HistoryIn , high treason was punishable by being (men) or (women), although beheading could be substituted by royal command (usually for royalty and nobility). Those penalties were abolished in 1814, 1790 and 1973 respectively. The penalty was used by later monarchs against people who could reasonably be called traitors. Many of them would now just be considered s. and political thinking until after considered treason and ).
AlgeriaIn Algeria, treason is defined as the following: * attempts to change the regime or actions aimed at incitement * destruction of territory, sabotage to public and economic utilities * participation in armed bands or ''in insurrectionary movements''
BahrainIn Bahrain, plotting to topple the regime, collaborating with a foreign hostile country and threatening the life of the Emir are defined as treason and punishable by death. The State Security Law of 1974 was used to crush dissent that could be seen as treasonous, which was criticised for permitting severe human rights violations in accordance with Article One:
PalestineIn the areas controlled by the Palestinian National Authority, it is treason to give assistance to Israeli troops without the authorization of the Palestinian Authority or to sell land to Jews (irrespective of nationality) or non-Jewish Israeli citizenship law, Israeli citizens under the Palestinian Land Laws, as part of the PA's general policy of discouraging the expansion of Israeli settlements. Both crimes are capital offences subject to the death penalty, although the former provision has not often been enforced since the beginning of effective security cooperation between the Israel Defense Forces, Israel Police, and Palestinian National Security Forces since the mid-2000s (decade) under the leadership of Prime Minister Salam Fayyad. Likewise, in the Gaza Strip under the Hamas-led government, any sort of cooperation or assistance to Israeli security forces during military actions is also Capital punishment in the Gaza Strip, punishable by death.
Related offencesThere are a number of other crimes against the state short of treason: * Apostasy in Islam, considered treason in Islamic belief * Compounding treason, dropping a prosecution for treason in exchange for money or money's worth * Defection, or leaving the country, regarded in some communist countries (especially during the Cold War) as disloyalty to the state * Espionage or spying * Lèse majesté, insulting a and a crime in some countries * Misprision of treason, a crime consisting of the concealment of treason * Sedition, inciting civil unrest or insurrection, or undermining the government * Treachery (law), Treachery, attacking a state regardless of allegiance * Treason felony, a British offence tantamount to treason
See also* Betrayal * Constructive treason * Law of majestas * List of people convicted of treason
Terms for traitors*Hanjian *Jash (term) *Judas Iscariot, Judas *Malinchism *Mir Jafar *Quisling
Further reading* Ben-Yehuda, Nachman, "Betrayals and Treason. Violations of trust and Loyalty." Westview Press, 2001, * Ó Longaigh, Seosamh, "Emergency Law in Independent Ireland, 1922–1948", Four Courts Press, Dublin 2006 * Philippe Buc, “Civil war and religion in Medieval Japan and Medieval Europe: War for the gods, emotions at death, and treason”, The Indian Economic and Social History Review 57:2 (2020), 1-27.