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Social democracy is a
political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of res ...

political
,
social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology The word "Social" derives fr ...
, and
economic philosophy An economic ideology distinguishes itself from economic theory Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, ...
within
socialism Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, ...
that supports
political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of res ...

political
and
economic democracy Economic democracy is a socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern society, societies soci ...
. As a policy regime, it is described by academics as advocating
economic An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ...
and
social intervention Social interventionism is an action which involves the intervention of a government or an organization in social affairs. Such policies can include provision of charity Charity may refer to: Giving * Charitable organization or charity, a non-profit ...
s to promote
social justice Social justice is justice in terms of the distribution of wealth Wealth is the abundance of valuable financial asset A financial asset is a non-physical asset whose value is derived from a contractual claim, such as deposit (finance), ban ...
within the framework of a
liberal-democratic Liberal democracy, also referred to as Western democracy, is the combination of a liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an adherent of a L ...
polity A polity is an identifiable political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cog ...
and a
capitalist Capitalism is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, ...
-oriented
mixed economy A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon ...
. The protocols and norms used to accomplish this involve a commitment to
representative Representative may refer to: Politics *Representative democracy Representative democracy, also known as indirect democracy, is a type of democracy where elected persons represent Represent may refer to: * Represent (Compton's Most Wanted alb ...
and
participatory democracy Participatory democracy or participative democracy is a model of democracy in which citizens are provided power to make political decisions. Etymological roots of ''democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dē ...
, measures for
income redistribution Redistribution of income and wealth is the transfer of income In microeconomics, income is the Consumption (economics), consumption and saving opportunity gained by an entity within a specified timeframe, which is generally expressed in mone ...
,
regulation of the economy Regulatory economics is the economics Economics () is a social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. Economi ...
in the
general interest
general interest
, and
social welfare Welfare (or commonly, social welfare) is a type of government support intended to ensure that members of a society can meet basic human needs Maslow's hierarchy of needs is an idea in psychology Psychology is the science of mind and ...
provisions. Due to longstanding governance by social democratic parties during the
post-war consensus The post-war consensus is a thesis that describes the political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is reg ...
and their influence on socioeconomic policy in Northern and Western Europe, social democracy became associated with
Keynesianism Keynesian economics ( ; sometimes Keynesianism, named after British economist John Maynard Keynes John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, ( ; 5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946) was an English economist An economist is a professional and ...
, the
Nordic model #REDIRECT Nordic model#REDIRECT Nordic model The Nordic model comprises the economic An economy (from Greek language, Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the Production (economics), production, Dist ...
, the
social-liberal Social liberalism (german: Sozialliberalismus, es, socioliberalismo) also known as New liberalism in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Brita ...
paradigm, and
welfare state The welfare state is a form of government in which the state (or a well-established network of social institutions) protects and promotes the economic and social well-being of its citizens, based upon the principles of equal opportunity Equal o ...
s within political circles in the late 20th century. It has been described as the most common form of Western or modern socialism, as well as the reformist wing of
democratic socialism Democratic socialism is a political philosophy Political philosophy or political theory is the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ab ...
. The
history of social democracy Social democracy Social democracy is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as ...
stretches back to the 19th-century
socialist movement The history of socialism has its origins in the 1789 French Revolution and the changes which it brought, although it has precedents in earlier movements and ideas. ''The Communist Manifesto'' was written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in 1847-4 ...
. It came to advocate an
evolutionary Evolution is change in the heritable Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of Phenotypic trait, traits from parents to their offspring; either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, ...
and peaceful transition from
capitalism Capitalism is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea o ...
to
socialism Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, ...
, using established political processes, in contrast to the
revolutionary socialist Revolutionary socialism is a political philosophy Political philosophy or political theory is the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ab ...
approach to transition associated with
orthodox Marxism Orthodox Marxism is the body of Marxist Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general ...
. In the early
post-war In Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, co ...
era in Western Europe, social democratic parties rejected the Stalinist political and economic model then-current in the Soviet Union, committing themselves either to an alternative path to socialism, or to a compromise between capitalism and socialism. In this period, social democrats embraced a mixed economy based on the predominance of
private property Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the prope ...
, with only a minority of essential utilities and public services under public ownership. Social democrats promoted
Keynesian economics Keynesian economics ( ; sometimes Keynesianism, named after British economist John Maynard Keynes John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, ( ; 5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946) was an English economist, whose ideas fundamentally changed the t ...
,
state interventionism Economic interventionism, sometimes also called state interventionism, is an economic policy position favouring government intervention in the market process with the intention of correcting market failure In neoclassical economics, market f ...
, and the welfare state, while placing less emphasis on the goal of replacing the capitalist system (
factor market In economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. ...
s,
private property Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the prope ...
, and
wage labour Wage labour (also wage labor in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Curren ...

wage labour
) with a qualitatively different socialist
economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environm ...
. While retaining socialism as a long-term goal, social democracy is distinguished from some modern forms of democratic socialism for seeking to humanize capitalism and create the conditions for it to lead to greater democratic,
egalitarian Egalitarianism (), or equalitarianism, is a school of thought A school of thought, or intellectual tradition, is the perspective of a group of people who share common characteristics of opinion or outlook of a philosophy Philosophy ...
, and
solidaristic Solidarity is an awareness of shared interests, objectives, standards, and sympathies creating a psychological sense of unity of groups or classes, which rejects the class conflict Class conflict, also referred to as class struggle and cla ...
outcomes. It is characterized by a commitment to policies aimed at curbing
inequality Inequality may refer to: Economics * Attention inequality, unequal distribution of attention across users, groups of people, issues in etc. in attention economy * Economic inequality, difference in economic well-being between population groups * ...
, eliminating
oppression Oppression is malicious or unjust Injustice is a quality relating to unfairness or undeserved outcomes. The term may be applied in reference to a particular event or situation, or to a larger status quo or is a Latin phrase meaning the ex ...

oppression
of underprivileged groups, and eradicating
poverty Poverty is the state of having little material possessions or income In microeconomics, income is the Consumption (economics), consumption and saving opportunity gained by an entity within a specified timeframe, which is generally expresse ...

poverty
, as well as support for universally accessible public services like
child care Child care, otherwise known as day care, is the care and supervision of a child or multiple children at a time, whose ages range from two weeks to eighteen years. Child care is a broad topic that covers a wide spectrum of professionals, institut ...
,
education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion ...
,
elderly care Elderly care, or simply eldercare (also known in parts of the English-speaking world Speakers of English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in His ...
,
health care Healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health Health, according to the , is "a state of complete physical, and social and not merely the absence of and ".. (2006)''Constitution of the World Health Organization''– ''Basic Docume ...

health care
, and
workers' compensation Workers' compensation or workers' comp is a form of insurance providing wage replacement and medical benefits to employees injured in the course of employment in exchange for mandatory relinquishment of the employee's right to sue his or her emp ...
. It has strong connections with the
labour movement The labour movement or labor movement consists of two main wings: the trade union movement (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a l ...
and
trade unions A trade union (or a labor union in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native ...
, being supportive of
collective bargaining Collective bargaining is a process of negotiation Negotiation is a between two or more people or parties intended to reach a beneficial outcome over one or more issues where a conflict exists with respect to at least one of these issu ...
rights for workers and measures to extend decision-making beyond politics into the economic sphere in the form of
co-determination In corporate governance Corporate governance is the collection of mechanisms, processes and relations used by various parties to control and to operate a corporation. Governance structures and principles identify the distribution of rights and re ...
, or
social ownership Social ownership is the appropriation of the surplus product Surplus product (german: Mehrprodukt, links=no) is an economic concept explicitly theorised by Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx (; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philos ...
, for employees and stakeholders. The
Third Way The Third Way is a akin to that attempts to reconcile and politics by advocating a varying synthesis of economic platforms with some social policies. The Third Way was created as a re-evaluation of political policies within various ce ...

Third Way
, which ostensibly aims to fuse
liberal economics Economic liberalism (also known as fiscal conservatism in United States politics) is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decisio ...
with social democratic
welfare Welfare (or commonly, social welfare) is a type of government support intended to ensure that members of a society can meet basic human needs Maslow's hierarchy of needs is an idea in psychology Psychology is the science of mind and ...
policies, is an ideology that developed in the 1990s and is sometimes associated with social democratic parties; some analysts have characterized the Third Way as part of the
neoliberal Neoliberalism, or neo-liberalism, is a term used to describe the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with free-market In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with valu ...
movement.


Overview


Definition

Social democracy is defined as one of many
socialist traditions Types of socialism include a range of economic An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of in ...
. As a
political movement A political movement is a collective attempt by a group of people to change government policy Public policy is a course of action created and/or enacted, typically by a government A government is the system or group of people governin ...
, it aims to achieve
socialism Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, ...
through
gradual The gradual ( la, graduale or ) is a chant A chant (from French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République ...
and
democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: Politics *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people ...

democratic
means. This definition goes back to the influence of both the
reformist socialism Reformism is a political doctrine Doctrine (from la, doctrina, meaning "teaching, instruction") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for ...
of
Ferdinand Lassalle Ferdinand Lassalle (; 11 April 1825 – 31 August 1864) was a Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to t ...

Ferdinand Lassalle
as well as the internationalist
revolutionary socialism Revolutionary socialism is a political philosophy Political philosophy or political theory is the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ab ...
advanced by
Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx (; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, M ...

Karl Marx
and
Friedrich Engels Friedrich Engels ( ,"Engels"
''
, from whom social democracy was influenced. As an international political movement and
ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of ...
, social democracy has undergone various major forms throughout its history. Whereas in the 19th century it was "organized Marxism", social democracy became "organized reformism" by the 20th century. As a policy regime, social democracy entails support for a
mixed economy A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon ...
and ameliorative measures to benefit the
working class The working class (or labouring class) comprises those engaged in manual-labour occupations or industrial work, who are remunerated via waged or salaried contracts. Working-class occupations (see also "Designation of workers by collar color ...
within the framework of democratic capitalism. By the 21st century, a social democratic policy regime is generally defined as an increase in
welfare Welfare (or commonly, social welfare) is a type of government support intended to ensure that members of a society can meet basic human needs Maslow's hierarchy of needs is an idea in psychology Psychology is the science of mind and ...
policies or an increase in
public service A public service is a service Service may refer to: Activities :''(See the Religion section for religious activities)'' * Administrative service, a required part of the workload of university faculty * Civil service The civil service is a co ...

public service
s, and may be used synonymously with the
Nordic model #REDIRECT Nordic model#REDIRECT Nordic model The Nordic model comprises the economic An economy (from Greek language, Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the Production (economics), production, Dist ...
. In political science, ''democratic socialism'' and ''social democracy'' are largely seen as synonyms, while they are distinguished in journalistic use. Under this democratic socialist definition, social democracy is an ideology seeking to gradually build an alternative
socialist economy Socialist economics comprises the economic theories, practices and norms of hypothetical and existing socialist Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisi ...
through the institutions of
liberal democracy Liberal democracy, also referred to as Western democracy, is the combination of a liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an adherent of a L ...
. Starting in the post-war period, social democracy was defined as a policy regime advocating reformation of capitalism to align it with the ethical ideals of
social justice Social justice is justice in terms of the distribution of wealth Wealth is the abundance of valuable financial asset A financial asset is a non-physical asset whose value is derived from a contractual claim, such as deposit (finance), ban ...
. In the 19th century, it encompassed a wide variety of non-revolutionary and revolutionary currents of socialism which excluded
anarchism Anarchism is a political philosophy Political philosophy or political theory is the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, knowledge ...

anarchism
. In the early 20th century, social democracy came to refer to support for a gradual process of developing socialism through existing political structures and an opposition to revolutionary means of achieving socialism in favour of reformism.


Political party

''Social Democratic'' is the name of socialist parties in several countries. The term came to be associated with the positions of the German and Swedish parties. The first advocated
revisionist Marxism Within the Marxist Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern ...
, while the second advocated a comprehensive
welfare state The welfare state is a form of government in which the state (or a well-established network of social institutions) protects and promotes the economic and social well-being of its citizens, based upon the principles of equal opportunity Equal o ...
. By the 21st century, parties advocating social democracy include Labour, Left, and some Green parties. Most social democratic parties consider themselves to be democratic socialists and are categorized as socialist parties. They continue to make references to socialism, either as a
post-capitalist Post-capitalism is a state in which the economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified w ...
order, or in more ethical terms as a just society, described as representing democratic socialism, without any explicit reference to the economic system or its structure. Parties such as the
Social Democratic Party of Germany The Social Democratic Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, ; SPD, ) is a social democratic Social democracy is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-makin ...
and the
Swedish Social Democratic Party The Swedish Social Democratic Party, officially the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Sweden ( sv, Sveriges Socialdemokratiska Arbetareparti ; S/SAP), usually referred to as The Social Democrats ( sv, link=no, Socialdemokraterna ), is a socia ...
describe their goal as the development of democratic socialism, with social democracy serving as the principle of action. Into the 21st century, European social democratic parties represent the centre-left and most are part of the
European Socialist Party The Party of European Socialists (PES) is a Social democracy, social democratic European political party. The PES comprises national-level political parties from all member states of the European Union (EU) plus Norway and the United Kingdom. ...
, while democratic socialist parties are to their left within the
Party of the European Left The Party of the European Left (PEL), commonly abbreviated European Left, is a European political party that operates as an association of Democratic socialism, democratic socialist and Communism, communist political parties in the European Unio ...
. Many of those social democratic parties are members of the
Socialist International The Socialist International (SI) is a worldwide organisation of political parties which seek to establish democratic socialism Democratic socialism is a political philosophy Political philosophy or political theory is the philosophi ...
, including several democratic socialist parties, whose
Frankfurt Declaration The Frankfurt Declaration is the general name that refers to the set of principles titled ''Aims and Tasks of Democratic Socialism'' issued on 3 July 1951 by the Socialist International The Socialist International (SI) is a worldwide organis ...
declares the goal of the development of democratic socialism. Others are also part of the
Progressive Alliance The Progressive Alliance (PA) is a political international of Social democracy, social democratic and Progressivism, progressive political parties and organisations founded on 22 May 2013 in Leipzig, Germany. The alliance was formed as an alte ...

Progressive Alliance
, founded in 2013 by most of contemporary or former member parties of the Socialist International. What
socialists Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognitive pr ...
such as
anarchists Anarchism is a political philosophy Political philosophy or political theory is the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of ...
,
communists Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be ...
, social democrats,
syndicalists Syndicalism is a current in the labor movement The labour movement or labor movement consists of two main wings: the trade union movement (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standa ...
, and some social democratic proponents of the
Third Way The Third Way is a akin to that attempts to reconcile and politics by advocating a varying synthesis of economic platforms with some social policies. The Third Way was created as a re-evaluation of political policies within various ce ...

Third Way
share in common is history, specifically that they can all be traced back to the individuals, groups, and literature of the
First International The International Workingmen's Association (IWA), often called the First International (1864–1876), was an international organization, international organisation which aimed at uniting a variety of different Left-wing politics, left-wing Soc ...
, and have retained some of the terminology and symbolism such as the colour
red Red is the color at the long wavelength end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet. It has a dominant wavelength Image:dominant wavelength.png, frame, Dominant/complementary wavelength example on the CIE color ...
. How far society should intervene and whether government, particularly existing government, is the correct vehicle for change are issues of disagreement. As the ''Historical Dictionary of Socialism'' summarizes, "there were general criticisms about the social effects of the private ownership and control of capital", "a general view that the solution to these problems lay in some form of collective control (with the degree of control varying among the proponents of socialism) over the means of production, distribution, and exchange", and "there was agreement that the outcomes of this collective control should be a society that provided social equality and justice, economic protection, and generally a more satisfying life for most people". ''Socialism'' became a catch-all term for the critics of capitalism and industrial society. Social democrats are
anti-capitalists Anti-capitalism is a political ideology and Political movement, movement encompassing a variety of attitudes and ideas that oppose capitalism. In this sense, anti-capitalists are those who wish to replace capitalism with another type of economic ...
insofar as criticism about "poverty, low wages, unemployment, economic and social inequality, and a lack of economic security" is linked to the
private ownership Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental Legal personality, legal entities. Private property is distinguishable from public property, which is owned by a state entity, and from Collective ownershi ...
of the
means of production The means of production is a concept that encompasses the social use and ownership Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive right In Anglo-Saxon law Anglo-Saxon law (Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest record ...
.


Terminology

In the 19th century, ''social democrat'' was a broad catch-all for international socialists owing their basic ideological allegiance to Lassalle or Marx, in contrast to those advocating various forms of
utopian socialism Utopian socialism is the term often used to describe the first current of modern socialism Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group ...
. In one of the first scholarly works on European socialism written for an American audience,
Richard T. Ely Richard Theodore Ely (April 13, 1854 – October 4, 1943) was an American economist, author, and leader of the Progressivism in the United States, Progressive movement who called for more government intervention in order to reform what they percei ...
's 1883 book ''French and German Socialism in Modern Times'', social democrats were characterized as "the extreme wing of the socialists" who were "inclined to lay so much stress on equality of enjoyment, regardless of the value of one's labor, that they might, perhaps, more properly be called communists". Many parties in this era described themselves as ''Social Democrat'', including the
General German Workers' Association The General German Workers' Association (german: Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiter-Verein, ADAV) was a German political party founded on 23 May 1863 in Leipzig Leipzig (, also , ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German Sta ...
and the
Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany The Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands, SDAP) was a Marxist socialist political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particu ...
which merged to form the
Social Democratic Party of Germany The Social Democratic Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, ; SPD, ) is a social democratic Social democracy is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-makin ...
, the
Social Democratic Federation The Social Democratic Federation (SDF) was established as Britain's first organised socialist Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social gr ...
in Britain, and the
Russian Social Democratic Labour Party The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP; , ''Rossiyskaya sotsial-demokraticheskaya rabochaya partiya (RSDRP)''), also known as the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party or the Russian Social Democratic Party, was a socialist ...
. ''Social Democrat'' continued to be used in this context up to the time of the
Bolshevik Revolution The October Revolution,. officially known as the Great October Socialist Revolution. under the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a Federalism, federal socialist state in ...
of October 1917, at which time ''Communist'' came into vogue for individuals and organizations espousing a revolutionary road to socialism. ''Social democracy'' or ''social democratic'' remains controversial among socialists. Some define it as representing both a
Marxist Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern society, societies soci ...
faction and non-communist socialists or the ''right-wing'' of socialism during the split with
communism Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

communism
. Others have noted its pejorative use among communists and other socialists. According to
Lyman Tower Sargent Lyman Tower Sargent (born 9 February 1940) is an American academic, professor emeritus of political science at the University of Missouri-St. Louis. Sargent's main academic interests are in utopian studies, political theory, American studies and bi ...
, "''socialism'' refers to ''social'' theories rather than to theories oriented to the individual. Because many communists now call themselves ''democratic socialists'', it is sometimes difficult to know what a political label really means. As a result, ''social democratic'' has become a common new label for democratic socialist political parties."


Marxist revisionism

Marxist revisionist
Eduard Bernstein Eduard Bernstein (; 6 January 1850 – 18 December 1932) was a German social democratic Social democracy is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social ...

Eduard Bernstein
's views influenced and laid the groundwork for the development of post-war social democracy as a policy regime, Labour revisionism, and the neo-revisionism of the
Third Way The Third Way is a akin to that attempts to reconcile and politics by advocating a varying synthesis of economic platforms with some social policies. The Third Way was created as a re-evaluation of political policies within various ce ...

Third Way
. This definition of social democracy is focused on ethical terms, with the
type of socialism Types of socialism include a range of economic An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of in ...
advocated being
ethical Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong action (philosophy), behavior".''Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy'"Ethics"/ref> The field of ethics, al ...
and
liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an adherent of a Liberal Party Arts, entertainment and media *''El Liberal'', a Spanish newspaper published betw ...
. Bernstein described socialism and social democracy in particular as "organized liberalism"; in this sense,
liberalism Liberalism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals ...

liberalism
is the predecessor and precursor of socialism, whose restricted view of
freedom Freedom, generally, is having the ability to act or change without constraint. Something is "free" if it can change easily and is not constrained in its present state. In philosophy and religion, it is associated with having free will and bein ...
is to be
socialized In sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phyto ...
, while democracy must entails social democracy. For those social democrats, who still describe and see themselves as socialists, ''socialism'' is used in ethical or moral terms, representing democracy, egalitarianism, and social justice rather than a specifically socialist economic system. Under this type of definition, social democracy's goal is that of advancing those values within a capitalist
market economy A market economy is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The ide ...
, as its support for a mixed economy no longer denotes the coexistence between
private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private", by Dusty Springfield from the 1990 album ''Reputation'' * Private (band), a Denmark-based band * Private (Ryōko Hirosue song), "Private" (Ryōko Hirosue song), from the 1999 album ''Private ...
and
public ownership State ownership, also called government ownership and public ownership, is the ownership of an industry Industry may refer to: Economics * Industry (economics) In macroeconomics, an industry is a branch of an economy that produces a clo ...
, or that between
planning Planning is the process A process is a series or set of activities that interact to produce a result; it may occur once-only or be recurrent or periodic. Things called a process include: Business and management *Business process A business p ...
and market mechanisms, but rather it represents free markets combined with government intervention and Regulated market, regulations. Social democracy has been seen as a revision of
orthodox Marxism Orthodox Marxism is the body of Marxist Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general ...
, although this has been described as misleading for modern social democracy. Some distinguish between ideological social democracy as part of the broad socialist movement and social democracy as a policy regime. The first is called ''classical social democracy'' or ''classical socialism'', being contrasted to ''competitive socialism'', ''liberal socialism'', ''neo-social democracy'', and ''new social democracy''.


Epithet usage

Social democracy has often been conflated with an administrative command economy, authoritarian socialism, big government, Marxist–Leninist states, Soviet-type economic planning,
state interventionism Economic interventionism, sometimes also called state interventionism, is an economic policy position favouring government intervention in the market process with the intention of correcting market failure In neoclassical economics, market f ...
, and state socialism. This is notable in the United States, where ''socialism'' has become a pejorative used by Conservatism in the United States, conservatives and Libertarianism in the United States, libertarians to taint Modern liberalism in the United States, liberal and Progressivism in the United States, progressive policies, proposals, and public figures. Those confusions are caused not only by the socialist definition but also by the capitalist definition. Since the 1980s, economic liberals such as Margaret Thatcher have supported a small government and a ''laissez-faire'' capitalist
market economy A market economy is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The ide ...
, while opposing economic interventionism, government regulations, and social democratic policies. This has resulted in ''socialism'' and by extension ''social democracy'' being defined in countries like Norway and the United Kingdom as "what a Labour government does", such as reflecting the moderate shift from nationalization policies to state regulation. With the rise of neoliberalism in the late 1970s and early 1980s, social democrats incorporated the Third Way and adopted economic liberal policies between the 1990s and 2000s. Many social democrats opposed to the Third Way overlap with democratic socialists in their commitment to a democratic alternative to capitalism and a
post-capitalist Post-capitalism is a state in which the economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified w ...
economy. Those social democrats have not only criticized the Third Way as anti-socialist and neoliberal but as anti-social democratic in practice. Some democratic socialists and others have rejected the Third Way's centrism, for the political centre moved decidedly to the right during the neoliberal years. During the Third Way era, parties such as the Labour Party (UK), Labour Party in Britain and the
Social Democratic Party of Germany The Social Democratic Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, ; SPD, ) is a social democratic Social democracy is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-makin ...
have been described in practice as indistinguishable from the centre-right, or as neoliberal.


Philosophy

As a form of reformist
democratic socialism Democratic socialism is a political philosophy Political philosophy or political theory is the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ab ...
, social democracy rejects the either/or interpretation of capitalism versus socialism. It claims that fostering a progressive evolution of capitalism will gradually result in the evolution of a capitalist economy into a socialist economy. All citizens should be legally entitled to certain social rights; these are made up of universal access to public services such as education, health care, workers' compensation, and other services including child care and care for the elderly. Social democrats advocate freedom from discrimination based on differences of ability/disability, age, ethnicity, gender, language, race, religion, sexual orientation, and social class. Later in their life,
Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx (; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, M ...

Karl Marx
and
Friedrich Engels Friedrich Engels ( ,"Engels"
''
came to argue that in some countries workers might be able to achieve their aims through peaceful means. In this sense, Engels argued that socialists were evolutionists, although both Marx and Engels remained committed to social revolution. In developing social democracy,
Eduard Bernstein Eduard Bernstein (; 6 January 1850 – 18 December 1932) was a German social democratic Social democracy is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social ...

Eduard Bernstein
rejected the revolutionary and materialist foundations of
orthodox Marxism Orthodox Marxism is the body of Marxist Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general ...
. Rather than class conflict and socialist revolution, Bernstein's Marxist revisionism reflected that socialism could be achieved through cooperation between people regardless of class. Nonetheless, Bernstein paid deference to Marx, describing him as the father of social democracy, but declaring that it was necessary to revise Marx's thought in light of changing conditions. Influenced by the gradualist platform favoured by the Fabian movement in Britain, Bernstein came to advocate a similar evolutionary approach to socialist politics that he termed ''evolutionary socialism''. Evolutionary means include representative democracy and cooperation between people regardless of class. Bernstein accepted the Marxist analysis that the creation of socialism is interconnected with the evolution of capitalism. August Bebel, Bernstein, Engels, Wilhelm Liebknecht, Marx, and Carl Wilhelm Tölcke are all considered founding fathers of social democracy in Germany, but it is especially Bernstein and Lassalle, along with labourists and reformists such as Louis Blanc in France, who led to widespread association of social democracy with socialist reformism. While Lassalle was a reformist state socialist, Bernstein predicted a long-term co-existence of democracy with a
mixed economy A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon ...
during the reforming of capitalism into socialism and argued that socialists needed to accept this. This mixed economy would involve State-owned enterprise, public, cooperative, and private enterprises, and it would be necessary for a long period of time before private enterprises evolve of their own accord into cooperative enterprises. Bernstein supported state ownership only for certain parts of the economy that could be best managed by the state and rejected a mass scale of state ownership as being too burdensome to be manageable. Bernstein was an advocate of Kantian socialism and neo-Kantianism. Although unpopular early on, his views became mainstream after World War I. In ''The Future of Socialism'' (1956), Anthony Crosland argued that "traditional capitalism has been reformed and modified almost out of existence, and it is with a quite different form of society that socialists must now concern themselves. Pre-war anti-capitalism will give us very little help", for a new kind of capitalism required a new kind of socialism. Crosland believed that these features of a reformed managerial capitalism were irreversible, but it has been argued within the Labour Party (UK), Labour Party and by others that Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan brought about its reversal in the 1970s and 1980s. Although the post-war consensus represented a period where social democracy was "most buoyant", it has been argued that "post-war social democracy had been altogether too confident in its analysis" because "gains which were thought to be permanent turned out to be conditional and as the reservoir of capitalist growth showed signs of drying up". In ''Socialism Now'' (1974), Crosland argued that "[m]uch more should have been achieved by a Labour Government in office and Labour pressure in opposition. Against the dogged resistance to change, we should have pitted a stronger will to change. I conclude that a move to the Left is needed". In ''Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties: East-Central and Western Europe Compared'', Vít Hloušek and Lubomír Kopecek explain how socialist parties have evolved from the 19th to the early 21st centuries. As the number of people in traditional working class occupations such as factory-workers and miners declined, socialists have successfully widened their appeal to the middle class by diluting their ideology; however, there is still continuity between parties such the SPD, the Labour Party in Britain, and other socialist parties which remain part of the same ''famille spirituelle'', or ideological party family, as outlined by most political scientists. For many social democrats, Marxism is loosely held to be valuable for its emphasis on changing the world for a more just, better future.


Development

During the late 19th century and the early 20th century, social democracy was a broad labour movement within socialism that aimed to replace
private ownership Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental Legal personality, legal entities. Private property is distinguishable from public property, which is owned by a state entity, and from Collective ownershi ...
with
social ownership Social ownership is the appropriation of the surplus product Surplus product (german: Mehrprodukt, links=no) is an economic concept explicitly theorised by Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx (; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philos ...
of the means of production, distribution and exchange, taking influence from both Marxism and the supporters of
Ferdinand Lassalle Ferdinand Lassalle (; 11 April 1825 – 31 August 1864) was a Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to t ...

Ferdinand Lassalle
. By 1868–1869, the socialism associated with
Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx (; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, M ...

Karl Marx
had become the official theoretical basis of the first social democratic party established in Europe, the
Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany The Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands, SDAP) was a Marxist socialist political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particu ...
. By the early 20th century, the German social democratic politician
Eduard Bernstein Eduard Bernstein (; 6 January 1850 – 18 December 1932) was a German social democratic Social democracy is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social ...

Eduard Bernstein
rejected the ideas in
orthodox Marxism Orthodox Marxism is the body of Marxist Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general ...
that proposed Historical materialism, specific historical progression and Proletarian revolution, revolution as a means to achieve social equality, advancing the position that socialism should be grounded in Ethical socialism, ethical and moral arguments for
social justice Social justice is justice in terms of the distribution of wealth Wealth is the abundance of valuable financial asset A financial asset is a non-physical asset whose value is derived from a contractual claim, such as deposit (finance), ban ...
and egalitarianism that are to be achieved through Gradualism#Politics and society, gradual legislative reform. Following the split between reformist and Revolutionary socialism, revolutionary socialists in the Second International, socialist parties influenced by Bernstein rejected revolutionary politics in favour of parliamentary reform, while remaining committed to Socialization (Marxism), socialization. During the 1920s and 1930s, social democracy became a dominant tendency within the socialist movement, mainly associated with reformist socialism whilst
communism Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

communism
represented revolutionary socialism. Under the influence of politicians like Carlo Rosselli in Italy, social democrats began disassociating themselves from orthodox Marxism altogether as represented by Marxism–Leninism, embracing liberal socialism,
Keynesianism Keynesian economics ( ; sometimes Keynesianism, named after British economist John Maynard Keynes John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, ( ; 5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946) was an English economist An economist is a professional and ...
, and appealing to morality rather than any consistent systematic, Scientific method, scientific, or materialist worldview. Social democracy made appeals to communitarian, corporatist, and sometimes nationalist sentiments, while rejecting the Economic determinism, economic and technological determinism generally characteristic of both orthodox Marxism and economic liberalism. By the post-World War II period and its Post-war consensus, economic consensus and Post–World War II economic expansion, expansion, most social democrats in Europe had abandoned their ideological connection to orthodox Marxism and shifted their emphasis toward social policy reform as a compromise between capitalism to
socialism Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, ...
. According to Michael Harrington, the major reason for this was due to the perspective that viewed the Stalinist-era Soviet Union as having succeeded in propaganda in usurping the legacy of Marxism and distorting it in propaganda to justify totalitarianism. In its foundation, the
Socialist International The Socialist International (SI) is a worldwide organisation of political parties which seek to establish democratic socialism Democratic socialism is a political philosophy Political philosophy or political theory is the philosophi ...
denounced the Bolshevik-inspired communist movement, "for [it] falsely claims a share in the Socialist tradition". Furthermore, core tenets of Marxism have been regarded by social democrats as having become obsolete, including the prediction that the working-class was the decisive class with the development of capitalism. In their view, this did not materialize in the aftermath of mass industrialization during World War II. During the
Third Way The Third Way is a akin to that attempts to reconcile and politics by advocating a varying synthesis of economic platforms with some social policies. The Third Way was created as a re-evaluation of political policies within various ce ...

Third Way
development of social democracy, social democrats adjusted themselves to the
neoliberal Neoliberalism, or neo-liberalism, is a term used to describe the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with free-market In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with valu ...
political climate that had existed since the 1980s. Those social democrats recognized that outspoken opposition to capitalism was politically non-viable, and that accepting the The powers that be (phrase), powers that be, seeking to challenge free-market and ''laissez-faire'' variations of capitalism, was a more immediate concern. The Third Way stands for a modernized social democracy, but the social democracy that remained committed to the gradual abolition of capitalism, along with social democrats opposed to the Third Way, merged into democratic socialism. Although social democracy originated as a revolutionary socialist or communist movement, one distinction made to separate democratic socialism and social democracy is that the former can include revolutionary means. The latter proposes representative democracy under the rule of law as the only acceptable constitutional form of government. Social democracy has been described as the evolutionary form of democratic socialism that aims to gradually and peacefully achieve socialism through established political processes rather than social revolution as advocated by revolutionary socialists. In this sense, social democracy is synonymous with ''democratic socialism'' and represented its original form, that of socialism achieved by
democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: Politics *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people ...

democratic
means, usually through the parliament. While social democrats continue to call and describe themselves as ''democratic socialists'' or simply ''socialists'', with time, the post-war association of social democracy as policy regime, and the development of the Third Way, ''democratic socialism'' has come to include communist and revolutionary tendencies, representing the original meaning of ''social democracy'', as the latter has shifted towards reformism.


Communism and the Third Way

Before social democracy was associated to a policy regime with a specific set of socioeconomic policies, its economics ranged from
communism Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

communism
to syndicalism and the guild socialists, who rejected or were opposed to the approach of some Fabians, regarded as being "an excessively bureaucratic and insufficiently democratic prospect". Communists and revolutionary socialists were a significant part of social democracy and represented its revolutionary wing. Although they remained committed to the concept of social democracy representing the highest form of democracy, social democracy became associated with its reformist wing since the communist split starting in 1917. The Russian Revolution further exacerbated this division, resulting in a split between those supporting the October Revolution renaming themselves as ''Communist'' and those opposing the Bolshevik development (favouring the liberal social democratic development as argued by the Mensheviks) remaining with the ''Social Democrat'' label. Rather than abandoning social democracy, Communists remained committed to revolutionary social democracy, merging into communism; however, they saw ''Social Democrat'' associated to reformism, found it irredeemably lost, and chose ''Communist'' to represent their views. For the Communists, the Social Democrats betrayed the world's
working class The working class (or labouring class) comprises those engaged in manual-labour occupations or industrial work, who are remunerated via waged or salaried contracts. Working-class occupations (see also "Designation of workers by collar color ...
by supporting the imperialist Great War and leading their national governments into the war. The Communists also criticized their reformism, arguing that it represented "reformism without reforms". This reformist–revolutionary division culminated in the German Revolution of 1919, in which the Communists wanted to overthrow the German government to turn it into a Soviet republic (system of government), soviet republic like it was done in Russia, while the Social Democrats wanted to preserve it as what came to be known as the Weimar Republic. It was those revolutions that transformed the social democracy meaning from "Marxist revolutionary" into a form of "moderate parliamentary socialism". While evolutionary and reformist social democrats believe that capitalism can be reformed into
socialism Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, ...
, revolutionary social democrats argue that this is not possible and that a social revolution would still be necessary. The revolutionary criticism of reformism but not necessarily of reforms which are part of the class struggle goes back to Marx, who proclaimed that social democrats had to support the bourgeoisie wherever it acted as a revolutionary, progressive class because "bourgeois liberties had first to be conquered and then criticised". Internal rivalry in the social democratic movement within the Second International between reformists and revolutionaries resulted in the Communists led by the Bolsheviks founding their own separate Communist International (Comintern) in 1919 that sought to rally revolutionary social democrats together for socialist revolution. With this split, the social democratic movement was now dominated by reformists, who founded the Labour and Socialist International (LSI) in 1923. The LSI had a history of rivalry with the Comintern, with which it competed over the leadership of the international socialist and labour movement. In Britain, the social democratic Gaitskellites emphasized the goals of personal liberty,
social welfare Welfare (or commonly, social welfare) is a type of government support intended to ensure that members of a society can meet basic human needs Maslow's hierarchy of needs is an idea in psychology Psychology is the science of mind and ...
, and social equality. The Gaitskellites were part of a political consensus between the Labour Party (UK), Labour and Conservative Party (UK), Conservative parties, famously dubbed Butskellism. Some social democratic Third Way figures such as Anthony Giddens and Tony Blair, who has described himself as a Christian socialist and a socialist in ethical terms, insist that they are socialists, for they claim to believe in the same values that their anti-Third Way critics do. According to those self-proclaimed social democratic modernizers, Clause IV's open advocacy of state socialism was alienating potential middle-class Labour supporters, and nationalization policies had been so thoroughly attacked by neoliberal economists and politicians, including rhetorical comparisons by the right of state-owned industry in the West to that in the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc, and nationalizations and state socialism became unpopular. Thatcherite Conservatives were adept at condemning state-owned enterprises as economically inefficient. For the Gaitskellites, nationalization was not essential to achieve all major socialist objectives;
public ownership State ownership, also called government ownership and public ownership, is the ownership of an industry Industry may refer to: Economics * Industry (economics) In macroeconomics, an industry is a branch of an economy that produces a clo ...
and nationalization were not specifically rejected but were rather seen as merely one of numerous useful devices. According to social democratic modernizers like Blair, nationalization policies had become politically unviable by the 1990s. Some critics and analysts argue that a number of prominent social democratic parties such as the Labour Party in Britain and the
Social Democratic Party of Germany The Social Democratic Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, ; SPD, ) is a social democratic Social democracy is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-makin ...
, even while maintaining references to socialism and declaring themselves to be democratic socialist parties, have abandoned socialism in practice, whether unwillingly or not.


Social democracy and democratic socialism

Social democracy has some significant overlap on practical policy positions with democratic socialism, although they are usually distinguished from each other. In Britain, the revised version of Clause IV to the Labour Party Constitution, which was implemented in the 1990s by the New Labour faction led by Tony Blair, affirms a formal commitment to democratic socialism, describing it as a modernized form of social democracy; however, it no longer commits the party to public ownership of industry and in its place advocates "the enterprise of the market and the rigour of competition" along with "high quality public services either owned by the public or accountable to them". Many social democrats "refer to themselves as socialists or democratic socialists", and some such as Blair "use or have used these terms interchangeably". Others argue that "there are clear differences between the three terms, and preferred to describe their own political beliefs by using the term 'social democracy' only". ''Democratic socialism'' represents social democracy prior to the 1970s, when the post-war displacement of Keynesianism by monetarism and neoliberalism caused many social democratic parties to adopt the Third Way ideology, accepting capitalism as the ''status quo'' for the time being and redefining
socialism Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, ...
in a way that maintains the capitalist structure intact. Like modern social democracy, democratic socialism tends to follow a gradual or evolutionary path to socialism rather than a revolutionary one. Policies commonly supported are Keynesian in nature and include some degree of regulation over the economy, social insurance schemes, public pension programs, and a gradual expansion of
public ownership State ownership, also called government ownership and public ownership, is the ownership of an industry Industry may refer to: Economics * Industry (economics) In macroeconomics, an industry is a branch of an economy that produces a clo ...
over major and strategic industry.


Internal debates

During the late 20th century, those labels were embraced, contested and rejected due to the emergence of developments within the European left such as Eurocommunism, the rise of neoliberalism, the Dissolution of the Soviet Union, fall of the Soviet Union and Revolutions of 1989, the
Third Way The Third Way is a akin to that attempts to reconcile and politics by advocating a varying synthesis of economic platforms with some social policies. The Third Way was created as a re-evaluation of political policies within various ce ...

Third Way
, and the rise of Anti-austerity movement, anti-austerity and Occupy movement, Occupy movements due to the global financial crisis of 2007–2008 and the Great Recession, the causes of which have been attributed by some to the neoliberal shift and deregulation economic policies. This latest development contributed to the rise of politicians, such as Jeremy Corbyn in Britain and Bernie Sanders in the United States, who rejected centrist politicians that supported Triangulation (politics), triangulation within the Labour Party (UK), Labour and Democratic Party (United States), Democratic parties. According to both right-wing critics and some supporters alike, policies such as universal Universal healthcare, health care and
education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion ...
are "pure Socialism" because they are opposed to "the hedonism of capitalist society". Partly because of this overlap, ''democratic socialism'' refers to European socialism as represented by social democracy, especially in the United States, where it is tied to the New Deal. Some democratic socialists who follow social democracy support practical, Progressivism, progressive reforms of capitalism and are more concerned to administrate and humanize it, with socialism relegated to the indefinite future. Other democratic socialists want to go beyond mere meliorist reforms and advocate systematic transformation of the mode of production from
capitalism Capitalism is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea o ...
to
socialism Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, ...
.


In the United States

Despite the long history of overlap between the two, with social democracy considered a form of democratic or parliamentary socialism and social democrats calling themselves democratic socialists, ''democratic socialism'' is considered a misnomer in the United States. One issue is that ''social democracy'' is equated with wealthy countries in the Western world, especially in Northern and Western Europe, while ''democratic socialism'' is conflated either with the pink tide in Latin America, especially with Venezuela, or with communism in the form of Marxist–Leninist socialism as practiced in the Soviet Union and other Communist state, self-declared socialist states. ''Democratic socialism'' has been described as representing the left-wing or socialist tradition of the New Deal. The lack of a strong and influential socialist movement in the United States has been linked to the Red Scare, and any ideology that is associated with socialism brings social stigma due its association with Authoritarian socialism, authoritarian socialist states. ''Socialism'' has been used as a scare word, or a pejorative term without clear definition, by Conservatism in the United States, conservatives and Libertarianism in the United States, libertarians to taint Liberalism in the United States, liberal and Progressivism in the United States, progressive policies, proposals, and public figures. Although Americans may reject the idea that the United States has characteristics of a European-style social democracy, it has been argued by some observers that it has a comfortable social safety net, albeit severely underfunded in comparison to other Western countries. It has also been argued that many policies that may be considered socialist are popular, but that socialism is not. Others such as Tony Judt described modern liberalism in the United States as representing European social democracy.


Policy regime

Into the 21st century, it has become commonplace to reference social democracy as the European social democracies, namely the actually-existing states in Northern and Western European countries, usually in reference to their model of
welfare state The welfare state is a form of government in which the state (or a well-established network of social institutions) protects and promotes the economic and social well-being of its citizens, based upon the principles of equal opportunity Equal o ...
and corporatist system of
collective bargaining Collective bargaining is a process of negotiation Negotiation is a between two or more people or parties intended to reach a beneficial outcome over one or more issues where a conflict exists with respect to at least one of these issu ...
. European social democracies represents a socio-economic order that has been variously described as starting in either the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s, and ending in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. Henning Meyer and Jonathan Rutherford associate social democracy with the socio-economic order that existed in Europe from the post-war period up until the early 1990s. This has been accepted or adopted across the political spectrum, including conservatives (Christian democrats), Liberalism, liberals (social liberals), and
socialists Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognitive pr ...
(social democrats); one notable difference is that socialists see the welfare state "not merely to provide benefits but to build the foundation for emancipation and self-determination". Social democracy influenced the development of social corporatism, a form of economic Tripartism, tripartite corporatism based upon a social partnership between the interests of Capital (economics), capital and Labour (economics), labour, involving collective bargaining between representatives of employers and of labour mediated by the government at the national level. During the
post-war consensus The post-war consensus is a thesis that describes the political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is reg ...
, this form of social democracy has been a major component of the
Nordic model #REDIRECT Nordic model#REDIRECT Nordic model The Nordic model comprises the economic An economy (from Greek language, Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the Production (economics), production, Dist ...
and to a lesser degree the West European social market economies. The development of social corporatism began in Norway and Sweden in the 1930s and was consolidated in the 1960s and 1970s. The system was based upon the dual compromise of capital and the labour as one component and the market and the state as the other component. From the 1940s through the 1970s, defining features of social democracy as a policy regime included Keynesian economic policies and industrial agreements to balance the power of capital and labour, as well as the welfare state. This is especially associated with the Swedish Swedish Social Democratic Party, Social Democrats. In the 1970s, social corporatism evolved into neo-corporatism, which replaced it. Neo-corporatism has represented an important concept of Third Way social democracy. Social democratic theorist Robin Archer wrote about the importance of social corporatism to social democracy in his work ''Economic Democracy: The Politics of a Feasible Socialism'' (1995). As a welfare state, social democracy is a specific type of welfare state and policy regime described as being universalist, supportive of collective bargaining, and more supportive of public provision of welfare. It is especially associated with the Nordic model. Social democracy rests on three fundamental features, namely "(1) democracy (e.g., equal rights to vote and form parties), (2) an economy partly regulated by the state (e.g., through Keynesianism), and (3) a welfare state offering social support to those in need (e.g., equal rights to education, health service, employment, and pensions)". In practice, social democratic parties have been instrumental in the social-liberal paradigm, lasting from the 1940s and 1970s, and called as such because it was developed by social liberals but implemented by social democrats. Since those policies were mostly implemented by social democrats, social liberalism is sometimes called ''social democracy''. In Britain, the social-liberal Beveridge Report drafted by the Liberal (UK), Liberal economist William Beveridge influenced the Labour Party (UK), Labour Party's social policies such as the National Health Service and Labour's welfare state development. This social-liberal paradigm represented the post-war consensus and was accepted across the political spectrum by conservatives, liberals and socialists until the 1970s. Similarly, the neoliberal paradigm which replaced the previous paradigm was accepted across the mainstream political parties, including social democratic supporters of the Third Way. This has caused much controversy within the social democratic movement.


Implementation

From the late 19th century until the mid- to late 20th century, there was greater public confidence in the idea of a state-managed economy that was a major pillar of both proponents of communism and social democracy, and to a substantial degree by conservatives and left-liberals. Aside from
anarchists Anarchism is a political philosophy Political philosophy or political theory is the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of ...
and other libertarian socialists, there was confidence amongst socialists in the concept of state socialism as being the most effective form of socialism. Some early British social democrats in the 19th century and 20th century such as the Fabians said that British society was already mostly socialist and that the economy was significantly socialist through government-run enterprises created by conservative and liberal governments which could be run for the interests of the people through their representatives' influence, an argument reinvoked by some socialists in post-war Britain. Advents in economics and observation of the failure of state socialism in the Eastern Bloc countries, and in the Western world with the crisis and stagflation of the 1970s, combined with the
neoliberal Neoliberalism, or neo-liberalism, is a term used to describe the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with free-market In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with valu ...
rebuke of
state interventionism Economic interventionism, sometimes also called state interventionism, is an economic policy position favouring government intervention in the market process with the intention of correcting market failure In neoclassical economics, market f ...
, resulted in socialists re-evaluating and redesigning socialism. Some social democrats have sought to keep what they deem are socialism's core values, while changing their position on state involvement in the economy, and retaining significant social regulations. When nationalization of large industries was relatively widespread in the 20th century until the 1970s, it was not uncommon for commentators to describe some European social democracies as democratic socialist states seeking to move their countries toward a
socialist economy Socialist economics comprises the economic theories, practices and norms of hypothetical and existing socialist Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisi ...
. In 1956, leading Labour Party (UK), Labour Party politician and British author Anthony Crosland said that capitalism had been abolished in Britain, although others such as Welshman Aneurin Bevan, Minister of Health in the first post-war Labour government and the architect of the National Health Service, disputed the claim. For Crosland and others who supported his views, Britain was a socialist state. According to Bevan, Britain had a socialist National Health Service which stood in opposition to the hedonism of Britain's capitalist society. Although as in the rest of Europe the Capital accumulation, laws of capitalism still operated fully and private enterprise dominated the economy, some political commentators stated that during the post-war period, when social democratic parties were in power, countries such as Britain and France were democratic socialist states, and the same claim has been applied to Nordic countries with the Nordic model. In the 1980s, the government of President François Mitterrand aimed to expand dirigism and attempted to nationalize all French banks, but this attempt faced opposition of the European Economic Community because it demanded a free-market economy among its members. Public ownership never accounted for more than 15–20% of capital formation, further dropping to 8% in the 1980s, and below 5% in the 1990s after the rise of neoliberalism. One issue of social democracy is the response to the collapse of legitimacy for state socialism and state-interventionist economics of
Keynesianism Keynesian economics ( ; sometimes Keynesianism, named after British economist John Maynard Keynes John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, ( ; 5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946) was an English economist An economist is a professional and ...
with the discovery of the phenomenon of stagflation which has been an issue for the legitimacy of state socialism. This has provoked re-thinking of how socialism should be achieved by social democrats, including changing views by social democrats on private property—anti-Third Way social democrats such as Robert Corfe have advocated a socialist form of private property as part of a new socialism (although Corfe technically objects to ''
private property Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the prope ...
'' as a term to collectively describe property that is not publicly owned as being vague) and rejecting state socialism as a failure. Third Way social democracy was formed as response to what its proponents saw as a crisis in the legitimacy of socialism—especially state socialism—and the rising legitimacy for neoliberalism, especially ''laissez-faire'' capitalism. The Third Way's view is criticized for being too simplistic in its view of the crisis. Others have criticized it because with the fall of state socialism it was possible "a new kind of 'third way' socialism (combining social ownership with markets and democracy), thereby heralding a revitalization of the social democratic tradition"; however, it has been argued that the prospect of a new socialism was "a chimera, a hopeful invention of Western socialists who had not understood how 'actually existing socialism' had totally discredited ''any'' version of socialism among those who had lived under it".


Analysis


Legacy

Social democratic policies were first adopted in the German Empire between the 1880s and 1890s, when the Conservatism in Germany, conservative Chancellor of Germany, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck put in place many
social welfare Welfare (or commonly, social welfare) is a type of government support intended to ensure that members of a society can meet basic human needs Maslow's hierarchy of needs is an idea in psychology Psychology is the science of mind and ...
proposals initially suggested by the Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social Democrats to hinder their electoral success after he instituted the Anti-Socialist Laws, laying the ground of the first modern
welfare state The welfare state is a form of government in which the state (or a well-established network of social institutions) protects and promotes the economic and social well-being of its citizens, based upon the principles of equal opportunity Equal o ...
. Those policies were dubbed as State Socialism (Germany), State Socialism by the Liberalism in Germany, liberal opposition, but the term was later accepted and re-appropriated by Bismarck. It was a set of social programs implemented in Germany that were initiated by Bismarck in 1883 as remedial measures to appease the
working class The working class (or labouring class) comprises those engaged in manual-labour occupations or industrial work, who are remunerated via waged or salaried contracts. Working-class occupations (see also "Designation of workers by collar color ...
and reduce support for
socialism Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, ...
and the Social Democrats following earlier attempts to achieve the same objective through Bismarck's Anti-Socialist Laws. This did not prevent the Social Democrats to become the biggest party in parliament by 1912. Similar policies were later adopted in most of Western Europe, including France and the United Kingdom (the latter in the form of the Liberal welfare reforms), with both socialist and liberal parties adopting those policies. In the United States, the Progressivism in the United States, progressive movement, a similar social democratic movement predominantly influenced more by Modern liberalism in the United States, social liberalism than Socialism in the United States, socialism, supported progressive liberals such as Democratic Party (United States), Democratic President of the United States, presidents Woodrow Wilson and Franklin D. Roosevelt, whose The New Freedom, New Freedom and New Deal programmes adopted many social democratic policies. With the Great Depression, economic interventionism, and nationalizations became more common worldwide and the
post-war consensus The post-war consensus is a thesis that describes the political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is reg ...
until the 1970s saw Keynesian social democratic and
mixed economy A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon ...
policies put in place, leading to the post-World War II boom in which the United States, the Soviet Union, the Western European, and East Asian countries experienced unusually high and sustained economic growth, together with full employment. Contrary to early predictions, this period of high economic growth and national development also included many countries that have been devastated by the war such as Japan (Japanese post-war economic miracle), West Germany and Austria (Wirtschaftswunder), South Korea (Miracle of the Han River), France (Trente Glorieuses), Italy (Italian economic miracle), and Greece (Greek economic miracle). With the 1970s energy crisis, the abandonment of both the gold standard and the Bretton Woods system along with Keynesian social democratic, mixed-economy policies and the implementation of Market-oriented economy, market-oriented, monetarist, and
neoliberal Neoliberalism, or neo-liberalism, is a term used to describe the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with free-market In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with valu ...
policies (privatization, deregulation, free trade, economic globalization, and anti-inflationary fiscal policy, among others), the social democratic welfare state was put in doubt. This caused several social democratic parties to adopt the
Third Way The Third Way is a akin to that attempts to reconcile and politics by advocating a varying synthesis of economic platforms with some social policies. The Third Way was created as a re-evaluation of political policies within various ce ...

Third Way
, a centrist ideology combining progressivism and social liberalism with neoliberalism; however, the Great Recession in the late 2000s and early 2010s cast doubts to the Washington Consensus, and Anti-austerity movement, protests against austerity measures ensued. There was a resurgence of social democratic parties and policies, especially in the United States and the United Kingdom with the rise of politicians such as Bernie Sanders and Jeremy Corbyn, who rejected the Third Way, after the economic recession caused the Pasokification of many social democratic parties. The United Nations ''World Happiness Report'' shows that the happiest nations are concentrated in social democratic nations, especially in Northern Europe, where the
Nordic model #REDIRECT Nordic model#REDIRECT Nordic model The Nordic model comprises the economic An economy (from Greek language, Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the Production (economics), production, Dist ...
is applied. This is at times attributed to the success of the social democratic Nordic model in the region, where similar democratic socialist, labourist, and social democratic parties dominated the region's political scene and laid the ground to their universal welfare states in the 20th century. The Nordic countries, including Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, as well as Greenland and the Faroe Islands, also ranks highest on the metrics of real GDP per capita, economic equality, public health, life expectancy, Solidarity, having someone to count on, perceived Freedom of choice, freedom to make life choices, generosity, quality of life and Human development (economics), human development, while countries practicing a neoliberal form of government have registered relatively poorer results. Similarly, several reports have listed Scandinavian and other social democratic countries as ranking high on indicators such as civil liberties, democracy, Press freedom, press, Labour rights, labour and Economic freedom, economic freedoms, peace, and freedom from corruption. Numerous studies and surveys indicate that people tend to live happier lives in countries ruled by social democratic parties, compared to countries ruled by neoliberal, centrist, and right-wing governments.


Criticism

Social democracy is criticized by other socialists because it serves to devise new means to strengthen the capitalist system which conflicts with the socialist goal of replacing capitalism with a socialist system. According to this view, social democracy fails to address the systemic issues inherent in capitalism. The American democratic socialist philosopher David Schweickart contrasts social democracy with
democratic socialism Democratic socialism is a political philosophy Political philosophy or political theory is the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ab ...
by defining the former as an attempt to strengthen the
welfare state The welfare state is a form of government in which the state (or a well-established network of social institutions) protects and promotes the economic and social well-being of its citizens, based upon the principles of equal opportunity Equal o ...
and the latter as an alternative economic system to capitalism. According to Schweickart, the democratic socialist critique of social democracy is that capitalism can never be sufficiently humanized and that any attempt to suppress its economic contradictions will only cause them to emerge elsewhere. He gives the example that attempts to reduce unemployment too much would result in inflation and too much job security would erode labour discipline. In contrast to social democracy's
mixed economy A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon ...
, democratic socialists advocate a
post-capitalist Post-capitalism is a state in which the economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified w ...
economic system based on either a Market economy#Market socialism, market economy combined with workers' self-management, or on some form of Participatory economy, participatory, decentralized planning of the economy. Marxian economics, Marxian socialists argue that social democratic welfare policies cannot resolve the fundamental structural issues of capitalism such as Business cycle#Marxian economics, cyclical fluctuations, Exploitation of labour#Marxist theory, exploitation, and Marx's theory of alienation, alienation. Accordingly, social democratic programs intended to ameliorate living conditions in capitalism, such as unemployment benefits and taxation on profits, creates further contradictions by further limiting the efficiency of the capitalist system by reducing incentives for capitalists to invest in further production. The welfare state only serves to legitimize and prolong the exploitative and contradiction-laden system of capitalism to society's detriment. Critics of contemporary social democracy such as Jonas Hinnfors argue that when social democracy abandoned Marxism, it also abandoned socialism and became a liberal capitalist movement, effectively making social democrats similar to non-socialist parties like the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party in the United States. Market socialism is also critical of social democratic welfare states. While one common goal of both concepts is to achieve greater social and economic equality, market socialism does so by changes in enterprise ownership and management whereas social democracy attempts to do so by subsidies and taxes on privately owned enterprises to finance welfare programs. Franklin Delano Roosevelt III (grandson of United States president Franklin D. Roosevelt) and David Belkin criticize social democracy for maintaining a Property income, property-owning capitalist class which has an active interest in reversing social democratic welfare policies and a disproportionate amount of power as a class to influence government policy. The economists John Roemer and Pranab Bardhan point out that social democracy requires a strong
labour movement The labour movement or labor movement consists of two main wings: the trade union movement (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a l ...
to sustain its heavy redistribution through taxes and that it is idealistic to think such redistribution can be accomplished in other countries with weaker labour movements, noting that social democracy in Scandinavian countries has been in decline as the labour movement weakened. Some critics say that social democracy abandoned socialism in the 1930s by endorsing Keynesian welfare capitalism. The democratic socialist political theorist Michael Harrington argues that social democracy historically supported
Keynesianism Keynesian economics ( ; sometimes Keynesianism, named after British economist John Maynard Keynes John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, ( ; 5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946) was an English economist An economist is a professional and ...
as part of a "social democratic compromise" between capitalism and socialism. Although this compromise did not allow for the immediate creation of socialism, it created welfare states and "recognized noncapitalist, and even anticapitalist, principles of human need over and above the imperatives of profit". Social democrats in favour of the
Third Way The Third Way is a akin to that attempts to reconcile and politics by advocating a varying synthesis of economic platforms with some social policies. The Third Way was created as a re-evaluation of political policies within various ce ...

Third Way
have been accused of having endorsed capitalism, including by anti-Third Way social democrats who have accused Third Way proponents such as Anthony Giddens of being anti-social democratic and anti-socialist in practice. Social democracy's reformism has been criticized from both the left and right, for if the left was to govern a capitalist economy, it would have to do so according to capitalist, not socialist, logic. This argument was previously echoed by Joseph Schumpeter in ''Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy'' (1942), writing: "Socialists had to govern in an essentially capitalist world ..., a social and economic system that would not function except on capitalist lines. ... If they were to run it, they would have to run it according to its own logic. They would have to "administer" capitalism". Similarly, Irving Kristol argued: "Democratic socialism turns out to be an inherently unstable compound, a contradiction in terms. Every social democratic party, once in power, soon finds itself choosing, at one point after another, between the socialist society it aspires to and the liberal society that lathered it". Joseph Stalin was a vocal critic of reformist social democrats, later coining the term ''social fascism'' to describe social democracy in the 1930s because in this period it embraced a similar corporatist economic model to the model supported by fascism. This view was adopted by the Communist International, which argued that capitalist society had entered the Third Period in which a proletarian revolution was imminent but that it could be prevented by social democrats and other fascist forces.


See also

* Economic progressivism * History of the Social Democratic Party of Austria * History of the Social Democratic Party of Germany * International Group of Democratic Socialists * List of anti-capitalist and communist parties with national parliamentary representation * List of democratic socialist parties that have governed * List of democratic socialist parties and organizations * List of democratic socialists * List of Labour parties * List of left-wing political parties * List of social democratic parties * List of social democrats * Social Democratic Party * Socialist Party


References


Citations


Notes


Sources


Books

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Conferences

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News

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Further reading

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External links

* * {{DEFAULTSORT:Social Democracy Social democracy, Anti-capitalism Centre-left ideologies Democracy Democratic socialism Economic ideologies Economic progressivism Left-wing ideologies Marxism Mixed economies Political-economic models Political ideologies Progressivism Social justice Social philosophy, Democracy Socialism Types of socialism Welfare economics