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Topiary is the
horticultural Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists grow flowers, fruits and nuts, vegetables and herbs, as well as ornamental trees and lawns. ...
practice of training
perennial plant A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years. The term (''wikt:per-#Prefix, per-'' + ''wikt:-ennial#Suffix, -ennial'', "through the years") is often used to differentiate a plant from shorter-lived annual p ...
s by clipping the
foliage A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia art ...

foliage
and
twig A twig or stick is a thin branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientis ...

twig
s of
tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only wood plants with se ...

tree
s,
shrub A shrub (often called a bush) is a small- to medium-sized perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the p ...

shrub
s and
subshrub A subshrub (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roma ...

subshrub
s to develop and maintain clearly defined shapes, whether geometric or fanciful. The term also refers to plants which have been shaped in this way. As an art form it is a type of
living sculptureLiving sculpture is any type of sculpture that is created with living, growing grasses, vines, plants or trees. It can be functional and/or ornamental. There are several different types of living sculpture techniques, including topiary (prune plants ...
. The word derives from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
word for an ornamental
landscape A landscape is the visible features of an area of land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) an ...

landscape
gardener A gardener is someone who practices gardening Gardening is the practice of growing and cultivating plants as part of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfor ...

gardener
, ''topiarius'', a creator of ''topia'' or "places", a Greek word that Romans also applied to fictive indoor landscapes executed in
fresco Fresco (plural ''frescos'' or ''frescoes'') is a technique of Mural, mural painting executed upon freshly laid ("wet") lime plaster. Water is used as the vehicle for the dry-powder pigment to merge with the plaster, and with the setting of the ...

fresco
. The plants used in topiary are
evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Anc ...

evergreen
, mostly woody, have small
leaves A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves, stem, flower and fruit together form the shoot system. Leaves are ...

leaves
or needles, produce dense foliage, and have compact and/or columnar (e.g., fastigiate) growth habits. Common species chosen for topiary include cultivars of European box (''
Buxus sempervirens ''Buxus sempervirens'', the common box, European box, or boxwood, is a species of flowering plant in the genus ''Buxus'', native to western and southern Europe, northwest Africa, and southwest Asia, from southern England south to northern Morocco ...

Buxus sempervirens
''), arborvitae (''
Thuja ''Thuja'' ( ) is a genus of conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coni ...

Thuja
'' species),
bay laurel ''Laurus nobilis'' is an aromatic evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises i ...
(''Laurus nobilis''),
holly ''Ilex'' (), or holly, is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxon ...

holly
(''Ilex'' species), myrtle (''
Eugenia ''Eugenia'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a ...
'' or ''
Myrtus ''Myrtus'', with the common name myrtle, is a genus of flowering plants in the family Myrtaceae, described by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus, Linnaeus in 1753. Over 600 names have been proposed in the genus, but nearly all have either been mo ...
'' species), yew (''
Taxus ''Taxus'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscri ...

Taxus
'' species), and privet (''
Ligustrum A privet is a flowering plant in the genus ''Ligustrum''. The genus contains about 50 species of erect, deciduous or evergreen shrubs, sometimes forming small or medium-sized trees, native plant, native to Europe, north Africa, Asia, many intro ...
'' species). Shaped wire cages are sometimes employed in modern topiary to guide untutored shears, but traditional topiary depends on patience and a steady hand; small-leaved ivy can be used to cover a cage and give the look of topiary in a few months. The
hedge A hedge or hedgerow is a line of closely spaced shrubs and sometimes trees, planted and trained to form a barrier or to mark the boundary of an area, such as between neighbouring properties. Hedges that are used to separate a road from adjoinin ...
is a simple form of topiary used to create boundaries, walls or screens.


History


Origin

European topiary dates from
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...
times. Pliny's ''
Natural History Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecul ...
'' and the epigram writer
Martial Marcus Valerius Martialis (known in English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has ...

Martial
both credit Gaius Matius Calvinus, in the circle of
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened ...

Julius Caesar
, with introducing the first topiary to
Roman gardens Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
, and
Pliny the Younger Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo (61 – c. 113), better known as Pliny the Younger (), was a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study ...

Pliny the Younger
describes in a letter the elaborate figures of animals, inscriptions, cyphers and
obelisk An obelisk (; from grc, ὀβελίσκος ; diminutive of ''obelos'', " spit, nail, pointed pillar") is a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape or pyramidion A pyramidion (plural: pyramidia) is the ...

obelisk
s in clipped greens at his Tuscan villa (Epistle v.6, to Apollinaris). Within the atrium of a Roman house or
villa A villa is a type of house that was originally an ancient Roman In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman ...
, a place that had formerly been quite plain, the art of the ''topiarius'' produced a miniature landscape (''topos'') which might employ the art of stunting trees, also mentioned, disapprovingly, by Pliny (''Historia Naturalis'' xii.6).


Far Eastern topiary

The clipping and shaping of shrubs and trees in
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
and
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
have been practised with equal rigor, but for different reasons. The goal is to achieve an artful expression of the "natural" form of venerably aged pines, given character by the forces of wind and weather. Their most concentrated expressions are in the related arts of Chinese
penjing ''Penjing'', also known as ''penzai'', is the ancient China, Chinese art of depicting artistically formed trees, other plants, and landscapes in miniature. Penjing generally fall into one of three categories: * Shumu penjing (樹木盆景): Tree ...
and Japanese
bonsai Bonsai ( ja, 盆栽, , tray planting, ) is a Japanese version of the original traditional Chinese art ''penjing'' or ''penzai''. Unlike ''penjing'', which utilizes traditional techniques to produce entire natural sceneries in small pots that ...

bonsai
. Japanese cloud-pruning is closest to the European art: the cloud-like forms of clipped growth are designed to be best appreciated after a fall of snow. Japanese Zen gardens (''karesansui'', dry rock gardens) make extensive use of ''Karikomi'' (a topiary technique of clipping shrubs and trees into large curved shapes or sculptures) and ''Hako-zukuri'' (shrubs clipped into boxes and straight lines).


Renaissance topiary

Since its European revival in the 16th century, topiary has been seen on the
parterre for ''Britannia Illustrata'', 1707/8 , 2016 A ''parterre'' is a formal garden constructed on a level substrate, consisting of plant beds, typically in symmetrical patterns, which are separated and connected by paths. The borders of the plant be ...

parterre
s and terraces of gardens of the European elite, as well as in simple
cottage garden The cottage garden is a distinct style that uses informal design, traditional materials, dense plantings, and a mixture of ornamental and edible plants. English in origin, it depends on grace and charm rather than grandeur and formal structure. Ho ...
s;
Barnabe Googe Barnabe Googe or Goche (11 June 15407 February 1594) (also spelled Barnaby Goodge) was a poet and translator, one of the earliest English pastoral poets. Early life Barnabe Googe, born 11 June 1540 (St Barnabas Day), in Alvingham, Lincolnshire, ...
, about 1578, found that "women" (a signifier of a less than gentle class) were clipping
rosemary ''Salvia rosmarinus'', commonly known as rosemary, is a shrub with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple, or blue flowers, native plant, native to the Mediterranean Region, Mediterranean region. Until 2017, it was known ...

rosemary
"as in the fashion of a cart, a peacock, or such things as they fancy." In 1618 William Lawson suggested :Your gardener can frame your lesser wood to the shape of men armed in the field, ready to give battell: or swift-running Grey Houndes to chase the Deere, or hunt the Hare. This kind of hunting shall not wate your corne, nor much your coyne. Traditional topiary forms use foliage pruned and/or trained into geometric shapes such as balls or cubes,
obelisk An obelisk (; from grc, ὀβελίσκος ; diminutive of ''obelos'', " spit, nail, pointed pillar") is a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape or pyramidion A pyramidion (plural: pyramidia) is the ...

obelisk
s, pyramids, cones, or tiered plates and tapering spirals. Representational forms depicting people, animals, and man-made objects have also been popular. The royal botanist John Parkinson found
privet A privet is a flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, f ...

privet
"so apt that no other can be like unto it, to be cut, lead, and drawn into what forme one will, either of beasts, birds, or men armed or otherwise." Evergreens have usually been the first choice for Early Modern topiary, however, with
yew Yew is a common name given to various species of trees. The name is most prominently given to any of various coniferous Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants The spermatophytes (; ), also known as phanerogams (taxon Phanerogamae ...
and
boxwood ''Buxus'' is a genus of about 70 species in the family Buxaceae. Common names include box or boxwood. The boxes are native plant, native to western and southern Europe, southwest, southern and eastern Asia, Africa, Madagascar, northern ...
leading other plants. Topiary at
Versailles The Palace of Versailles ( ; french: Château de Versailles ) is a former royal residence located in Versailles, about west of Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, mo ...
and its imitators was never complicated: low hedges punctuated by potted trees trimmed as balls on standards, interrupted by obelisks at corners, provided the vertical features of flat-patterned parterre gardens. Sculptural forms were provided by stone and lead sculptures. In Holland, however, the fashion was established for more complicated topiary designs; this Franco-Dutch garden style spread to England after 1660, but by 1708-09 one searches in vain for fanciful topiary among the clipped hedges and edgings, and the standing cones and obelisks of the aristocratic and gentry English parterre gardens in Kip and Knyff's '' Britannia Illustrata''.


Decline in the 18th century

In England topiary was all but killed as a fashion by the famous satiric essay on "Verdant Sculpture" that
Alexander Pope Alexander Pope (21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744) is seen as one of the greatest English poets and the foremost poet of the early 18th century. He is best known for satirical and discursive poetry, including ''The Rape of the Lock ''The Rape o ...

Alexander Pope
published in the short-lived newspaper ''The Guardian'', 29 September 1713, with its mock catalogue descriptions of :*Adam and Eve in yew; Adam a little shattered by the fall of the tree of knowledge in the great storm; Eve and the serpent very flourishing. :*The
tower of Babel The Tower of Babel ( he, , ''Migdal Bavel'') narrative in Book of Genesis, Genesis 11:1–9 is an origin myth meant to explain why the world's peoples speak different languages. According to the story, a united human race in the generations ...

tower of Babel
, not yet finished. :*St George in
box A box (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version ...

box
; his arm scarce long enough, but will be in condition to stick the
dragon A dragon is a large, serpent Serpent or The Serpent may refer to: * Snake Snakes are elongated, limbless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes . Like all other squamates, snakes are ectothermic, amniote Amniotes (fro ...

dragon
by next April. :*A
quickset
quickset
hog, shot up into a
porcupine Porcupines are large rodent Rodents (from Latin , 'to gnaw') are mammals of the Order (biology), order Rodentia (), which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws. About 40% ...

porcupine
, by its being forgot a week in rainy weather. In the 1720s and 1730s, the generation of
Charles Bridgeman Charles Bridgeman (1690–1738) was an English garden designer who helped pioneer the English landscape garden, naturalistic landscape style. Although he was a key figure in the transition of English garden design from the Anglo-Dutch formality ...

Charles Bridgeman
and
William Kent William Kent (c. 1685 – 12 April 1748) was an eminent English architect, landscape architect A landscape architect is a person who is educated in the field of landscape architecture Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor areas ...

William Kent
swept the English garden clean of its hedges, mazes, and topiary. Although topiary fell from grace in aristocratic gardens, it continued to be featured in
cottage A cottage, during Feudalism in England, England's feudal period, was the holding by a cottager (known as a cotter or ''bordar'') of a small house with enough garden to feed a family and in return for the cottage, the cottager had to provide s ...

cottage
rs' gardens, where a single example of traditional forms, a ball, a tree trimmed to a cone in several cleanly separated tiers, meticulously clipped and perhaps topped with a topiary peacock, might be passed on as an heirloom. Such an heirloom, but on heroic scale, was the ancient churchward yew of Harlington, west of London, immortalized in an engraved broadsheet of 1729 bearing an illustration with an enthusiastic verse encomium by its dedicated parish clerk and topiarist. formerly shaped as an obelisk on square plinth topped with a ten-foot ball surmounted by a cockerel, the Harlington Yew survives today, untonsured for the last two centuries.


Revival

The revival of topiary in English gardening parallels the revived "
Jacobethan The Jacobethan or Jacobean Revival architectural style is the mixed national Renaissance revival style that was made popular in England from the late 1820s, which derived most of its inspiration and its repertory from the English Renaissance#Arch ...
" taste in architecture;
John Loudon
John Loudon
in the 1840s was the first garden writer to express a sense of loss due to the topiary that had been removed from English gardens. The art of topiary, with enclosed garden "rooms", burst upon the English gardening public with the mature examples at
Elvaston Castle Elvaston Castle is a stately home in Elvaston, Derbyshire, Elvaston, Derbyshire, England. The Gothic Revival castle and surrounding parkland is run and owned by Derbyshire County Council as a country park known as Elvaston Castle Country Park. The ...

Elvaston Castle
, Derbyshire, which opened to public viewing in the 1850s and created a sensation: "within a few years architectural topiary was springing up all over the country (it took another 25 years before sculptural topiary began to become popular as well)".Brent Elliott, "Historical Revivalism in the Twentieth Century: A Brief Introduction" ''Garden History'' 28.1, "Reviewing the Twentieth-Century Landscape" (Summer 2000:17-31) p. 19. The following generation, represented by James Shirley Hibberd, rediscovered the charm of topiary specimens as part of the mystique of the "English
cottage garden The cottage garden is a distinct style that uses informal design, traditional materials, dense plantings, and a mixture of ornamental and edible plants. English in origin, it depends on grace and charm rather than grandeur and formal structure. Ho ...
", which was as much invented as revived from the 1870s: The classic statement of the British
Arts and Crafts A handicraft, sometimes more precisely expressed as artisanal handicraft or handmade, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects are made completely by one’s hand or by using only simple, non-automated rela ...
revival of topiary among roses and mixed
herbaceous border A herbaceous border is a collection of perennial plant, perennial herbaceous plants (plants that live for more than two years and are soft-stemmed and non-woody) arranged closely together, usually to create a dramatic effect through colour, shape ...
s, characterised generally as "the old-fashioned garden" or the "Dutch garden"Elliott 2000:19. was to be found in ''Topiary: Garden Craftsmanship in Yew and Box'' by
Nathaniel Lloyd Sir Nathaniel Lloyd (1669–1745) was an English jurist and Master of Trinity Hall, Cambridge. Life Born in the Savoy Hospital 29 November 1669, eldest son of Richard Lloyd (Durham), Sir Richard Lloyd by Elizabeth, his wife. He was educated at S ...
(1867–1933), who had retired in middle age and taken up architectural design with the encouragement of Sir
Edwin Lutyens Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens ( ; 29 March 1869 – 1 January 1944) was an English architect known for imaginatively adapting traditional architectural styles to the requirements of his era. He designed many English country house An Engl ...

Edwin Lutyens
. Lloyd's own timber-framed manor house,
Great Dixter Great Dixter is a house in Northiam Northiam is a village and civil parish in the Rother district, in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers ...
, Sussex, remains an epitome of this stylised mix of topiary with "cottagey" plantings that was practised by
Gertrude Jekyll Gertrude Jekyll ( ; 29 November 1843 – 8 December 1932) was a British horticulturist Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturis ...

Gertrude Jekyll
and Edwin Lutyens in a fruitful partnership. The new gardening vocabulary incorporating topiary required little expensive restructuring: "At
Lyme Park Lyme Park is a large Estate (land), estate south of Disley, Cheshire, England, managed by the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, National Trust and consisting of a mansion house surrounded by formal gardens and a D ...

Lyme Park
, Cheshire, the garden went from being an Italian garden to being a Dutch garden without any change actually taking place on the ground," Brent Elliot noted in 2000. Americans in England were sensitive to the renewed charms of topiary. When
William Waldorf Astor William Waldorf "Willy" Astor, 1st Viscount Astor (March 31, 1848 – October 18, 1919) was an American-British attorney, politician, businessman (hotels and newspapers), and philanthropist. Astor was a scion of the very wealthy Astor family ...

William Waldorf Astor
bought
Hever Castle Hever Castle ( ) is located in the village of Hever, Kent Hever village is a village and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of Parish (administrative division), administrative parish used for Local government in England, lo ...

Hever Castle
, Kent, around 1906, the moat surrounding the house precluded the addition of wings for servants, guests and the servants of guests that the Astor manner required. He accordingly built an authentically styled Tudor village to accommodate the overflow, with an "Old English Garden" including
buttress A buttress is an architectural Architecture (Latin ''architectura ''Architectura: Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Baukunst'' is a biannual peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar compe ...
ed hedges and free-standing topiary. In the preceding decade, expatriate Americans led by
Edwin Austin Abbey Edwin Austin Abbey (April 1, 1852August 1, 1911) was an American muralist, illustrator, and painter. He flourished at the beginning of what is now referred to as the "golden age" of illustration, and is best known for his drawings and paintings ...

Edwin Austin Abbey
created an Anglo-American society at
Broadway, Worcestershire Broadway is a large village and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administrat ...
, where topiary was one of the elements of a "Cotswold" house-and-garden style soon naturalised among upper-class Americans at home. Topiary, which had featured in very few 18th-century American gardens, came into favour with the
Colonial Revival garden A Colonial Revival garden is a garden design intended to evoke the garden design typical of the Colonial history of the United States, Colonial period of the United States. The Colonial Revival garden is typified by simple rectilinear beds, straigh ...
s and the grand manner of the
American Renaissance The American Renaissance was a period of American architecture and the arts from 1876 to 1917, characterized by renewed national self-confidence and a feeling that the United States was the heir to Greek democracyDuring the Classical era of Anc ...
, 1880–1920. Interest in the revival and maintenance of historic gardens in the 20th century led to the replanting of the topiary
maze A maze is a path or collection of paths, typically from an entrance to a goal. The word is used to refer both to branching tour puzzles through which the solver must find a route, and to simpler non-branching ("unicursal") patterns that lea ...

maze
at the Governor's Palace,
Colonial Williamsburg Colonial Williamsburg is a living-history museum and private foundation presenting a part of the Historic districts in the United States, historic district in the city of Williamsburg, Virginia, United States. Its historic area includes several ...

Colonial Williamsburg
, in the 1930s.


20th century

American portable style topiary was introduced to
Disneyland The Disneyland Park, originally Disneyland, is the first of two theme parks Wonder Mountain at Canada's Wonderland An amusement park is a park that features various attractions, such as rides and games, as well as other events for ...

Disneyland
around 1962.
Walt Disney Walter Elias Disney (; December 5, 1901December 15, 1966) was an American entrepreneur, animator, writer, voice actor, and film producer. A pioneer of the American animation industry, he introduced several developments in the production of ...
helped bring this new medium into being - wishing to recreate his cartoon characters throughout his theme park in the form of landscape shrubbery. This style of topiary is based on a suitably shaped steel wire frame through which the plants eventually extend as they grow. The frame, which remains as a permanent trimming guide, may be either stuffed with sphagnum moss and then planted, or placed around shrubbery. The sculpture slowly transforms into a permanent topiary as the plants fill in the frame. This style has led to imaginative displays and festivals throughout the Disney resorts and parks, and mosaiculture (multiple types and styles of plants creating a mosaic,
living sculptureLiving sculpture is any type of sculpture that is created with living, growing grasses, vines, plants or trees. It can be functional and/or ornamental. There are several different types of living sculpture techniques, including topiary (prune plants ...
) worldwide includes the impressive display at the
2008 Summer Olympics The 2008 Summer Olympics (), officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad () and commonly known as Beijing 2008 (), was an international multisport event A multi-sport event is an organized sport, sporting event, often held over multi ...

2008 Summer Olympics
in China. Living corporate logos along roadsides,
green roof A green roof or living roof is a roof of a building that is partially or completely covered with vegetation and a growing medium, planted over a Waterproofing#Construction waterproofing, waterproofing membrane. It may also include additional la ...

green roof
softscapes and
living walls Living Walls, The City Speaks is an annual street art conference co-founded in 2009 by Monica Campana & Blacki Migliozzi. Blankenship, Jessica (13 August 2010)"Living Walls" ''Creative Loafing''. The conference was first held in 2010. It was origina ...
that biofilter air are offshoots of this technology. Artificial topiary is another offshoot similar to the concept of
artificial Christmas tree An artificial Christmas tree is an artificial pine or fir tree manufactured for the specific purpose of use as a Christmas tree A Christmas tree is a decorated tree, usually an evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biol ...

artificial Christmas tree
s. This topiary mimics the style of living versions and is often used to supply indoor greenery for home or office decoration. Patents are issued for the style, design, and construction methodology of different types of topiary trees.Decorative display - US Patent 6237882 Full Text
, ''US Patent 6237882 - Decorative display''. US Patent Issued on May 29, 2001.


Notable topiary displays


Australia

File:Topiary in Railton.jpg, Topiary at Railton, Town of Topiary, Tasmania, Australia


Asia

File:Topiaryelephant.jpg, Topiary elephants at
Bang Pa-In Royal Palace ) , former_names = , alternate_names = , image = Bang Pa-In Royal Palace - Bang Pa-In.jpg , image_alt = , caption = Aisawan Dhiphya-Asana Pavilion , map_type = Thailand , map_alt ...
File:Topiary vijayanrajapuram.jpg, Topiary in the Botanical garden
Thiruvananthapuram Thiruvananthapuram (; ), also known by its List of renamed Indian cities and states, former name Trivandrum , is the Capital city, capital of the Indian state of Kerala. It is the most populous city in Kerala with a population of 957,730 as of ...

Thiruvananthapuram


Central America


South America


Europe

File:Gurning... (8456271082).jpg, Topiary at
Kingston Lacy Kingston Lacy is a English country house, country house and estate near Wimborne Minster, Dorset, England. It was for many years the family seat of the Bankes family who lived nearby at Corfe Castle until its destruction in the English Civil War ...

Kingston Lacy
, UK File:Hidcote Manor.jpg, Topiary birds at
Hidcote Manor Garden Hidcote Manor Garden is a garden in the United Kingdom, located at the village of Hidcote Bartrim, near Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire. It is one of the best-known and most influential Arts and Crafts movement, Arts and Crafts gardens in Brit ...
File:Eyrignac Manor - Gardens-02.JPG, Topiary garden at Manor d'Eyrignac, France File:Henfield-St Peter's Church-path to Church - geograph.org.uk - 132343.jpg, The path to in
Henfield Henfield is a large village and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administra ...
is flanked by topiary File:" Green Pig" - geograph.org.uk - 245244.jpg, A topiary
pig The pig (''Sus domesticus''), often called swine, hog, or domestic pig when distinguishing from other members of the genus '' Sus'', is an omnivorous An omnivore () is an animal that has the ability to eat and survive on both plant and ani ...

pig
in
Halton, Northumberland Halton is a village and former civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administrati ...
File:Dragon hedge.jpg, Dragon shaped hedge, East Rudham File:Tsubo-en O-karikomi center seasons run-opt.gif, All seasons close-up of the Tsubo-en O-karikomi, hako-zukuri topiary. File:Topiary Château de Hautefort 10.jpg, A yew tree ''Taxus Baccata'', topiary in the gardens of Château de Hautefort. In background, a part of the Hospital.
Dordogne Dordogne ( , or ; ; oc, Dordonha ) is a large rural department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivi ...

Dordogne
, France.


North America

File:Pearl Fryar Topiary Garden, Bishopville, SC, US (11).jpg, Topiary Garden by
Pearl Fryar Pearl Fryar (born December 4, 1939) is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly kno ...
, Bishopville, South Carolina, U.S. File:Topiary Park, Columbus, OH 01.jpg, ,
Columbus Columbus is a Latinized version of the Italian surname "''Colombo Colombo ( si, කොළඹ, translit=Koḷam̆ba, ; ta, கொழும்பு, translit=Koḻumpu, ) is the commercial capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capit ...
,
Ohio Ohio () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Co ...

Ohio
, U.S.


In popular culture

* In the
Tim Burton Timothy Walter Burton (born August 25, 1958) is an American film director, producer, writer, artist and former animator. He is known for his Gothic film, gothic fantasy and horror films such as ''Beetlejuice'' (1988), ''Edward Scissorhands'' ( ...
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Johnny Depp John Christopher Depp II (born June 9, 1963) is an American actor, producer, and musician. He is the recipient of various accolades, including a Golden Globe Award and a Screen Actors Guild Award, in addition to nominations for three Academy ...

Johnny Depp
film ''
Edward Scissorhands ''Edward Scissorhands'' is a 1990 American fantasy Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe, often inspired by real world myth and folklore. Its roots are in oral traditions, which then became fantasy literature a ...
'', Edward proves to have a natural gift for topiary art. Numerous creative works are shown throughout the movie. * In the Stephen King novel '' The Shining'', topiary animals that move when people are not looking frighten the Torrance family. * In the children's novel ''Green Knowe, The Children of Green Knowe'' by Lucy M. Boston, an overgrown topiary figure of Noah plays a sinister role. * A real-life topiary artist is one of the subjects of Errol Morris's ''Fast, Cheap and Out of Control''.


See also

* Bibliography of hedges and topiary * History of gardening * Tree shaping


References and sources

;References ;Sources * Curtis, Charles H. and W. Gibson, ''The Book of Topiary'' (reprinted, 1985 Tuttle), * Lloyd, Nathaniel. ''Topiary: Garden Art in Yew and Box'' (reprinted, 2006)


Further reading

* Hadfield, Miles. ''Topiary and Ornamental Hedges: Their history and cultivation''. London: Adam & Charles Black, 1971. * Francesco Pona. ''Il Paradiso de' Fiori overo Lo archetipo de' Giardini''. Verona: Angelo Tamo, 1622.


External links


European Boxwood and Topiary Society

Artificial Vertical gardens and Faux plant Specialist
{{Authority control Gardening Trees