Suzerainty () is a relationship in which one state or other polity
controls the foreign policy
and relations of a tributary state
, while allowing the tributary state to have internal autonomy
. The dominant state is called the "suzerain."
Suzerainty differs from sovereignty
in that the tributary state is technically independent, but enjoys only limited self-rule. Although the situation has existed in a number of historical empires, it is considered difficult to reconcile with 20th- or 21st-century concepts of international law
, in which sovereignty is a binary which either exists or does not. While a sovereign state can agree by treaty to become a protectorate
of a stronger power, modern international law does not recognise any way of making this relationship compulsory on the weaker power. Suzerainty is a practical, ''de facto
'' situation, rather than a legal, ''de jure
Historically, the Emperor of China
saw himself as the centre of the entire civilised world
, and diplomatic relations in East Asia
were based on the theory that all rulers of the world derived their authority from the Chinese emperor. The degree to which this authority existed evolved from dynasty
to dynasty. However, even during periods when political power was distributed evenly across several Chinese political entities, Chinese political theory recognised only one legitimate emperor, and asserted that his authority was paramount throughout the world. Diplomatic relations with the Chinese emperor were made on the theory of tributary states, although tributary relations in practice would often result in a form of trade, under the theory that the emperor in his kindness would reward the tributary state with gifts of equal or greater value.
This system broke down in the 18th and 19th centuries in two ways. First, during the 17th century, China was ruled by the Manchu
-led Qing dynasty
, which ruled over a multi-ethnic empire and justified their rule through different theories of rulership. While not contradicting traditional Chinese theories of the emperor as the universal ruler, the Qing dynasty made a distinction between areas of the world where they ruled and areas where they did not. Second, the system further broke down as China was confronted by Western powers
whose theories of sovereignty were based on their own version of international law and relations between separate states.
China felt forced to accept a series of "unequal treaties" including the Treaty of Nanking
(1842), the Treaty of Tientsin
(1858), and the Convention of Peking
(1860), whereby China was made to open new ports, including Canton
, and Shanghai
. These treaties allowed the British
to annex Hong Kong
and resulted in the establishment of international settlements in ports that were controlled by foreigners. They also required China to permanently accept diplomats at the capital Peking
, provided for free movement for foreign ships in Chinese rivers, imposed European regulation of Chinese tariffs, and opened the interior region to Christian missionaries. Numerous regions of China such as Taiwan
, Outer Manchuria
, Outer Northwest China
were ceded to Japan
through a series of "unequal treaties" imposed on China after the Chinese were defeated in wars. Since the 1920s, the "unequal treaties" have been a centrepiece of Chinese grievances against the West.
For centuries, China had claimed suzerain authority over numerous adjacent areas. The areas had internal autonomy but were theoretically under the protection of China in terms of foreign affairs. By the 19th century, the relationships were nominal, and China exerted little or no actual control. Foreign powers rejected the Chinese concept and eventually seized these areas from Chinese influence. Japan took Korea
and the Ryukyu Islands
took Vietnam, and Britain took Upper Burma
One way that the European states attempted to describe the relations between the Qing dynasty and its outlying regions was in terms of suzerainty, although this did not completely match the traditional Chinese diplomatic theory. Since the Great Game
, the British Empire had regarded Tibet
as under Chinese "suzerainty", but in 2008 the British Foreign Secretary David Miliband
called that word an "anachronism" in a statement, and joined the rest of the European Union
and the United States
in recognizing Tibet as a part of China.
Ancient Israel and Near East
Suzerainty treaties and similar covenants and agreements between Middle Eastern states were quite prevalent during the pre-monarchic and monarchy
periods in Ancient Israel
. The Hittites
, and Assyrians
had been suzerains to the Israelites
and other tribal kingdoms of the Levant
from 1200 to 600 BC. The structure of Jewish covenant law was similar to the Hittite form of suzerain.
Each treaty would typically begin with an "Identification" of the Suzerain, followed by an historical prologue cataloguing the relationship between the two groups "with emphasis on the benevolent actions of the suzerain towards the vassal".
Following the historical prologue came the stipulation. This included tributes, obligations and other forms of subordination that would be imposed on the Israelites.
According to the Hittite form, after the stipulations were offered to the vassal, it was necessary to include a request to have copies of the treaty that would be read throughout the kingdom periodically.
The treaty would have divine and earthly witnesses purporting the treaty's validity, trustworthiness, and efficacy. This also tied into the blessings that would come from following the treaty and the curses from breaching it. For disobedience, curses would be given to those who had not remained steadfast in carrying out the stipulations of the treaty.
Hittite suzerainty treaty form
Below is a form of a Hittite Suzerainty Treaty.
: Identifies the parties involved in the treaty, the author, the title of the sovereign party, and usually his genealogy. It usually emphasises the greatness of the king or dominant party.
: Lists the deeds already performed by the Suzerain on behalf of the vassal
. This section would outline the previous relationship the two groups had up until that point with historical detail and facts that are very beneficial to scholars today, such as scholar George Mendenhall who focuses on this type of covenant as it pertained to the Israelite traditions.
The suzerain would document previous events in which they did a favor that benefitted the vassal. The purpose of this would show that the more powerful group was merciful and giving, therefore, the vassal should obey the stipulations that are presented in the treaty. It discusses the relationship between them as a personal relationship instead of a solely political one. Most importantly in this section, the vassal is agreeing to future obedience for the benefits that he received in the past without deserving them.
* Stipulations: Terms to be upheld by the vassal for the life of the treaty; defines how the vassal is obligated and gives more of the legalities associated with the covenant.
* Provision for annual public reading: A copy of the treaty was to be read aloud annually in the vassal state for the purpose of renewal and to inform the public of the expectations involved and increase respect for the sovereign party, usually the king.
* Divine witness to the treaty: These usually include the deities of both the Suzerain and the vassal, but put special emphasis on the deities of the vassal.
* Blessings if the stipulations of the treaty were upheld and curses if the stipulations were not upheld. These blessings and curses were generally seen to come from the gods instead of punishment by the dominant party for example.
* Sacrificial Meal: Both parties would share a meal to show their participation in the treaty.
The British East India Company
in 1757, and gradually extended its control over the whole of India
. It annexed many of the erstwhile Indian Kingdoms (hereafter "states") but entered into alliances with the others. Some states were created by the East India Company itself through the grant of jagir
s to influential allies. The states varied enormously in size and influence, with Hyderabad
at the upper end with 16.5 million people and an annual revenue of 100 million rupees and states like ''Babri'' at the lower end with a population of 27 people and annual revenue of 80 rupees.
These states were subject to the 'paramountcy
' of the British Crown
. The term was never precisely defined but it meant that the Indian states were subject to the suzerainty of the British Crown exercised through the Viceroy of India
. The principle was asserted in a letter by Lord Reading
to the Nizam of Hyderabad
in 1926, "The sovereignty of the British Crown is supreme in India and therefore no ruler of an Indian State can justifiably claim to negotiate with the British Government
on an equal footing." This meant that the Indian states were Crown dependencies
s of the British Indian government. They could not make war or have any direct dealings with foreign states. Neither did they enjoy full internal autonomy. The British government could and did interfere in their internal affairs if the imperial interests were involved or if it proved necessary in the interest of good governance. In some cases, the British government also deposed the Indian princes.
Scholars hold that the system of Paramountcy was a system of limited sovereignty only in appearance. In a reality, it was a system of recruitment of a reliable base of support for the Imperial State. The support of the Imperial State obviated the need for the rulers to seek legitimacy through patronage and dialogue with their populations. Through their direct as well as indirect rule through the princes, the colonial State turned the population of India into 'subjects' rather than citizens.
The Government of India Act 1935
envisaged that India would be a federation of autonomous provinces balanced by Indian princely states. This plan never came to fruition. The political conditions were oppressive in several princely states giving rise to political movements. Under pressure from Mahatma Gandhi
, the Indian National Congress
resolved not to interfere directly but called on the princes to increase civil liberties and reduce their own privileges.
With the impending independence of India
in 1947, the Governor-General Lord Mountbatten
announced that the British paramountcy over the Indian states would come to an end. The states were advised to 'accede' to one of the new Dominions, India
. An Instrument of Accession
was devised for this purpose. The Congress
leaders agreed to the plan with the condition that Mountbatten ensure that the majority of the states within the Indian territory accede to India. Under pressure from the Governor-General, all the Indian states acceded to India save two, Junagadh
. The two states acceded later, under coercion from India. Jammu and Kashmir
, which shared a border with India as well as Pakistan, acceded to India
when a Pakistan-backed invasion
threatened its survival.
Following the independence of India
in 1947, a treaty signed between the Chogyal of Sikkim Palden Thondup Namgyal
, and the Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru
suzerainty over Kingdom of Sikkim
in exchange for it retaining its independence. This continued until 1975, when the Sikkimese monarchy was abolished
in favour of a merger into India. Sikkim
is now one of the states of India
Located in the Arabian Sea
is a Union territory
of India off the coast of the southwestern state of Kerala
The Aminidivi group of islands
) came under the rule of Tipu Sultan
in 1787. They passed on to British control after the Third Anglo-Mysore War
and were attached to the South Canara
district. The rest of the islands became a suzerainty of the Arakkal Kingdom
in return for a payment of annual tribute.
After a while, the British
took over the administration of those islands for non-payment of arrears. These islands were attached to the Malabar district
of the Madras Presidency
. In 1956, the States Reorganisation Act
separated these islands from the mainland administrative units, forming a new union territory by combining all the islands.
The princely state
s of the British India
which acceded to Pakistan
maintained their sovereignty with the Government of Pakistan
acting as the suzerain until 1956 for Bahawalpur
, and the Balochistan States
, 1969 for Chitral
and the Frontier States
, and 1974 for Hunza
. All these territories have since been merged into Pakistan.
South African Republic
After the First Boer War
(1880–81), the South African Republic
was granted its independence, albeit under British suzerainty. During the Second Boer War
(1899–1902), the South African Republic was annexed as the Transvaal Colony
, which existed until 1910, when it became the Province of Transvaal in the Union of South Africa
Second World War
Despite being occupied by the Axis powers
, several Western and Asian countries were allowed to exercise self-rule. Several states were created in order to facilitate their occupation, including Vichy France
, the Empire of Vietnam
, the Independent State of Croatia
in Croatia and the Lokot Autonomy
in Central Russia
Following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
, the German Empire
received a very short-lived suzerainty over the Baltic countries
, and Lithuania
. New monarchies were created in Lithuania and the United Baltic Duchy
(which comprised the modern countries of Latvia and Estonia). The German aristocrats Wilhelm Karl, Duke of Urach
(in Lithuania), and Adolf Friedrich, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
(in the United Baltic Duchy), were appointed as rulers. This plan was detailed by German Colonel General Erich Ludendorff
, who wrote, "German prestige demands that we should hold a strong protecting hand, not only over German citizens, but over all Germans."
The Ottoman Empire
* Principality of Bulgaria
* Principality of Moldavia
* Republic of Ragusa
* Principality of Romania
* Serbian Despotate
* Principality of Transylvania
* Principality of Upper Hungary
* Principality of Wallachia
The Qing dynasty
[Dickinson, Edwin De Witt]
''The Equality of States in International Law''
* Ryukyu Kingdom
control, as Holy Roman Emperor
, over Liechtenstein
(1719–1918), previously Schellenberg
(1499–1719) and County of Vaduz
* Ireland, under the control of the High King of Ireland
(claimed by Prussia
(Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
* Kingdom of Larantuka
The Republic of Mexico
* The American Southwest
*List of recipients of tribute from China
*List of tributary states of China
*Vassal and tributary states of the Ottoman Empire
*Mandala (Southeast Asian history)
*Tributary system of China
Category:Types of administrative division