk) and early Indo-Europeans (e.g.,
Ipatovo kurgan Ipatovo kurgan refers to kurgan 2 of the Ipatovo Barrow Cemetery 3, a cemetery of kurgan A kurgan (russian: link=no, курга́н, uk, link=no, курга́н, висока могила) is a type of tumulus constructed over a grave, often ...
) The steppe cultures found in Ukraine and South Russia naturally continue into
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north, including the former Soviet Union, Soviet republics of the Sov ...

Central Asia
, in particular
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
. The kurgans in
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north, including the former Soviet Union, Soviet republics of the Sov ...

Central Asia
are the oldest known type of tumulus. It is constructed over a grave, often characterized by containing a single human body along with grave vessels, weapons and horses. Originally in use on the
Pontic–Caspian steppe The Pontic–Caspian steppe, formed by the Caspian steppe and the Pontic steppe, is the steppe In physical geography, a steppe () is an ecoregion characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lake ...
, kurgans spread into much of
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north, including the former Soviet Union, Soviet republics of the Sov ...

Central Asia
and
Eastern Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines, a current Chinese airline based in Shanghai *Eastern Air, former name of Zambia Skyways *Eastern Air Lines, a defunct American airline that operated from 1926 to 1991 *Eastern Air Lin ...

Eastern
,
Southeast The points of the compass are an evenly spaced set of horizontal directions (or azimuth An azimuth (; from ar, اَلسُّمُوت, as-sumūt, the directions) is an angular measurement In Euclidean geometry Euclidean geometry is a ma ...

Southeast
,
Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, countries that ide ...

Western
and
Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern region of Europe. Narrower definitions may describe Northern Europe as being roughly north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, which is about 54th parallel north, 54°N, or may be based on other geographic ...
during the 3rd millennium BC. The earliest kurgans date to the 4th millennium BC in the Caucasus, and researchers associate these with the Indo-Europeans. Kurgans were built in the Eneolithic,
Bronze Bronze is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appear ...
,
Iron Iron () is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behav ...
,
Antiquity Antiquity or Antiquities may refer to Historical objects or periods Artifacts * Antiquities, objects or artifacts surviving from ancient cultures Eras Any period before the European Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...
and
Middle Age Middle age is the period of age beyond young adult A young adult is generally a person in the years following adolescence. Definitions and opinions on what qualifies as a young adult vary, with works such as Erik Erikson Erik Homburger ...

Middle Age
s, with ancient traditions still active in Southern
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of R ...

Siberia
and Central Asia.


Near East


=Turkey

= On the
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
n peninsula, there are several sites where one can find the biggest specimens of these artificial mounds throughout the world. Three of these sites are especially important. Bin Tepeler (and other
Lydia Lydia (Lydian language, Lydian: ‎𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣𐤠, ''Śfarda''; Aramaic: ''Lydia''; el, Λυδία, ''Lȳdíā''; tr, Lidya) was an Iron Age Monarchy, kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the mod ...

Lydia
n mounds of the Aegean inland),
Phrygia In classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related ...
n mounds in
Gordium Gordion (Phrygian language, Phrygian: ; el, Γόρδιον, translit=Górdion; tr, Gordion or ; la, Gordium) was the capital city of ancient Phrygia. It was located at the site of modern Yassıhüyük, Polatlı, Yassıhüyük, about southwe ...
(Central Anatolia), and the famous
Commagene The Kingdom of Commagene ( grc, Βασίλειον τῆς Kομμαγηνῆς) was an ancient Greco-Iranian kingdom ruled by a Hellenized Hellenization (other British spelling Hellenisation) or Hellenism is the historical spread of ancient ...

Commagene
tumulus on the Mount Nemrut (Southeastern Anatolia). This is the most important of the enumerated sites with the number of specimens it has and with the dimensions of certain among them. It is in the
Aegean Aegean may refer to: *Aegean Sea *Aegean Islands *Aegean Region (geographical), Turkey *Aegean Region (statistical), Turkey *Aegean civilizations *Aegean languages, a group of ancient languages and proposed language family *Aegean Sea (theme), a n ...

Aegean
inland of Turkey. The site is called "Bin Tepeler" (a thousand mounds in Turkish) and it is in the northwest of
Salihli Salihli is a large town and district of Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Turkey. Geography The city of Salihli, the seat of the district, is located on İzmir tr, İzmirli , area_urban_km2 = 944 , area_total_km2 ...
district of
Manisa province Manisa Province ( tr, ) is a Provinces of Turkey, province in western Turkey. Its neighboring provinces are İzmir Province, İzmir to the west, Aydın Province, Aydın to the south, Denizli Province, Denizli to the southeast, Uşak Province, ...
. The site is very close to the southern shoreline of
Lake Marmara Lake Marmara ( tr, Marmara Gölü) is a lake in Manisa Province, western Turkey, bordered by the district areas of Gölmarmara to the northwest, whose name itself is inspired by the lake, and in larger part by Salihli. Lake Marmara is located in ...
(Lake Gyges or Gygaea). Bin Tepeler is a Lydian
necropolis A necropolis (plural necropolises, necropoles, necropoleis, necropoli) is a large, designed cemetery A cemetery, burial ground or graveyard is a place where the remains of dead people are burial, buried or otherwise interred. The word ''cem ...

necropolis
that dates back to 7th and 6th centuries BC. These mounds are called "the pyramids of Anatolia", as a giant specimen among them is 355 metres in diameter, 1115 metres in perimeter and 69 metres high. According to
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, ; BC) was an Classical Greece, ancient Greek writer, geographer, and historian born in the Greek city of Halicarnassus, part of the Achaemenid Empire, Persian Empire (now Bodrum, Turkey). He ...
, this giant tumulus belongs to the famous Lydian King
Alyattes Alyattes ( grc, Ἀλυάττης ''Aluáttēs'', likely from Lydian '; reigned c. 618–561 BC), sometimes described as Alyattes I, was the fourth king of the List of kings of Lydia#Mermnadae, Mermnad dynasty in Lydia, the son of Sadyattes and ...
who ruled between 619 and 560 BC. There is also another mound belonging to King Gyges. The Gyges mound was excavated but the burial chamber hasn't been found yet. In this site, there are 75 tumuli dating back to Lydian period that belong to the nobility. A large number of smaller artificial mounds can also be observed in the site. There are other Lydian tumuli sites around district of
Uşak province Uşak ( tr, Uşak ili ) is a Provinces of Turkey, province in western Turkey. Its adjacent provinces are Manisa Province, Manisa to the west, Denizli Province, Denizli to the south, Afyon Province, Afyon to the east, and Kütahya Province, Kütahya ...
. Certain mounds in these sites had been plundered by raiders in the late 1960s, and the Lydian treasures found in their burial chambers were smuggled to the United States, which later returned them to Turkish authorities after negotiations. These artifacts are now exhibited in the Archaeological Museum of Uşak.
Gordium Gordion (Phrygian language, Phrygian: ; el, Γόρδιον, translit=Górdion; tr, Gordion or ; la, Gordium) was the capital city of ancient Phrygia. It was located at the site of modern Yassıhüyük, Polatlı, Yassıhüyük, about southwe ...
(Gordion) was the capital of the ancient kingdom of
Phrygia In classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related ...
. Its ruins are in the immediate vicinity of
Polatlı Polatlı (formerly Ancient Greek: Γορδιον, Gòrdion and Latin: Gordium) is a city and a district in Ankara Province in the Central Anatolia Region, Turkey, Central Anatolia region of Turkey, 80 km west of the Turkish capital Ankara, on ...
, near the Turkish capital
Ankara Ankara, historically known as Ancyra and Angora, is the list of national capitals, capital of Turkey. Located in the Central Anatolia Region, central part of Anatolia, the city has a population of 4.5 million in its urban centre and over ...

Ankara
. At this site, approximately 80–90 tumuli date back to the Phrygian,
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
and
Hellenistic The Hellenistic period spans the period of History of the Mediterranean region, Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire, as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31  ...

Hellenistic
periods. Around 35 tumuli have been excavated so far, ranging in date from the 8th century BC to the 3rd or 2nd century BC. The biggest tumulus at the site is believed to have covered the burial of the famous Phrygian King
Midas Midas (; grc-gre, Μίδας) is the name of one of at least three members of the royal house of Phrygia In classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cul ...

Midas
or that of his father. This mound, called Tumulus MM (for "Midas Mound"), was excavated in 1957 by a team from the University of Pennsylvania Museum, led by Rodney Young and his
graduate students A graduate school (sometimes shortened to grad school) is a school that awards advanced academic degrees (e.g., master's degree, master's and doctorate, doctoral degrees) with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous U ...
. Among the many fine
bronze Bronze is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appear ...

bronze
artifacts recovered from the wooden burial chamber were 170 bronze vessels, including numerous "omphalos bowls", and more than 180 bronze "Phrygian
fibula The fibula or calf bone is a leg A leg is a weight-bearingIn orthopedics Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics, is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system. Orthopedic surgeons use both surgical ...

fibula
e" (ancient safety pins). The wooden furniture found in the tomb is especially noteworthy, as wood seldom survives from archaeological contexts: the collection included nine tables, one of them elaborately carved and inlaid, and two ceremonial serving stands inlaid with religious symbols and geometric patterns. Important bronze and wooden artifacts were also found in other tumulus burials at the site. The Mount Nemrut is 86 km in the east of Adıyaman province of
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
. It is very close to Kahta district of the same province. The mountain has, at its peak, 3050 metres of height above the sea level. A tumulus that dates to the 1st century BC is at the peak of the mountain. This artificial mound has 150 metres of diameter and a height of 50 metres, which was originally 55 metres. It belongs to the
Commagene The Kingdom of Commagene ( grc, Βασίλειον τῆς Kομμαγηνῆς) was an ancient Greco-Iranian kingdom ruled by a Hellenized Hellenization (other British spelling Hellenisation) or Hellenism is the historical spread of ancient ...

Commagene
King
Antiochus I Theos of Commagene Antiochus I Theos Dikaios Epiphanes Philorhomaios Philhellen ( grc, Ἀντίοχος ὁ Θεὸς Δίκαιος Ἐπιφανὴς Φιλορωμαῖος Φιλέλλην, meaning "Antiochos, the just, eminent god, friend of Romans and friend ...
who ruled between 69 and 40 BC. This tumulus is made of broken stone pieces, which renders excavation attempts almost impossible. The tumulus is surrounded by ceremonial terraces in the east, west, and north. The east and west terraces have tremendous statues (reaching 8 to 10 meters of height) and bas reliefs of gods and goddesses from the Commagene
pantheon Pantheon may refer to: * Pantheon (religion), the set of gods belonging to a particular religion, mythology or tradition * Pantheon (mythical creature), a mythical or imaginary creature used in heraldry, particularly in Britain Computing *Pant ...
where divine figures used to embody the
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
and
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...
perceptions together.


=Israel

= A tumulus forms the center of the ancient
megalithic A megalith is a large stone A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its chemical composition and the way in which it is formed. Rocks form t ...
structure of
Rujm el-Hiri Rujm el-Hiri ( ar, رجم الهري, ''Rujm al-Hīrī''; he, גִּלְגַּל רְפָאִים ''Gilgal Refā'īm'' or ''Rogem Hiri'') is an ancient megalith A megalith is a large Rock (geology), stone that has been used to construct a pre ...
in the
Golan Heights The Golan Heights ( ar, هَضْبَةُ الْجَوْلَانِ, Haḍbatu l-Jawlān or , he, רמת הגולן, ), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant The Levant () is an term referring to a large area in the region ...
.
Rujm Rujm ( ar, رجم, ''rûjm''; p. ''rûjûm'') is an Arabic word that appears as an element in numerous place names Toponymy, also toponymics or toponomastics (from grc, τόπος / , 'place', and / , 'name') is the study of '' toponyms'' (pr ...
in Arabic can mean tumulus,
cairn A cairn is a man-made pile (or stack) of stones. The word ''cairn'' comes from the gd, càrn (plural ). Cairns have been and are used for a broad variety of purposes, from prehistoric times to the present. In modern times, cairns are often ...

cairn
or stone heap. Near the western city limits of modern
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
, 19 tumuli have been documented (Amiran, 1958). Though first noticed in the 1870s by early surveyors, the first one to be formally documented was Tumulus #2 in 1923 by
William Foxwell Albright William Foxwell Albright (May 24, 1891– September 19, 1971) was an American archaeologist, biblical scholar, philologist Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is the intersection of textual criticism, ...
, and the most recent one (Tumulus #4) was excavated by
Gabriel Barkay Gabriel Barkay (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and thei ...

Gabriel Barkay
in 1983. The association of these tumuli with the Judean kings who ruled
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
does not substantiate Biblical history since it is mere speculation. No inscriptions naming any specific Judean king have been excavated from a tumulus. * More than half of these ancient Israeli structures have now been threatened or obliterated by modern construction projects, including Tumulus #4, which was excavated hastily in a salvage operation. The most noteworthy finds from this dig were two
LMLK seal LMLK seals (with LMLK meaning 'of the king') are ancient Hebrew Stamp seal, seals stamped on the handles of large storage jars first issued in the reign of King Hezekiah (circa 700 BC) and discovered mostly in and around Jerusalem. Several comp ...
impressions and two other handles with associated Concentric Circle incisions, all of which suggests this tumulus belonged to either King
Hezekiah Hezekiah (; he, חִזְקִיָּהוּ ''H̱īzəqīyyahū''), or Ezekias, ''Ḥazaqia'ú'' 'ḫa-za-qi-a-ú'' el, Ἐζεκίας Septuagint">/nowiki>Septuagint:_Εζεζία.html" ;"title="Septuagint.html" ;"title="/nowiki>Septuagint"> ...

Hezekiah
(Barkay, 2003, p. 68) or his son
Manasseh Manasses or Manasseh (;churchofjesuschrist ...
(Grena, 2004, p. 326). * When comparing the number of these tumuli to the total number of Israelite kings (northern and southern), note that
Saul Saul (; he, , translit=Šāʾūl; gr, Σαούλ; ), according to the Hebrew Bible, was the first monarch of the Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy), United Kingdom of Israel. His reign, traditionally placed in the late 11th century BCE, suppose ...
never ruled in
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
, and
Athaliah Athaliah ( Ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsAztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the ... and Queen Jezebel of Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِس ...
was never crowned. She took the throne by force ( 2Kings 11:1–3), and would certainly not have been honored with a tumulus ceremony following her brutal assassination. * The northern kings did not reign over the southern kingdom, and they would certainly not have been honored with a tumulus ceremony in
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
; if any ceremonies were held for them, they would have transpired in the north (near
Bethel Bethel (Ugaritic Ugaritic () is an extinct , classified by some as a of the and so the only known Amorite dialect preserved in writing. It is known through the discovered by French in 1929 at , including several major literary texts, n ...
, Tirzah, or
Samaria Samaria, , also known as , 'Nablus Mountains' () is a historical and biblical name used for the central region of the Land of Israel, bordered by Galilee to the north and Judaea to the south. For the beginning of the Common Era, Josephus set t ...

Samaria
).


South Asia


=India

= The in medieval
Assam Assam (, ) is a state in Northeast India, northeastern India, south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra Valley, Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys. Assam covers an area of . The state is bordered by Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh to ...

Assam
built octagonal tumuli called
Maidam A 'maidam' is a tumulus of the royalty and aristocracy of the medieval Ahom Kingdom (1228-1826) in Assam. The royal are found exclusively at Charaideo; whereas other are found scattered in the region between Jorhat and Dibrugarh towns. Structural ...
s for their kings and high officials. The kings were buried in a hillock at
Charaideo Charaideo or Che-Rai-Doi (Literally: ''the shining city on the hills'' in Ahom language) is a town in Charaideo district, Assam, India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the Lis ...
in Sibsagar district of Assam, whereas other Maidams are found scattered more widely.


=Pakistan

= The ''damb'' was a type of mound, or small stone structure, found in Balochistan, including the coastal areas of Makran.


East Asia


=China

= The Chinese pyramids house the remains of some of China's former emperor of China, emperors. Before the expansion of Shang dynasty, Shang and Zhou dynasty, Zhou Chinese culture, culture through the region, many hundreds of tumuli were also constructed by the "Baiyue" peoples of the Yangtze valley and southeastern China.


=Japan

= In Japan, powerful leaders built tumuli known as ''kofun''. The Kofun period of Japanese history takes its name from these burial mounds. The largest is Daisen-ryo Kofun, or more commonly Nintoku-ryo Kofun, with a length of 840 metres. In addition to other shapes, kofun include a keyhole shape, typically seen in Daisen Kofun. Foreign museums possesses some grave goods.


=Korea

= see also ''Cheonmachong'', the Heavenly Horse Tomb The first burial mounds in Korea were dolmens, which contained material from cultures of the 1st millennium AD, such as bronze-ware, pottery, and other symbols of society elite. The most famous tumuli in Korea, dating around 300 AD, are those left behind by the Korean Baekje, Goguryeo (Kogyuro/Koguryo), Silla, and Gaya confederacy, Gaya states and are clustered around ancient capital cities in modern-day Pyongyang, Ji'an, Jilin, Seoul, and Gyeongju. The Goguryeo tombs, shaped like pyramids, are famous for the well-preserved wall murals like the ones at Anak Tomb No.3, which depict the culture and artistry of the people. The base of the tomb of King Gwanggaeto is 85 meters on each side, half of the size of the Great Pyramids. Goguryeo Silla tombs are most noted for the fabulous offerings that have been excavated such as delicate golden crowns and glassware and beads that probably made their way to Korea via the Silk Road. Many indigenous Korean artifacts and culture were transmitted to the tomb builders of early Japan, such as horsetrappings, bronze mirrors, paintings and iron-ware.


Europe


Southeast Europe


=Albania

= Tumuli are one of the most prominent types of prehistoric monuments spread throughout northern and southern Albania. Some well-known local tumuli are: * Kamenica Tumulus * Lofkënd Tumulus * Pazhok Tumulus


=Bosnia and Herzegovina

= More than 50 burial mounds were found in Kupres. Man from Kupres – the skeleton found in one of the tumuli is believed to be more than 3000 years old and it is kept in Gorica museum in Livno. Glasinac has many tumuli. During the Bronze and Iron Age it was a place of strong Glasinac culture, who buried their dead in tumulus.


=Bulgaria

= On the territory of Bulgaria there are over 60,000 ancient Thracians, Thracian mounds, of which only about 1,000 have been studied. There are also
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...
) burial tomb. Those tumulus over ancient tombs, temples and sanctuaries are found throughout the whole territory of Bulgaria. Some of the world's most significant and famous being the Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak, Kazanlak and Thracian Tomb of Sveshtari, Sveshtari tombs, UNESCO World Heritage sites. Located near the ancient Thracian capital cities of Seuthopolis (of the Odrysian kingdom) and Daosdava or Helis (of the Getae), perhaps they represented royal burials. Other notable tumulus are Thracian tomb of Aleksandrovo, Thracian tomb Golyama Arsenalka, Thracian tomb Shushmanets, Thracian tomb Griffins, Thracian tomb Helvetia, Tomb of Seuthes III, Thracian tomb Ostrusha, Starosel tombs, others contained offerings such as the Panagyuriste treasure, Panagyurishte and Rogozen treasure, Rogozen treasures. Some of the sites are located in the Valley of the Thracian Rulers.


=Croatia

= There are thousands of tumuli throughout all Croatia, built of stone (Croatian Language, Croatian: ''gomila'', ''gromila'') in the karst areas (by the Adriatic Sea) or made of earth (Croatian: ''humak'') in the inland plains and hills. Most of these prehistoric structures were built in the 2nd and 1st millennium BC, from the middle
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
to the end of the
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's pa ...
, by the Illyrians or their direct ancestors in the same place; the Liburnians, Liburnian inhumation of dead under tumuli was certainly inherited from the earlier times, as early as the Copper Age. Smaller tumuli were used as the burial mounds, while bigger (some up to 7 metres high with 60 metres long base) were the cenotaphs (empty tombs) and ritual places.


=Greece

= Some of the world's most prominent Tumuli, the Macedonian tombs and a cist-grave at Vergina include the tomb of Philip II of Macedon, Philip II (359–336 BC), father of Alexander the Great (336–323 BC), as well as the tomb of Alexander IV of Macedon, Alexander IV (323–309 BC), son of Alexander the Great. A very large tumulus has been discovered in Amphipolis. Known as the Kasta Tomb, the tomb's occupant is presently unknown. Also numerous Mycenaean Greek Tombs are in all essence Tumuli, notably Agamemnon's site in Mycenae, and other sites in Tiryns, near Olympia and Pylos, and mostly in the Peloponnese peninsula near Mycenaean sites and Bronze Age settlements. Moreover, in Central Greece there are numerous Tumuli, some excavated, others not. A notable one is in Marathon, serving as a burial for the ones who fell during battle. As of October 2014 there are ongoing excavations at the Kasta Tomb in Amphipolis, Macedonia (Greece), Macedonia, Greece with the tumulus having a perimeter of 497 meters. The tomb within is assessed to be an Macedonia (ancient kingdom), ancient Macedonian burial monument of the last quarter of the 4th century BC. * Macedonian Tombs, Korinos * Macedonian Tombs, Katerini


=Hungary

= There are over 40,000 tumuli in the Great Hungarian Plain, the highest is Gödény-halom near the settlement of Békésszentandrás, in Békés county. Sírhalom origins and forms are diverse: Tell (archaeology), tells, graves, border barrows, watcher barrows.


=Serbia

= * Mrčajevci, several prehistoric tumuli * Bukovac, Novi Sad, Bukovac, Illyrian tumuli and
necropolis A necropolis (plural necropolises, necropoles, necropoleis, necropoli) is a large, designed cemetery A cemetery, burial ground or graveyard is a place where the remains of dead people are burial, buried or otherwise interred. The word ''cem ...

necropolis
* Five prehistoric tumuli in the Morava valley. * Gromile, Serbian tumuli in Ravna Gora (Suvobor), Ravna Gora. * Kinđa


Western and Central Europe


=Austria

= * Burgstallkogel (Sulm valley) * Großmugl (Lower Austria) * Pillichsdorf (Lower Austria) * Niederhollabrunn (Lower Austria) * Gaisruck (in Niederösterreich) * Langenlebarn (in Niederösterreich) * Deutsch-Altenburg (in Niederösterreich) * Bernhardsthal (Lower Austria) * Siegendorf (Burgenland) * Schandorf (Burgenland) * Kleinklein (Styria) * Niederfellabrunn (Lower Austria)) * Oberhofen am Irrsee (Upper Austria) * Obermallebarn (Lower Austria) * Unterzögersdorf (Lower Austria)


=Belgium

= * Two Tumuli of Ambresin (Liège Province) * Tumulus of Avernas in Hannut (Liège): height: 8 m; circumference: 100 m * Tumulus of the "champ de la Tombe" in Braives (Liège), 1st century AD Roman tomb. * Tumulus of Court-Saint-Étienne (Walloon Brabant), around 3,000 BC. * Tumulus of Glimes in Incourt, Belgium, Incourt (Walloon Brabant), Gallo-Roman period: height: 11 m; diameter: 50 m * Tumulus of Hottomont in Ramillies, Belgium, Ramillies (Walloon Brabant), tomb of : height: 11.5 m ; diameter: 50 m * Tumulus of :fr:Oley, Oleye (:nl:Liek, Liek) (Liège) * Tumulus of Pepin of Landen in Landen (Flemish Brabant) * Tumuli of the Sonian Forest (Flemish Brabant), 1st millennium BC. * Three Tumuli of Grimde in Tienen (Flemish Brabant), 1st century BC Gallo-Roman tombs. * Tumulus of Trou de Billemont in Antoing (Hainaut Province), 6th and 7th-century Merovingian tombs. * Tumulus of Walhain (Walloon Brabant) * Two Tumuli of Waremme (Liège) * Tumuli of Wéris (Luxembourg (Belgium), Belgian Luxembourg), 4th and 3rd millennium BC.


=United Kingdom

= In the United Kingdom, barrows of a wide range of types were in widespread use for burying the dead from the late
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
until the end of the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
, 2900–800 BC. Square barrows were occasionally used in the Iron Age (800 BC-43 AD) in the east of England. The traditional round barrow experienced a brief resurgence following the Anglo-Saxons, Anglo-Saxon conquests, with the introduction of northern Germanic peoples, Germanic burial practices from continental Europe. These later barrows were often built near older Bronze Age barrows. They included a few instances of ship burial. Barrow burial fell out of use during the 7th century as a result of the spread of Christianity. Early scholarly investigation of tumuli and theorising as to their origins was undertaken from the 17th century by antiquary, antiquaries, notably John Aubrey, and William Stukeley. During the 19th century in England the excavation of tumuli was a popular pastime amongst the educated and wealthy upper classes, who became known as "barrow-diggers". This leisure activity played a key role in laying the foundations for the scientific study of the past in Britain but also resulted in untold damage to the sites. Notable British barrows include: * West Kennet Long Barrow – Neolithic long barrow in Wiltshire * Wayland's Smithy – Neolithic long barrow and chamber tomb in Oxfordshire (historically Berkshire) * Belas Knap – Neolithic long barrow in Gloucestershire *
Maeshowe Maeshowe (or Maes Howe; non, Orkhaugr) is a Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the world. It is first s ...

Maeshowe
– Neolithic chambered cairn and passage grave on Mainland, Orkney *
Duggleby Howe Duggleby Howe (also known as Howe Hill, Duggleby) is one of the largest round barrow A round barrow is a type of tumulus File:Gamla uppsala.jpg, The Royal mounds of Gamla Uppsala in Sweden from the 5th and 6th centuries originally the site ha ...
– Neolithic round barrow in the East Riding of Yorkshire * Sutton Hoo – 7th-century Kingdom of East Anglia, East Anglian ship burial with exceptionally rich grave goods in Suffolk * Devil's Humps, Stoughton, Devil's Humps – Bronze Age barrow group on Bow Hill, Sussex, Bow Hill in West Sussex * Devil's Jumps, Treyford, Devil's Jumps – Bronze Age barrow group on the South Downs of West Sussex * Seamer Beacon – Bronze Age barrow near Scarborough, North Yorkshire


=Czech Republic

= During the early Middle Ages, Slavic peoples, Slavic tribesmen inhabiting what is now the Czech Republic used to bury their dead under barrows. This practice has been widespread in southern and eastern Bohemia and some neighbouring regions, like Upper Austria and Lusatia, which at that time have been also populated with Slavic people. There are no known Slavic barrows in the central part of the country (around Prague), nor are they found in Moravia. This has led some of the archaeologists to speculations about at least three distinct waves of Slavic settlers, who colonized Czech lands separately from each other, each wave bringing its customs with it (including burial rituals). At places where barrows have been constructed, they are usually found in groups (10 to 100 together), often forming several clearly distinct lines going from the west to the east. Only a few of them have been studied scientifically so far; in them, both burials by fire (with burnt ashes) and unburned skeletons have been found, even on the same site. It seems that builders of the barrows have at some time switched from burials by fire to burying of unburned corpses; the reason for such change is unknown. The barrows date too far back in history (700 AD to 800 AD) to contain any Christianity, Christian influences. As Czech barrows usually served for burials of poor villagers, only a few objects are found in them except for cheap pottery. Only one Slavic barrow is known to have contained gold. Most of the Czech burial barrows have been damaged or destroyed by intense agriculture in the densely populated region. Those that remain are usually in forests, especially at hilltops in remote places. Therefore, there is no general knowledge about burial barrows among Czech population. The best Slavic barrow sites can be found near to Vitín, a small village close to České Budějovice. There are two groups of barrows close to Vitín, each containing about 80 barrows ordered in lines. Some of the barrows are as much as 2 metres high. There are also some prehistoric burial barrows in Czech Republic, built by unknown people. Unlike Slavic barrows, they can be found all across the country, though they are scarce. Distinguishing them from Slavic ones is not an easy task for the unskilled eye. Perhaps the most famous of them forms the top of the Žuráň hill near Slavkov u Brna; it is from here that Napoleon I of France, Napoleon commanded his forces during the Battle of Austerlitz.


=France

= * Bougon (Deux-Sèvres) tumuli are a set of five tumuli all at one site: the building and using took place over a long period from to BC. This set is considered to be one of the oldest western European megalithic
necropolis A necropolis (plural necropolises, necropoles, necropoleis, necropoli) is a large, designed cemetery A cemetery, burial ground or graveyard is a place where the remains of dead people are burial, buried or otherwise interred. The word ''cem ...

necropolis
. * The Bussy-le-Château commune (Marne (department), Marne) has five Roman, Visigoth and Burgundian tumuli: three of them remain relatively intact along the . * The neolithic Saint-Michel de Carnac tumulus in Carnac was built between and BC. * A few kilometers from Carnac are the neolithic near the famous Locmariaquer megaliths, broken Menhir. * The five in the Benon forest form a neolithic necropolis in the Courçon commune (Charente-Maritime). * is a neolithic monument located about 5 kilometres west of Saint-Nazaire (Loire-Atlantique). * The tumulus of Lamalou dolmen is situated at the headwaters of the Lamalou river. * Tumulus and burial chamber (dolmen) of ''Bergerie de Panissière'' is located near Alès (Gard). * Tanouëdou tumulus is located near Bourbriac (Côtes d'Armor, Brittany (administrative region), Brittany). * on Prissé-la-Charrière commune (Deux-Sèvres): a neolithic long barrow with tumulus , dating from to BC. * , on the Melrand commune (Morbihan), is listed as monument historique since 1972. * Appenwihr tumuli on the Appenwihr commune (Haut Rhin) are a set of nine small tumuli (about tall and one higher at ), not far to the north-west. The results of the excavations are exposed in the Unterlinden Museum in Colmar.


=Germany

= ''Hügelgrab'' ("barrow", "burial mound" or "tumulus") sites in Germany dating to the Early and Middle Bronze Age. Barrows or tumuli sites in Germany dating to the Late Bronze and Iron Age. Barrows or tumuli sites in Germany dating to the Stone Age. Other Barrows/tumuli in Germany of unstated date.


=Ireland

= A tumulus can be found close to the Grianán of Aileach in County Donegal. It has been suggested by historians such as George Petrie (artist), George Petrie, who surveyed the site in the early 19th century, that the tumulus may predate the ringfort of Aileach by many centuries possibly to the neolithic age. Surrounding stones were laid horizontally, and converged towards the centre. the mound had been excavated in Petrie's time, but nothing explaining its meaning was discovered. It was subsequently destroyed, but its former position is marked by a heap of broken stones. Similar mounds can be found at The Hill of Tara and there are several prominent tumuli at Brú na Bóinne in County Meath.


=Italy

= Some large tumulus tombs can be found especially in the Etruscan civilization, Etruscan culture. Smaller barrows are dated to the Villanovan culture, Villanova period (ninth-eighth centuries BC) but the biggest were used in the following centuries (from the seventh century afterwards) by the Etruscan aristocracy. The Etruscan tumuli were normally family tombs that were used for many generation of the same noble family, and the deceased were buried with many precious objects that had to be the "grave goods" or the furnishings for these "houses" in the Afterlife. Many tombs also hold paintings, that in many cases represent the funeral or scenes of real life. The most important graveyards (necropolises) with tumulus tombs are Veio, Cerveteri, Vetulonia, Populonia. Many isolated big barrows can be found in the whole Etruscan territory (mostly in Central Italy). Tumulus of Montopoli is relative of arcaic center Colli della Città along paratiberina way in Tiber valley.


=Netherlands

= Burial mounds are the most numerous archaeological monuments in the Netherlands. In many places, these prehistoric graves are still clearly visible as low hills. The oldest tumuli (''grafheuvels'') in the Netherlands were built near Apeldoorn about 5,000 years ago. Concentrations of tumuli from the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
are located on the Veluwe and Drenthe. Early scholarly investigation of tumuli and dolmen, hunebedden and theorising as to their origins was undertaken from the 17th century by notably Johan Picardt. Although many have disappeared over the centuries, some 3000 tumuli are known of which 636 are protected as Rijksmonument. The largest tumulus in the Netherlands is the Vorstengraf (Oss), grave of a king near Oss. Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Drents Museum, and Huis van Hilde have findings from tumuli in their collections.


=Portugal

= One of the densest manifestations of the megalithic phenomenon in Europe occurred in Portugal. In the north of the country there are more than 1000 late prehistoric barrows. They generally occur in clusters, forming a necropolis. The method of inhumation usually involves a
dolmen A dolmen () is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb A megalith is a large pre-historic stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. There are over 35,000 in Europe alone, l ...

dolmen
. The tumuli, dated from c. 4450 to 1900 BC, are up to 3 metres high, with diameters from 6 to 30 metres. Most of them are mounds of earth and stones, but the more recent ones are composed largely or entirely of stones (cairns). In Portuguese language, Portuguese, barrows are called , from the Latin , given to them by the Romans because of their shape, similar to the breast of a woman.


Scandinavia

Burial mounds were in use from the Nordic Stone Age, Stone Age until the 11th century in Scandinavia and figure heavily in Norse paganism. In their original state they usually appear as small, man-made hillocks, though many examples have been damaged by ploughing or plundering so that little visible evidence remains. The tumuli of Scandinavia is of a great variety of designs, depending on the cultural traditions of the era in which they were constructed. The tumuli tombs may contain single graves, collective graves and both inhumation and cremation was practiced, again depending on the era, but also on geography. Many tumuli in Scandinavia shows a continuation of use from Stone Age to Viking Age. In the Viking Age (and perhaps in earlier times as well) burning the deceased, was believed to transfer the person to Valhalla by the consuming force of fire. Archaeological finds testifies that the cremation fire could reach temperatures of up to 1500 °C. The remains were often covered with cobblestones and then a layer of gravel and sand and finally a thin layer of turf or placed in urns. The tumuli were used for ancestral worshipping, an important practice in Norse culture and many places shows continuation of use for millennia.


=Sweden

= * Anundshög, located just outside the City of Västerås, is Sweden's largest burial mound. * Gamla Uppsala, The Royal mounds (Swedish: Kungshögarna) is the name for the three large barrows which are located in Gamla Uppsala. According to ancient mythology and folklore, it would be the three gods Thor, Odin and Freyr lying in Kungshögarna or Uppsala högar. * Gravhög Gårdstånga, situated in Eslöv Municipality, Skåne County, is the site of a Bronze Age burial mound, (Swedish: ''Gravhög''). * Håga mound, Hågahögen, King Björn's barrow in Håga (Old Norse word: ''haugr'') near Uppsala has a very strong connection with Björn at Haugi. * Kungshögar, an archaeological site on the Lake Mälaren island of Adelsö in Ekerö Municipality, contains five large burial mounds. * Skalunda hög in Västergötland, the site of Skalunda Barrow, an historic burial mound.


=Norway

= * Raknehaugen, dated to c. 550 AD, is located in the traditional district of Romerike. At 77 m in diameter and a height of 15 m, it is the largest tumulus in Northern Europe. * Jellhaugen outside Halden, Østfold, considered the 2nd biggest in Norway, and dated back to around 500 AD. * Gokstadhaugen a burial mound in Sandefjord, Vestfold, revealed a ship burial containing the Gokstad ship, a Viking era ship dating to the 9th century. The ship is the largest in the Viking Ship Museum (Oslo), Viking Ship Museum in Bygdøy, Oslo. * Oseberghaugen, the Oseberg burial mound at Oseberg near Tønsberg in Vestfold county, contained the Oseberg ship, a well-preserved Viking era ship dating from around 800 AD. * Borre mound cemetery, Borrehaugene (Borre mound cemetery) forms part of the Borre National Park in Horten, Vestfold. The park covers and its collection of burial mounds includes, seven large mounds and one 25 small cairns. * Tune ship burial, Båthaugen, a boat burial mound found at Rolvsøy in Tune, Norway, Tune, Østfold, contained the Tune ship, a Viking Age ship of the "karv" type. The ship was built around AD 900 and is made of clinkered oak planks. * Avaldsnes, Storhaug (Great Mound) ship's burial mound Avaldsnes on Karmøy in Rogaland County, Norway contained a ship made of oak. * Avaldsnes, Grønhaug (Green Mound), a ship burial at Avaldsnes, contained an approximately 15-metre (49 ft) long boat with remains of a man's grave from the 10th century. * Avaldsnes, Flagghaugen (Flag Hill Mound) at Avaldsnes, one of Norway's richest grave dating from the pre-Viking Period, contained a neck ring of 600 grams (19 ozt) of pure gold, weapons, bandoleer mountings and various tubs of silver and bronze. * Karnilshaugen, in Gloppen in the county of Sogn og Fjordane, is Karnil's tumulus. * Osneshaugen, in Ulsteinvik in the county of Møre og Romsdal, is a tumulus overlooking the Osnes beach. It is believed to have been sacked, and has not been excavated in modern times. It has been dated to the Bronze Age.


=Denmark

= Denmark has about 20,000 preserved tumuli, with the oldest being around 5,000 years old. A great number of tumuli in Denmark has been destroyed in the course of history, ploughed down for agricultural fields or used for road or dyke constructions. Tumuli have been protected by law since 1937 and is officially supervised by the Danish Agency for Culture. Examples of tumuli in Denmark are: * Yding Skovhøj in Horsens municipality, Jutland is one of Denmark's Bronze Age burial mounds built on the top of the hill. * Hov Dås in Thisted municipality, North Jutland Region, North Jutland is one of Denmark's neolithic burial mounds built on the top of the hill. * Klekkende Høj is a megalithic
passage grave 250px, A simple passage tomb in Carrowmore near Sligo in Ireland">Sligo.html" ;"title="Carrowmore near Sligo">Carrowmore near Sligo in Ireland A passage grave or passage tomb consists of one or more burial chambers covered in earth or with stone ...
constructed in the Nordic Stone Age, Stone Age on the island of Møn. It takes its name from the nearby village of Klekkende. * Lindholm Høje is a major Viking and Iron Age Scandinavia, Iron Age burial site and former settlement, situated to the north of and overlooking the city of Aalborg. * Grønjægers Høj, meaning "the mound of Green Hunter", dates to the Nordic Bronze Age and is located near Fanefjord Church on the Danish island of Møn. * Gorm and Thyra's Høje, two huge burial mounds at Jelling.


North America


=Canada

= Human settlement in L'Anse Amour, Newfoundland and Labrador, L'Anse Amour dates back at least 7,500 years as evidenced by the burial mound of a Maritime Archaic boy. His body was wrapped in a shroud of bark or hide and placed face down with his head pointed to the west. The site was first excavated in the 1970s. The Augustine Mound is an important Mi'kmaq people, Mi'kmaq burial site in New Brunswick. Taber Hill is a Haudenosaunee burial mound in Toronto, Ontario. In the southern regions of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, evidence of ancient mound builders was discovered by archaeologists, beginning with excavations by Henry Youle Hind in 1857. In Southwestern British Columbia, several types of burial mounds are known from the Salishan region (Hill-Tout 1895).


=United States

= Mound building was a central feature of the public architecture of many Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Native American and mesoamerican religion, Mesoamerican cultures from Chile to Minnesota. Thousands of mounds in the United States have been destroyed as a result of farming, pot-hunting, amateur and professional archaeology, road-building and construction. Surviving mounds are still found in river valleys, especially along the Mississippi River, Mississippi, Tennessee River, Tennessee and Ohio River, Ohio Rivers, and as far west as Spiro Mounds in Oklahoma. Mounds were used for burial, to support residential and religious structures, to represent a shared cosmology, and to unite and demarcate community. Common forms include conical mounds, ridge-top mounds, platform mounds, and animal effigy mounds, but there are many variations. Mound building in the USA is believed to date back to at least 3400 BC in the Southeast (see Watson Brake). The Adena culture, Adena and the Mississippian culture, Mississippian cultures are principally known for their mounds, as is the Hopewell tradition. The largest mound site north of Mexico is Cahokia Mounds, a vast World Heritage Site located just east of St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri.


South America


= Uruguay

= The Cerritos de Indios (Spanish for: ''Indian Mounds'' or ''Indian Little Hills'') are a collection of more than 3000 tumulus or Mound, earth mounds found mainly in the eastern region of Uruguay. Of different sizes and shapes some of them date back to 5000–4000 years ago being among the oldest examples of tumulus building in the new world. It is still unknown to this day the name or the fate of the people group responsible for its construction as they disappeared long before the arrival of the first European explorers and left no written records. It is believed that they were used for burial, as well for living and practicing agriculture in the flat marshlands and plains of eastern Uruguay.


See also

* Barrow-downs in Minor places in Middle-earth * Dolmen * Stupa


References


Sources

* * * * * Grinsell, L.V., 1936, ''The Ancient Burial-mounds of England''. London: Methuen. *


External links

*
English Heritage Monument Class Descriptions

The Victorian Barrow Diggers of Wales

Location Tumuli of Grimde Tienen

Comprehensive Database of Archaeological Site Reports in Japan

Heritage Quest
research project using LiDAR data {{Authority control Tumuli, Indo-European archaeology Indo-European religion Latin words and phrases