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A taboo is an implicit prohibition on something (usually against an utterance or behavior) based on a cultural sense that it is excessively repulsive or, perhaps, too sacred for ordinary people.''Encyclopædia Britannica Online''.
Taboo
. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Retrieved 21 Mar. 2012
Such prohibitions are present in virtually all societies. On a comparative basis, taboos, for example related to food items, seem to make no sense at all, as what may be declared unfit for one group by custom or
religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, sanctified places, prophecy, prophecies, ethics in religion, ...
may be perfectly acceptable to another. Taboos are often meant to protect the human individual, but there are numerous other reasons for their existence. An ecological or medical background is apparent in many, including some that are seen as religious or spiritual in origin. Taboos can help use a resource more efficiently, but when applied to only a subsection of the community they can also serve to suppress said subsection of the . A taboo acknowledged by a particular group or
tribe The term tribe is used in many different contexts to refer to a category of human social group. The predominant usage of the term is in the discipline of anthropology. The definition is contested, in part due to conflicting theoretical understan ...
as part of their ways aids in the cohesion of the group, helps that particular group to stand out and maintain its identity in the face of others and therefore creates a feeling of "belonging". The meaning of the word "taboo" has been somewhat expanded in the social sciences to strong prohibitions relating to any area of human activity or custom that is sacred or forbidden based on moral judgment, religious beliefs, or cultural norms. This article contains quotations from this source, which is available under th
Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC by 2.0)
license.
"Breaking a taboo" is usually considered objectionable by society in general, not merely a subset of a culture.


Etymology

The term "taboo" comes from the Tongan '' tapu'' or Fijian ''tabu'' ("prohibited", "disallowed", "forbidden"), related among others to the Māori ''tapu'' and Hawaiian ''kapu''. Its English use dates to 1777 when the British explorer James Cook visited
Tonga Tonga (; Tongan language, Tongan: ), officially named the Kingdom of Tonga (Tongan language, Tongan: ''Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga''), is a Polynesian country, and also an archipelago comprising List of islands and towns in Tonga, 169 islan ...

Tonga
, and referred to the Tongans' use of the term "taboo" for "any thing that is forbidden to be eaten, or made use of". He wrote: The term was translated to him as "consecrated, inviolable, forbidden, unclean or cursed". ''Tabu'' itself has been derived from alleged Tongan
morpheme A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit in a language. A morpheme is not necessarily the same as a word. The main difference between a morpheme and a word is that a morpheme bound and free morphemes, sometimes does not stand alone, but a word ...
s ''ta'' ("mark") and ''bu'' ("especially"), but this may be a
folk etymology Folk etymology – sometimes called popular etymology, analogical reformation, or etymological reinterpretation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one. The form or the meani ...
(Tongan does not actually have a
phoneme In phonology and linguistics, a phoneme is a unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another in a particular language. For example, in most List of dialects of English, dialects of English, with the notable exception of the West Midlan ...
/b/), and ''tapu'' is usually treated as a unitary, non- compound word inherited from Proto-Polynesian language, Proto-Polynesian *''tapu'', in turn inherited from Proto-Oceanic language, Proto-Oceanic *''tabu'', with the Linguistic reconstruction, reconstructed meaning "sacred, forbidden". In its current use on Tonga, the word ''tapu'' means "sacred" or "holy", often in the sense of being restricted or protected by custom or law. On the main island, the word is often appended to the end of "Tonga" as ''Tongatapu'', here meaning "Sacred South" rather than "Forbidden South".


Examples

Sigmund Freud speculated that incest taboo, incest and patricide were the only two universal taboos and formed the basis of civilization. However, although cannibalism, in-group murder, and incest are taboo in the majority of societies, exceptions can be found, such as marriages between brothers and sisters in Roman Egypt. Modern Western societies, however, do not condone such relationships. These familial sexual activities are criminalised, even if all parties are consenting adults. Through an analysis of the language surrounding Laws regarding incest, these laws, it can be seen how the policy makers, and society as a whole, find these acts to be immoral. Common taboos involve restrictions or ritual regulation of killing and hunting; sex and sexual relationships; reproduction; the taboo on the dead, dead and their graves; as well as food and dining (primarily cannibalism and dietary laws such as vegetarianism, ''kashrut'', and ''halal'') or religious (treif and haram). In Madagascar, a strong code of taboos, known as ''fady (taboo), fady'', constantly change and are formed from new experiences. Each region, village or tribe may have its own ''fady''. The word "taboo" gained popularity at times, with some scholars looking for ways to apply it where other English words had previously been applied. For example, John Merlin Powis Smith, J. M. Powis Smith, in his book ''The American Bible'' (editor's preface 1927), used "taboo" occasionally in relation to Israel's Tabernacle and ceremonial laws, including , ; ; , , and . Albert Schweitzer wrote a chapter about taboos of the people of Gabon. As an example, it was considered a misfortune for twins to be born, and they would be subject to many rules not incumbent on other people.


Function

Communist and materialist theorists have argued that taboos can be used to reveal the histories of societies when other records are lacking. Marvin Harris particularly endeavored to explain taboos as a consequence of ecologic and economic conditions.


Modernity

Some argue that contemporary Western multiculturalism, multicultural societies have taboos against tribalisms (for example, ethnocentrism and nationalism) and prejudices (racism, sexism, and religious extremism). Changing social customs and standards also create new taboos, such as bans on history of slavery, slavery; extension of the pedophilia taboo to ephebophilia; prohibitions on Prohibition, alcohol, smoking ban, tobacco, or prohibition of drugs, psychopharmaceutical consumption (particularly among Prenatal exposure, pregnant women); and the employment of politically correct euphemismsat times quite euphemism treadmill, unsuccessfullyto mitigate various alleged forms of discrimination. Incest itself has been pulled both ways, with some seeking to normalize consensual adult relationships regardless of the degree of kinship (notably in Europe) and others expanding the degrees of prohibited contact (notably in the Laws regarding incest in the United States, United States.) Although the term ''taboo'' usually implies negative connotations, it is sometimes associated with enticing propositions in proverbs such as ''forbidden fruit is the sweetest''. In medicine, professionals who practice in ethical and moral Loophole, grey areas, or fields subject to social stigma such as late termination of pregnancy, may refrain from public discussion of their practice. Among other reasons, this taboo may come from concern that comments may be taken out of the appropriate context and used to make ill-informed policy decisions.


See also

* * * * * * s * * * * * * * * * *


References


Bibliography

* Printed for Champante and Whitrow ... and M. Watson; 1793. *


External links

{{Authority control Taboo, Cultural anthropology Psychoanalytic terminology Freudian psychology Moral psychology