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A tribunal, generally, is any person or
institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington Samuel Phillips Huntington (April 18, 1927 – December 24, 2008) was an American political scientist, adviser and academic. He spent more than half a century at Harvard University Ha ...
with
authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of Empiric ...

authority
to
judge A judge is a person who presides over court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In th ...

judge
,
adjudicate Adjudication is the legal process by which an arbitration, arbiter or judge reviews evidence (law), evidence and argumentation, including legal reasoning set forth by opposing parties or litigants, to come to a decision which determines rights and ...
on, or determine claims or disputes—whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title. For example, an
advocate An advocate is a professional in the field of law. Different countries' legal systems use the term with somewhat differing meanings. The broad equivalent in many English law English law is the common law List of national legal systems, lega ...

advocate
who appears before a
court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''Sta ...

court
with a single judge could describe that judge as "their tribunal." Many
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...

government
al bodies that are titled as "tribunals" are described so in order to emphasize that they are not courts of normal
jurisdiction Jurisdiction (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be i ...
. For example, the
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR; french: Tribunal pénal international pour le Rwanda; rw, Urukiko Mpanabyaha Mpuzamahanga Rwashyiriweho u Rwanda) was an international court established in November 1994 by the United Nation ...
was a body specially constituted under
international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally recognized as binding between nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of anal ...
; in
Great Britain Great Britain is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), ...

Great Britain
, employment tribunals are bodies set up to hear specific employment disputes. In many (but not all) cases, the word ''tribunal'' implies a judicial (or
quasi-judicial A quasi-judicial body is a non-judicial body which can interpret law. It is an entity such as an arbitration panel or tribunal board, that can be a public administrative agency but also a contract A contract is a legally binding ...
) body with a lesser degree of formality than a court, in which the normal rules of evidence and procedure may not apply, and whose presiding officers are frequently neither judges, nor magistrates. Private judicial bodies are also often styled "tribunals." The word ''tribunal'', however, is not conclusive of a body's function—for example, in Great Britain, the
Employment Appeal Tribunal The Employment Appeal Tribunal is a tribunal in England and Wales and Scotland, and is a superior court of record. Its primary role is to hear appeals from Employment Tribunals in England, Scotland and Wales. It also hears appeals from decisions o ...
is a superior court of record. The term is derived from the
tribune Tribune () was the title of various elected officials in ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the ...

tribune
s, magistrates of the Classical
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an indiv ...
. "Tribunal" originally referred to the office of the tribunes, and the term is still sometimes used in this sense in historical writings. The tribunal was the platform upon which the presiding authority sat; having a raised position physically as symbolic of his higher position in regard to the adjudication of the law.


By country


Australia

In Australia, the term ''tribunal'' generally implies a judicial body with a lesser degree of formality than a ''court'', with a simplified legal procedure, often presided over by a lawyer (solicitor or barrister) who is not a judge or magistrate (often referred to as a ''member'' of the tribunal). In many cases the lawyers who function as tribunal members do so only on a part-time basis, and spend the greater part of their time carrying out other aspects of legal practice, such as representing clients. In many cases, the formal rules of evidence which apply in courts do not apply in tribunals, which enables tribunals to hear forms of evidence which courts may not be allowed to consider. Tribunals generally deal with simpler matters; while legal representation is permitted and not uncommon, self-representation is much more common in tribunals than in courts, and tribunal members and registry staff are generally more accustomed to dealing with self-represented parties than courts are. Appeal from a tribunal is to a court. Tribunals in the Australian judicial system include: *
Administrative Appeals Tribunal The Administrative Appeals Tribunal (AAT) is an Australian tribunal that conducts independent merits review of administrative decisions made under Commonwealth laws of the Government of Australia, Australian Government. The AAT review decisions ...
*
Migration Review Tribunal The Migration Review Tribunal was an Australian administrative law tribunal established in 1989. Along with the Refugee Review Tribunal, the Migration Review Tribunal was amalgamated to a division of the Administrative Appeals Tribunal on 1 July 20 ...
*
New South Wales Civil and Administrative Tribunal The New South Wales Civil and Administrative Tribunal (NCAT) is an Australian administrative law, administrative law tribunal in New South Wales established by statute on 1 January 2014. It replaced and aggregated the matters of a number of dis ...
*
Queensland Civil and Administrative Tribunal The Queensland Civil and Administrative TribunalQCAT is statutory organisation responsible for reviewing administrative law decisions of some Government of Queensland departments and agencies, and also adjudicating some Civil law (common law), civi ...
*
State Administrative Tribunal of Western Australia The State Administrative Tribunal (SAT) was established in Western Australia in 2005 as an independent body that makes and reviews a range of administrative decisions. Individuals, businesses, public officials and vocational boards can bring befor ...
*
Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal The Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal (VCAT) was formed by the ''Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal Act'' 1998 in the state of Victoria, Australia Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a States and territories of Australia, sta ...
*
South Australian Civil and Administration Tribunal South is one of the cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to east an ...
In several Australian states, tribunals function as the equivalent of a
small claims court Small-claims courts have limited jurisdiction to hear civil Civil may refer to: *Civic virtue, or civility *Civil action, or lawsuit *Civil affairs *Civil and political rights *Civil disobedience *Civil engineering *Civil (journalism), a platf ...
. In the context of
sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and Skill, skills while providing enjoyment to participants and, in some cases, entertainment to spectato ...
, "tribunal" frequently refers to the
AFL Tribunal The AFL Tribunal is the disciplinary tribunal A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington Samuel Phillips Huntington (April 18, 1927 – December 24, 2008) was an American p ...
, the disciplinary body of the
Australian Football League The Australian Football League (AFL) is the pre-eminent and only fully professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns a living from a specified professional activity. The term also describes the standards of ...
.


Bangladesh

In Bangladesh, ''tribunal'' refers to a court that serves some special purpose, of which Bangladesh has several. These have been set up to ensure speedy trial and reduce case congestion in the normal courts. Beside this, Article 117 of the Constitution of Bangladesh empowers the parliament to set up one or more administrative tribunals. No court can entertain any proceeding or make any order in respect of any matter within the jurisdiction of such tribunal.


Belgium

In the judicial system of Belgium, the names of the lower
trial courts A trial court or court of first instance is a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refe ...
can be translated into English as "tribunals" (, , ), whilst the higher
appellate courts An appellate court, commonly called an ''appeals court'', ''court of appeals'' (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the Eng ...
can be translated as "courts" (, , ).


Brazil

The
Judiciary of Brazil The Judiciary of Brazil is the group of public entities designated by the Brazilian constitution The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil ( pt, Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil) is the Constitution, supreme law o ...
officially names "tribunal" the appeal court and the ones above it, always with more than one judge. The higher court is the
Supremo Tribunal Federal The Supreme Federal Court ( pt, Supremo Tribunal Federal, , abbreviated STF) is the supreme court (court of last resort) of Brazil, serving primarily as the Constitutional Court of the country. It is the highest court of law in Brazil for consti ...

Supremo Tribunal Federal
(Supreme Federal Court), followed by the superior tribunals ( Superior Tribunal de Justiça, Tribunal Superior Eleitoral, Tribunal Superior do Trabalho, Superior Tribunal Militar). The federal justice is divided into regions; each region has its Tribunal Regional Federal (Regional Federal Court). Also, each state has its own Tribunal de Justiça (Justice Court).


Canada

*
Civil Resolution Tribunal The Civil Resolution Tribunal (CRT) is Canada's first online tribunal, located in British Columbia (BC), Canada. It is one of the first examples in the world of online dispute resolution (ODR) being incorporated into the public justice system. The C ...
, an online Tribunal in
British Columbia ( en, Splendour without diminishment) , image_map = British Columbia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = None , Slogan = Beautiful British C ...

British Columbia
(BC). * Landlord and Tenant Board, formerly the
Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , cap ...

Ontario
Rental Housing Tribunal. * Ontario Condominium Authority, facilitates dispute resolution between condo owners and boards regarding issues such as noise complaints.


Hong Kong

The following tribunals exist within the
Judiciary The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government i ...
of the
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR) (), is a metropolitan area and special administrative region A special administrative region is a designation for types of admin ...
: Lands,
Small Claims Small-claims courts have limited jurisdiction to hear civil Civil may refer to: *Civic virtue, or civility *Civil action, or lawsuit *Civil affairs *Civil and political rights *Civil disobedience *Civil engineering *Civil (journalism), a platf ...
,
Labour Labour or labor may refer to: * Childbirth Childbirth, also known as labour or delivery, is the ending of pregnancy where one or more babies leaves the uterus by passing through the vagina or by Caesarean section. In 2015, there were about 13 ...
, Obscene Articles. For public inquiries, commissions are set up instead, under the Commissions of Inquiry Ordinance.


India

There are tribunals for settling various administrative and tax-related disputes, including Central Administrative Tribunal, Income Tax Appellate Tribunal,
Customs, Excise and Service Tax Appellate Tribunal The Customs, Excise and Service Tax Appellate Tribunal (CESTAT) is an Indian quasi-judicial body that hears appeals against orders and decisions passed under the Customs Act, 1962 and Central Excise Act, 1944 as amended from time to time. It w ...
, National Green Tribunal, Competition Appellate Tribunal and Securities Appellate Tribunal, among others. The
National Company Law Tribunal The National Company Law Tribunal is a quasi-judicial body in India that adjudicates issues relating to Indian companies. The tribunal was established under the Companies Act 2013 and was constituted on 1 June 2016 by the government of India and ...
is a
quasi-judicial body A quasi-judicial body is a non-judicial body which can interpret law. It is an entity such as an Arbitration, arbitration panel or tribunal, tribunal board, that can be a public administrative agency but also a contract- or private law ...
in India that adjudicates issues relating to Indian companies.
National Company Law Appellate Tribunal
was constituted under Section 410 of the Companies Act, 2013 for hearing appeals against the orders of National Company Law Tribunal, with effect from 1 June 2016. In several states, Food Safety Appellate Tribunals have been created to hear appeals against orders of adjudicating officers for food safety (additional deputy commissioners).
Armed Forces Tribunal Armed Forces Tribunal is a military tribunal in India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the Li ...
is a
military tribunal Military justice (also military law) is the legal system The contemporary national legal systems are generally based on one of four basic systems A system is a group of interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of ...
in India. It was established under the Armed Forces Tribunal Act, 2007. Permanent Lok Adalat (PUS) is a law court (also known as People's Court) and special tribunal set up in a number of districts throughout the country. It has been established under the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987.


Ireland

In the
Republic of Ireland Ireland ( ga, Éire ), also known as the Republic of Ireland ('), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective id ...

Republic of Ireland
, ''tribunal'' popularly refers to a ''
public inquiry A tribunal of inquiry is an official review A review is an evaluation Evaluation is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. Th ...

public inquiry
'' established under the
Tribunals of Inquiry (Evidence) Act 1921 The Tribunals of Inquiry (Evidence) Act 1921 was an Acts of Parliament in the United Kingdom, Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom, now repealed, which set out the powers and functions of certain Tribunals of Inquiry along with the procedures ...
. The main difference between a Parliamentary Inquiry (non statutory) and a Tribunal of Inquiry in Ireland is that non-statutory inquiries are not vested with the powers, privileges, and rights of the High Court. Tribunals of Inquiry are. Tribunals are established by resolution of the
Houses of the Oireachtas The Oireachtas ( , ), sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behavio ...
to enquire into matters of ''urgent public importance''. It is not a function of Tribunals to administer justice, their work is ''solely inquisitorial''. Tribunals are obliged to ''report their findings to the
Oireachtas The Oireachtas ( , ), sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, count ...
''. They have the power to enforce the attendance and examination of witnesses and the production of documents relevant to the work in hand. Tribunals can consist of one or more people. A layperson, or non-lawyer, may be the Sole member of a tribunal.


Netherlands

Historically, in the Netherlands, before the separation of lawmaking, law enforcement, and justice duties, all sentences were delivered by a tribunal of seven ''schepenen'', or magistrates, appointed by the local count. Such a tribunal was called a ''Vierschaar'', so called for a rope—or cord—that was drawn (''schaar'' or ''scheren'') in a four-square dimension, wherein the judges sat on four benches. These benches were positioned in a square as well, with the defendant standing in the middle. Towns had the ''Vierschaar'' privilege to hear their own disputes. The ''Vierschaar'' was usually located in the town hall, and many historic town halls still have such a room, usually decorated with scenes from the
Judgment of Solomon The Judgement of Solomon is a story from the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah. These texts are almost exclusively ...
.


United Kingdom

The ''tribunal'' system of the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
is part of the national system of
administrative justice Administrative law is the body of law that governs the activities of government agency, administrative agencies of Forms of government, government. Government agency action can include rule making, adjudication, or the enforcement of a specific ...
. Though it has grown up on an ''ad hoc'' basis since the beginning of the twentieth century, from 2007 reforms were put in place to build a unified system with recognised judicial authority, routes of
appeal In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is describ ...
and regulatory supervision.


United States

"Tribunal" is used in the U.S. generally to refer to courts or judicial bodies, as in the
ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct The American Bar Association The American Bar Association (ABA), founded August 21, 1878, is a voluntary Voluntary may refer to: * Voluntary (music)In music a voluntary is a piece of music, usually for an organ, that is played as part of a ch ...
. The
Ohio Ohio () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Co ...

Ohio
Rules of Professional Conduct, for instance, define "tribunal" as "a court, an arbitrator in a binding
arbitration Arbitration, a form of alternative dispute resolution Alternative dispute resolution (ADR), or external dispute resolution (EDR), typically denotes a wide range of dispute resolution processes and techniques that act as a means for disag ...
, or a legislative body, administrative agency, or other body acting in an adjudicative capacity."


By sector


Catholic Church

In the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic Church
,
ecclesiastical courts An ecclesiastical court, also called court Christian or court spiritual, is any of certain court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized co ...
are called tribunals. Tribunals are distinguished by grade, while proceedings are distinguished by instance; for example, an archdiocesan tribunal may hear a cause in first instance if the cause is first brought before the archdiocesan tribunal, or, if the cause was first heard before the diocesan tribunal and is now appealed to the archdiocesan tribunal, the latter may hear the cause in second instance. Only the Roman Rota is competent to hear causes in third instance, with limited exceptions. Other tribunals are incompetent in third instance by reason of grade (''ratione gradus''), since they do not have the jurisdiction to judge in third instance. Tribunals include: *diocesan or eparchal tribunals (including archdiocesan or archeparchal tribunals) *interdiocesan tribunals, that is, a tribunal erected by the Holy See for more than one
diocese In Ecclesiastical polity, church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. History In the later organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided Roman province, prov ...
, either as a tribunal of first instance, or as an appellate tribunal in second instance *the synod of bishops of patriarchal churches is the highest tribunal within the territory of the patriarchal church, without prejudice to the primacy of the Apostolic See *ordinary tribunal of the
patriarchal Patriarchy is a social system In sociology, social system is the patterned network of relationships constituting a coherent whole that exist between individuals, groups, and institutions. It is the formal Social structure, structure of role ...

patriarchal
church, distinct from the
eparchial
eparchial
tribunal of the patriarchal church *ordinary tribunals of the Apostolic See **
Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura The Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura () is the highest judicial authority in the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised ...
, the highest tribunal in the
canon law of the Catholic Church The canon law of the Catholic Church (Latin for "canon law": ''ius canonicum'') is the system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of ...
**
Tribunal of the Roman Rota The Roman Rota, formally the Apostolic Tribunal of the Roman Rota ( la, Tribunal Apostolicum Rotae Romanae), and anciently the Apostolic Court of Audience, is the highest appellate court, appellate tribunal of the Catholic Church, with respect ...
, the highest appellate tribunal competent in most causes in second and third instance and some causes in first instance **
Apostolic Penitentiary The Apostolic Penitentiary (), formerly called the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Penitentiary, is a dicastery A dicastery (from gr, δικαστήριον, dikastērion, law-court, from δικαστής, 'judge, juror') is a department ...
, an tribunal for matters concerning the internal forum **Supreme tribunal of the
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith , type = Congregation , seal = Coat of arms Holy See.svg , seal_size = 100px , seal_caption = Coat of arms of the Holy See , logo = , picture = Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.jpg , picture_caption = Palazzo del Sant’Uffizio ...
for certain more grave delicts (canonical crimes)


In health sector

Tribunals also play an integral role in health sectors both within and across nations. Often referred to as "adjunctive tribunals", these quasi-judicial bodies possess regulatory, oversight, and dispute resolution powers to aid in health decision-making and governance. At the same time, the actual effects of adjunctive tribunals on health services are disputed, as little evidence exists to evaluate their efficacy. More empirical evaluations are needed to ensure that tribunals operate in a more evidence-based, systematic manner within the health sector.L. Sossin, S.J. Hoffman. 2010. “The Elusive Search for Accountability: Evaluating Adjudicative Tribunals,” Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice 28(2): 343-360.


See also

*
Constitutional court A constitutional court is a high court High court usually refers to the superior court In common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law Case law is the collection of past legal decisions ...
*
International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was a body of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, secu ...
*
Iraqi Special Tribunal Iraqi or Iraqis (in plural) means from Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێر ...
* Lindsay Tribunal *
Nuremberg Trials #REDIRECT Nuremberg trials#REDIRECT Nuremberg trials#REDIRECT Nuremberg trials {{redirect category shell, {{R from other capitalisation{{R from move ... {{redirect category shell, {{R from other capitalisation{{R from move ...
{{redirect ...
*
Public Inquiry A tribunal of inquiry is an official review A review is an evaluation Evaluation is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. Th ...
*
Revolutionary Tribunal The Revolutionary Tribunal (french: Tribunal révolutionnaire; unofficially Popular Tribunal) was a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an o ...
*
Revolutionary tribunal (Russia) Revolutionary tribunals (commonly abbreviated as revtribunals) in Soviet Russia The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links=no, Российская Советская Федеративная Социа ...
*
State Administrative Tribunal of Western Australia The State Administrative Tribunal (SAT) was established in Western Australia in 2005 as an independent body that makes and reviews a range of administrative decisions. Individuals, businesses, public officials and vocational boards can bring befor ...
*'' The Elder Scrolls III: Tribunal'' (
Morrowind ''The Elder Scrolls III: Morrowind'' is an open world, open-world action role-playing video game developed by Bethesda Game Studios and published by Bethesda Softworks. It is the third installment in the ''The Elder Scrolls, Elder Scrolls'' ser ...
expansion pack) *
Tribunal for Local Governments in Kerala Kerala state has made many initiatives in the process of decentralization of powers. Creation of a tribunal for adjudication of Controversy, conflicts between local governments and the citizens is an initiative of that sort. Creation of the trib ...
*
Tribune Tribune () was the title of various elected officials in ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the ...
*
Waitangi Tribunal The Waitangi Tribunal (Māori: ''Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi'') is a New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language Engl ...
*
World Courts of Women The World Courts of Women are public hearings that give a forum to those who are traditionally excluded from formal political and legal proceedings. Organized around particular topics relevant to the hosting country, these unofficial public enquirie ...
*
Canadian tribunals Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of these connections exist and are collectively the source of ...


References

{{Law Courts by type