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Speech disorders or speech impairments are a type of
communication disorder A communication disorder is any disorder that affects an individual's ability to comprehend, detect, or apply language and speech to engage in discourse effectively with others. The delays and disorders can range from simple sound substitution to t ...
where normal
speech Speech is human vocal communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, ...

speech
is disrupted. This can mean
stuttering Stuttering, also known as stammering, is a speech disorder Speech disorders or speech impairments are a type of communication disorder where normal speech Speech is human vocal communication using language. Each language uses Phonetics ...
, lisps, etc. Someone who is unable to speak due to a speech disorder is considered
mute Muteness is a speech disorder in which a person lacks the ability to speak. Mute may also refer to: Technology * Mute (music), a device used to alter the sound of a musical instrument ** The mute switch or button on an electronic audio mixer, whic ...
. Speech disorders affect roughly 11.5% of the US population. Speech is a complex process that requires precise timing, nerve and muscle control. The ability to understand language and produce speech is coordinated by the brain. A person who suffers from a
stroke A stroke is a medical condition A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function (biology), function of all or part of an organism, and that is not due to any immediate external injury. Dis ...

stroke
, an
accident An accident is an unplanned event that sometimes has inconvenient or undesirable consequences, other times being inconsequential. The occurrence of such an event may or may not have unrecognized or unaddressed risks contributing to its cause. Mo ...

accident
or
birth defect A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth Birth is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth offspring, also referred to in technical contexts as parturition. In mammals, the process is initiat ...
may have speech and language problems.


Classification

Classifying speech into normal and disordered is more problematic than it first seems. By strict classification, only 5% to 10% of the population has a completely normal manner of speaking (with respect to all parameters) and healthy voice; all others suffer from one disorder or another. There are three different levels of classification when determining the magnitude and type of a speech disorder and the proper treatment or therapy: # Sounds the patient can produce ## Phonemic – can be produced easily; used meaningfully and constructively ## Phonetic – produced only upon request; not used consistently, meaningfully, or constructively; not used in connected speech # Stimulate sounds ## Easily stimulated ## Stimulate after demonstration and probing (i.e. with a tongue depressor) # Cannot produce the sound ## Cannot be produced voluntarily ## No production ever observed


Types of disorder

*
Apraxia of speech Apraxia of speech (AOS) is an acquired Motor speech disorders, oral motor speech disorder affecting an individual's ability to translate conscious speech plans into motor plans, which results in limited and difficult speech ability. By the definiti ...
may result from stroke or progressive illness, and involves inconsistent production of speech sounds and rearranging of sounds in a word ("potato" may become "topato" and next "totapo"). Production of words becomes more difficult with effort, but common phrases may sometimes be spoken spontaneously without effort. *
Cluttering Cluttering is a speech Speech is human vocal communication using language. Each language uses Phonetics, phonetic combinations of vowel and consonant sounds that form the sound of its words (that is, all English words sound different from all ...
, a speech and fluency disorder characterized primarily by a rapid rate of speech, which makes speech difficult to understand. *
Developmental verbal dyspraxia Developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD), also known as childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) and developmental apraxia of speech (DAS), is a condition in which children have problems saying sounds, syllables and words. This is not because of muscle weakne ...
also known as childhood apraxia of speech. *
Dysarthria Dysarthria is a speech sound disorder A speech sound disorder (SSD) is a speech disorder in which some speech sounds (called phoneme In phonology and linguistics, a phoneme is a unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another in a ...
is a weakness or paralysis of speech muscles caused by damage to the nerves or brain. Dysarthria is often caused by
stroke A stroke is a medical condition A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function (biology), function of all or part of an organism, and that is not due to any immediate external injury. Dis ...

stroke
s,
Parkinson's disease Parkinson's disease (PD), or simply Parkinson's, is a chronic condition, long-term neurodegeneration, degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system. The symptoms usually emerge slowly, and as the disea ...
,
ALS Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; also known as Lou Gehrig's disease in Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the At ...
, head or neck injuries, surgical accident, or
cerebral palsy Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of movement disorders Movement disorder refers to any clinical syndrome with either an excess of movement or a paucity of voluntary and involuntary movements, unrelated to weakness or spasticity Spasticity () is ...

cerebral palsy
. *
Aphasia Aphasia is an inability to comprehend or formulate language because of damage to specific brain regions. The major causes are a cerebral vascular accident (stroke) or head trauma. Aphasia can also be the result of brain tumors, brain infections ...

Aphasia
*
Dysprosody Dysprosody, which may manifest as pseudo-foreign accent syndrome, refers to a disorder in which one or more of the prosodic functions are either compromised or eliminated completely. Prosody (linguistics), Prosody refers to the variations in melody ...
is the rarest neurological speech disorder. It is characterized by alterations in intensity, in the timing of utterance segments, and in rhythm, cadence, and intonation of words. The changes to the duration, the
fundamental frequency The fundamental frequency, often referred to simply as the fundamental, is defined as the lowest frequency Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time A unit of time is any particular time Time is t ...
, and the intensity of tonic and atonic syllables of the sentences spoken, deprive an individual's particular speech of its characteristics. The cause of dysprosody is usually associated with neurological pathologies such as
brain vascular accident A stroke is a disease, medical condition in which poor cerebral circulation, blood flow to the brain causes cell death. There are two main types of stroke: brain ischemia, ischemic, due to lack of blood flow, and intracranial hemorrhage, hemorrh ...
s, cranioencephalic traumatisms, and
brain tumor A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain A brain is an organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on ...
s. *
Muteness Muteness or mutism () is defined as an absence of speech while conserving or maintaining the ability to hear the speech of others. Mutism is typically understood as an inability to speak on the part of a child or an adult due to an observed lack of ...
is the complete inability to speak. *
Speech sound disorder A speech sound disorder (SSD) is a speech disorder in which some speech sounds (called phoneme In phonology and linguistics, a phoneme is a unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another in a particular language. For example, in mos ...
s involve difficulty in producing specific speech sounds (most often certain consonants, such as /s/ or /r/), and are subdivided into articulation disorders (also called phonetic disorders) and phonemic disorders. Articulation disorders are characterized by difficulty learning to produce sounds physically. Phonemic disorders are characterized by difficulty in learning the sound distinctions of a language, so that one sound may be used in place of many. However, it is not uncommon for a single person to have a mixed speech sound disorder with both phonemic and phonetic components. *
Stuttering Stuttering, also known as stammering, is a speech disorder Speech disorders or speech impairments are a type of communication disorder A communication disorder is any disorder that affects an individual's ability to comprehend, detect, or ...
(AKA “Dysphemia”) affects approximately 1% of the adult population. *
Voice disordersVoice disordersTitze, I.R. (1994). Principles of Voice Production, Prentice Hall, . are medical conditions involving abnormal pitch, loudness or quality of the sound produced by the larynx and thereby affecting speech Speech is human vocal commun ...
are impairments, often physical, that involve the function of the
larynx The larynx (), commonly called the voice box, is an organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist ...

larynx
or vocal resonance.


Causes

In most cases the cause is unknown. However, there are various known causes of speech impairments, such as
hearing loss Hearing loss is a partial or total inability to hear Hearing, or auditory perception, is the ability to perceive Sound, sounds by detecting Vibration, vibrations, changes in the pressure of the surrounding medium through time, through a ...
,
neurological disorder A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system In biology, the classical doctrine of the nervous system determines that it is a Complex system, highly complex part of an animal that coordinates its Behavior, actions and Sen ...
s,
brain injury Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force. This may be caused by accidents, falls, hits, weapons, and other causes. Major trauma is injury that has the potential to cause prolonged disability or death ...
, an increase in mental strain, constant bullying,
intellectual disability Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability and formerly mental retardation (MR),Rosa's Law, Pub. L. 111-256124 Stat. 2643(2010). is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired in ...
,
substance use disorder Substance use disorder (SUD) is the persistent use of drugs (including alcohol) despite substantial harm and adverse consequences. Substance use disorders are characterized by an array of mental/emotional, physical, and behavioral problems such as ...
, physical impairments such as
cleft lip and palate A cleft lip contains an opening in the upper lip Lips are a visible body part at the mouth of many animals, including humans. Lips are soft, movable, and serve as the opening for food intake and in the articulation of sound and speech. Hu ...
, and vocal abuse or misuse."Disability Info: Speech and Language Disorders Fact Sheet (FS11)." National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. http://www.nichcy.org/pubs/factshe/fs11txt.htm


Treatment

Many of these types of disorders can be treated by
speech therapy Speech is human vocal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions between self and other, private and public, and inner thought and ...
, but others require medical attention by a doctor in phoniatrics. Other treatments include correction of organic conditions and
psychotherapy Psychotherapy (also psychological therapy or talking therapy) is the use of Psychology, psychological methods, particularly when based on regular Conversation, personal interaction, to help a person change behavior, increase happiness, and ove ...
. In the United States, school-age children with a speech disorder are often placed in
special education Special education (known as special-needs education, aided education, exceptional education, exceptional student education, special ed., SEN, or SPED) is the practice of educating students in a way that provides accommodations that address the ...

special education
programs. Children who struggle to learn to talk often experience persistent communication difficulties in addition to academic struggles. More than 700,000 of the students served in the public schools' special education programs in the 2000–2001 school year were categorized as having a speech or language impairment. This estimate does not include children who have
speech and language impairment Speech and language impairment are basic categories that might be drawn in issues of communication involve hearing, speech, language, and fluency. A Speech disorder, speech impairment is characterized by difficulty in articulation of words. Exampl ...
s secondary to other conditions such as deafness". Many
school district A school district is a special-purpose district that operates local public Primary school, primary and Secondary school, secondary schools in various nations. North America United States In the U.S, most K–12 public schools function as uni ...
s provide the students with speech therapy during school hours, although extended day and summer services may be appropriate under certain circumstances. Patients will be treated in teams, depending on the type of disorder they have. A team can include speech–language pathologists, specialists, family doctors, teachers, and family members.


Social effects

Suffering from a speech disorder can have negative social effects, especially among young children. Those with a speech disorder can be targets of
bullying Bullying is the use of force, coercion Coercion () is compelling a party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threat A threat is a communication of intent to inflict harm or loss on another person. Intimidation is widely observed ...

bullying
because of their disorder. The bullying can result in decreased
self-esteem Self-esteem is an individual's subjective evaluation of their own worth. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs about oneself (for example, "I am unloved", "I am worthy") as well as emotional states, such as triumph, despair, pride, and shame. Smith an ...
.


Language disorders

Language disorder Language disorders or language impairments are disorders that involve the processing of linguistic information. Problems that may be experienced can involve grammar (syntax and/or morphology (linguistics), morphology), semantics (meaning), or ot ...
s are usually considered distinct from speech disorders, although they are often used synonymously. Speech disorders refer to problems in producing the sounds of speech or with the quality of voice, where language disorders are usually an impairment of either understanding words or being able to use words and do not have to do with speech production.


See also

*
British Stammering Association The British Stammering Association (BSA), trading as Stamma since 2019, is a national membership organisation in the United Kingdom for adults and children who stammer, their friends and families, speech and language therapists and other profes ...
*
FOXP2 Forkhead box protein P2 (FOXP2) is a protein Proteins are large s and s that comprise one or more long chains of . Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including , , , providing and , and from one location to ano ...

FOXP2
*
SCN3A Sodium channel, voltage-gated, type III, alpha subunit (SCN3A) is a protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by ...
*
KE family The KE family is a medical name designated for a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, t ...
*
Manner of articulation In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics that studies articulation and ways that humans produce speech. Articulatory phoneticians explain how humans produce speech sounds via the interaction of ...

Manner of articulation
*
Motor speech disorders Motor speech disorders are a class of speech disorders that disturb the body's natural ability to speech, speak due to neurologic impairments. These neurologic impairments make it difficult for individuals with motor speech disorders to plan, prog ...
* Revoicer * Speech and language assessment *
Speech perception Speech perception is the process by which the sounds of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch ...
*
Speech repetition 250px, Children copy with their own mouths the words spoken by the mouths of those around them. That enables them to learn the pronunciation of words not already in their vocabulary. Speech repetition occurs when individuals speech, speak the so ...


References


External links

{{DEFAULTSORT:Speech Disorder Speech impediments