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Slash-and-burn agriculture is a farming method that involves the cutting and burning of plants in a
forest A forest is an area of land dominated by tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a ...

forest
or
woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the ''plurale tantum A ''plurale tantum'' (Latin for "plural only"; ) is a noun that appears only in the plural The plu ...

woodland
to create a
field Field may refer to: Expanses of open ground * Field (agriculture), an area of land used for agricultural purposes * Airfield, an aerodrome that lacks the infrastructure of an airport * Battlefield * Lawn, an area of mowed grass * Meadow, a grassl ...
called a swidden. The method begins by cutting down the trees and woody plants in an area. The downed
vegetation Vegetation is an assemblage of plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular re ...

vegetation
, or "slash", is then left to dry, usually right before the rainiest part of the year. Then, the
biomass Biomass is plant or animal material used as fuel to produce electricity Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position ...
is burned, resulting in a nutrient-rich layer of ash which makes the soil fertile, as well as temporarily eliminating
weed A weed is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can late ...

weed
and
pest species A pest is any animal or plant harmful to humans or human concerns. The term is particularly used for creatures that damage crops, livestock, and forestry or cause a nuisance to people, especially in their homes. Humans have modified the environm ...
. After about three to five years, the plot's
productivity Productivity is the efficiency Efficiency is the (often measurable) ability to avoid wasting materials, energy, efforts, money, and time in doing something or in producing a desired result. In a more general sense, it is the ability to do th ...
decreases due to depletion of nutrients along with weed and pest invasion, causing the farmers to abandon the field and move over to a new area. The time it takes for a swidden to recover depends on the location and can be as little as five years to more than twenty years, after which the plot can be slashed and burned again, repeating the cycle. In
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
and
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
, the practice is known as
jhum
jhum
or jhoom. Slash-and-burn is a type of
shifting cultivation Shifting cultivation is an agricultural Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated ...

shifting cultivation
, an
agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors such as watching tele ...

agricultural
system in which farmers routinely move from one cultivable area to another. A rough estimate is that 200 million to 500 million people worldwide use slash-and-burn. Slash-and-burn causes temporary
deforestation deforestation in 1750-2004 (net loss) showing anthropogenic modification of remaining forest. File:MODIS (2020-08-01).jpg, 300px, Dry seasons, exacerbated by climate change, and the use of slash-and-burn methods for clearing tropical forest ...

deforestation
. Ashes from the burnt trees help farmers by providing nutrients for the soil. In low density of human population this approach is very sustainable but the technique is not
scalable Scalability is the property of a system to handle a growing amount of work by adding resources to the system. In an economics, economic context, a scalable business model implies that a company can increase sales given increased resources. For ex ...
for large human populations. A similar term is
assarting Assarting is the act of clearing forest A forest is an area of land dominated by trees. Hundreds of definitions of forest are used throughout the world, incorporating factors such as tree density, tree height, land use, legal standing an ...
, which is the clearing of forests, usually (but not always) for the purpose of agriculture. Assarting does not include burning.


History

Historically, slash-and-burn cultivation has been practiced throughout much of the world. Fire was already used by hunter-gatherers before the invention of agriculture, and still is in present times. Clearings created by the fire were made for many reasons, such as to provide new growth for game animals and to promote certain kinds of edible plants. During the
Neolithic Revolution The Neolithic Revolution, or the (First) Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (Ameri ...
, groups of
hunter-gatherers A hunter-gatherer is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use of culture, language and tools. T ...
domesticated various plants and animals, permitting them to settle down and practice agriculture, which provided more nutrition per hectare than hunting and gathering. Some groups could easily plant their crops in open fields along river valleys, but others had forests covering their land. Thus, since Neolithic times, slash-and-burn agriculture has been widely used to clear land to make it suitable for crops and livestock. Large groups wandering in the woodlands was once a common form of society in European
prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, ...
. The extended family burned and cultivated their swidden plots, sowed one or more crops, and then proceeded on to the next plot.


Technique

Slash-and-burn fields are typically used and owned by a family until the soil is exhausted. At this point the ownership rights are abandoned, the family clears a new field, and trees and shrubs are permitted to grow on the former field. After a few decades, another family or clan may then use the land and claim usufructuary rights. In such a system there is typically no market in farmland, so land is not bought or sold on the open market and land rights are traditional. In slash-and-burn agriculture, forests are typically cut months before a dry season. The "slash" is permitted to dry and then burned in the following dry season. The resulting ash fertilizes the soil and the burned field is then planted at the beginning of the next rainy season with crops such as rice, maize, cassava, or other staples. This work was once done using simple tools such as
machete Older machete from Latin America file:Gerber Machete.jpg, Gerber Legendary Blades, Gerber machete/saw combo file:Agustín Cruz Tinoco working.jpg, Agustín Cruz Tinoco of San Agustín de las Juntas, Oaxaca uses a machete to carve wood file:Mexi ...

machete
s,
axe An axe (sometimes ax in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, ...

axe
s,
hoe Hoe or HOE may refer to: * Hoe (food), a Korean dish of raw fish * Hoe (letter), a Georgian letter * Hoe (tool), a hand tool used in gardening and farming ** Hoe-farming, a term for primitive forms of agriculture * Backhoe, a piece of excavating ...
s and
shovel A shovel is a tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use tool use by animals, simple tools, only human beings, whose use of stone tools date ...

shovel
s.


Benefits and drawbacks

This system of agriculture provides millions of people with food and income. It has been ecologically sustainable for thousands of years. Because the leached soil in many tropical regions, such as the Amazon, are nutritionally extremely poor, slash-and-burn is one of the only types of agriculture which can be practiced in these areas. Slash-and-burn farmers typically plant a variety of crops, instead of a monoculture, and contribute to a higher biodiversity due to creating mosaic habitats. The general ecosystem is not harmed in traditional slash-and-burn, aside from a small temporary patch. Slash and burn agriculture may be thought of as a form of
agroforestry Agroforestry is a land use Land use involves the management and modification of natural environment or wilderness Wilderness or wildlands (usually in the plural), are natural environments on Earth that have not been significantly modified ...

agroforestry
. This technique is most unsuitable for the production of cash crops. A huge amount of land, or a low density of people, is required for slash-and-burn. When slash-and-burn is practiced in the same area too often, because the human population density has increased to an unsustainable level, the forest will eventually be destroyed.


Regionally


South Asia

Tribal groups in the
northeastern Indian states
northeastern Indian states
of
Tripura Tripura () is a States and territories of India, state in northeastern India. The third-smallest state in the country, it covers and is bordered by Bangladesh to the north, south, and west, and the Indian states of Assam and Mizoram to the e ...

Tripura
,
Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh (, literally "land of dawn-lit mountains") is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...

Arunachal Pradesh
,
Meghalaya Meghalaya (, or , meaning "abode of clouds"; from Sanskrit , "cloud" + , "abode") is a states and union territories of India, state in northeastern India. Meghalaya was formed by carving out two districts from the state of Assam: the United Kha ...

Meghalaya
,
Mizoram Mizoram () is a state in northeastern India Northeast India (officially North Eastern Region, NER) is the easternmost region of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the ...

Mizoram
and
Nagaland Nagaland is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Col ...

Nagaland
and the
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
i districts of
Rangamati Rangamati (Bengali: রাঙ্গামাটি) is the administrative headquarters of Rangamati Hill District in the Chittagong Hill Tracts The Chittagong Hill Tracts ( bn, পার্বত্য চট্টগ্রাম, Parbotto ...

Rangamati
,
Khagrachari Khagrachari is a district in Chittagong Division, South eastern Bangladesh. It included under Chittagong Hill Tracts The Chittagong Hill Tracts ( bn, পার্বত্য চট্টগ্রাম, Parbotto Chottogram), often shortene ...
,
Bandarban Bandarban ( bn, বান্দরবান), is a district in South-Eastern Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, :bn:বাংলাদেশ, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South As ...

Bandarban
and
Sylhet Sylhet ( bn, সিলেট) is a metropolitan city in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for region ...

Sylhet
refer to slash-and-burn agriculture as ''jhum'' or ''jhoom'' cultivation. The system involves clearing land, by fire or clear-felling, for economically-important crops such as
upland rice Upland rice is rice grown on dry soil rather than flooded paddy field, rice paddies. Introduction Nearly 100 million people now depend on upland rice as their daily staple food. Almost two-thirds of the upland rice area is in Asia. Bangladesh, ...
, vegetables or fruits. After a few cycles, the land's fertility declines and a new area is chosen. ''Jhum'' cultivation is most often practiced on the slopes of thickly-forested hills. Cultivators cut the treetops to allow sunlight to reach the land, burning the trees and grasses for fresh soil. Although it is believed that this helps fertilize the land, it can leave it vulnerable to
erosion In earth science Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific ...

erosion
. Holes are made for the seeds of crops such as
sticky rice Glutinous rice (''Oryza sativa ''Oryza sativa'', common name, commonly known as Asian rice, is the plant species most commonly referred to in English as rice. It is the List of rice cultivars, type of farmed rice whose cultivars are most com ...

sticky rice
, maize, eggplant and cucumber. After considering ''jhum''s effects, the government of
Mizoram Mizoram () is a state in northeastern India Northeast India (officially North Eastern Region, NER) is the easternmost region of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the ...

Mizoram
has introduced a policy to end the method in the state.


Americas

Some American civilizations, like the Maya, sometimes used this agricultural technique.
Native Americans in the United States Native Americans, also known as American Indians, First Americans, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peopl ...
also used fire in agriculture and hunting.


Northern Europe

Slash-and-burn techniques were used in northeastern Sweden in agricultural systems. In Sweden the practice is known as . Telkkämäki Nature Reserve in
Kaavi Kaavi is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as w ...

Kaavi
, Finland, is an
open-air museum An open-air museum (or open air museum) is a museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is an institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for (conserves) a collection (artwork), collection of artifacts ...
where slash-and-burn agriculture is demonstrated. Farm visitors can see how people farmed when slash-and-burn was the norm in the
Northern Savonia North Savo (or Northern Savonia; fi, Pohjois-Savo; sv, Norra Savolax) is a Regions of Finland, region in eastern Finland. It borders the regions of South Savo, Central Finland, North Ostrobothnia, Kainuu, and North Karelia. Kuopio is the larges ...
n region of eastern Finland beginning in the 15th century. Areas of the reserve are burnt each year.


is a
Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Sweden and Finland * Swedish alphabet, the official alphabet used by the Swedish langua ...
and
Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ethnic group native to Norway *Demographics of Norway *The Norwegian language, including the t ...
term for
slash-and-burn agriculture Slash-and-burn agriculture is a farming method that involves the cutting and burning of plants in a forest or woodland to create a Field (agriculture), field called a swidden. The method begins by cutting down the trees and woody plants in an ...
derived from the
Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skades ...
word , which means "to burn". This practice originated in Russia in the region of
Novgorod Veliky Novgorod ( rus, links=yes, Великий Новгород, p=vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj ˈnovɡərət), also known as just Novgorod (russian: Новгород, lit=newtown, links=yes), is the largest city and administrative center of Novgorod O ...

Novgorod
and was widespread in Finland and Eastern Sweden during the Medieval period. It spread to western Sweden in the 16th Century when Finnish settlers were encouraged to migrate there by King
Gustav Vasa Gustav I, born Gustav Eriksson of the Vasa noble family and later known as Gustav Vasa (12 May 1496 – 29 September 1560), was King of Sweden The monarchy of Sweden concerns the monarchical head of state of Sweden,See the #IOG, Instrument ...

Gustav Vasa
to help clear the dense forests. Later, when the Finns were persecuted by the local Swedes, farming was spread by refugees to Eastern
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language Norwegian (Norwegian: ''norsk'') is a Nort ...

Norway
in the Eastern part of
SolørSolør is a Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ethnic group native to Norway *Demographics of Norway *The Norwegian lang ...
, in the area bordering Sweden known as
Finnskogen 310px, Grue in Innlandet county, Eastern Norway is the center of the revived ''Skogfinn'' minority culture.">Eastern_Norway.html" ;"title="Innlandet county, Eastern Norway">Innlandet county, Eastern Norway is the center of the revived ''Skogfinn'' ...
("the Finnish woods"). The practice also spread to
New Sweden New Sweden ( sv, Nya Sverige; fi, Uusi Ruotsi; la, Nova Svecia) was a Swedish colony along the lower reaches of the Delaware River The Delaware River is a major on the coast of the . It drains an area of in four s: , , and . Rising i ...
in North America. Reinforced by the use of fire in agriculture and hunting by
Native Americans Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
, it became an important part of pioneering in America.


=Description of process

= involved stripping a ring of bark completely around the trunk of
coniferous trees Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants, a subset of gymnosperm The gymnosperms, also known as Acrogymnospermae, are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, '' Ginkgo'', and gnetophytes. The term "gymno ...

coniferous trees
like
pine A pine is any conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The div ...

pine
or
spruce A spruce is a tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including ...

spruce
or felling them, allowing them to dry, setting fire to the dried forest and growing crops on the fertile ash-covered soil. The resulting ash was highly fertile, but only for a short period. The clearing was initially planted to
rye Rye (''Secale cereale'') is a grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses. It includes the cereal grasses, bamboo Bamboos are a diverse group of ev ...

rye
as soon as the ash had fully settled and sufficiently cooled. When the rain came, it packed the ash around the rye. The rye germinated and grew prolifically, with anywhere from 25 to 100 stalks (or straws), each with multiple grains. Only two tools were required, the axe and the sickle. The axe cut the trees to start the cycle. When the rye had ripened, it was harvested with a
sickle A sickle, bagging hook, reaping-hook or grasshook is a single-handed agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching televi ...

sickle
, which could reach among the rocks and stumps where a
scythe A scythe is an agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentar ...

scythe
would have been ineffective. In the second and third year the field would be sown with
turnip The turnip or white turnip (''Brassica rapa ''Brassica rapa'' is a plant species growing in various widely cultivated forms including the turnip (a root vegetable); napa cabbage, bomdong, bok choy, and rapini; and ''Brassica rapa'' subsp. ' ...

turnip
s or
cabbage Cabbage, comprising several cultivars of ''Brassica oleracea ''Brassica oleracea'' is a plant species that includes many common foods as cultivars, including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, collard greens, Savoy cabba ...

cabbage
s. It then might be grazed for several years before being allowed to return to woodland.


= culture

= required felling new forest and burning a new area every year. It was necessary to allow the former fields to regrow with forest for 10–30 years before repeating the cycle. As a result, the dwellings were often many kilometers from the fields. Furthermore, since the process was man-power intensive, extended families tended to work together and live in compact communities. The farming approach required a large area. When forest was plentiful, the Finns were very prosperous. As population grew and restrictions were placed on the forest which could be burned, it became increasingly difficult. By 1710, during the conflict with Sweden, because of their suspect loyalties Norwegian authorities considered expelling them from the border area, but did not do so because it was judged they were too poor to survive if evicted.


Research

This type of agriculture is discouraged by many developmental or environmentalist organisations, with the main alternatives being promoted are switching to more
intensiveIn grammar, an intensive word form is one which denotes stronger, more forceful, or more concentrated action relative to the root on which the intensive is built. Intensives are usually lexical formations, but there may be a regular process for formi ...
, permanent farming methods, or promoting a shift from farming to working in different, higher-paying industries altogether. Other organisations promote helping farmers achieve higher productivity by introducing new techniques. Not allowing the slashed vegetation to burn completely and ploughing the resultant charcoal into the soil ( Slash-and-char) has been proposed as way to boost yields. Promoters of a project from the early 2000s claimed that slash-and-burn cultivation could be reduced if farmers grew black pepper crops between ''
Inga ''Inga'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumsc ...
'' trees, which they termed ' Inga alley cropping'. A method of improving the yields in a type of traditional assarting cultivation used to grow common beans in Central American called 'slash-and-cover', has been proposed, by additionally planting
leguminous A legume () is a plant Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, thr ...
shrubs to act as a fallow crop after the soil is exhausted and one is ready to clear a new patch of forest.


Gallery

Bolivia slash & burn lo (4386225275).jpg ,
Santa Cruz Santa Cruz (or Santacruz) is a Spanish language, Spanish or Portuguese language, Portuguese term meaning "holy cross" and referring to the Christian cross, cross on which Crucifixion of Jesus, Jesus was crucified. Santa Cruz may also refer to: Pl ...
,
Bolivia Bolivia ; ay, Wuliwya ; Quechuan languages, Quechua: ''Puliwya'' , officially the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. The constitutional capital is Sucre, while the seat of g ...

Bolivia
An example of slash and burn agriculture practice Thailand.jpg ,
Chiang Mai Chiang Mai (, from th, เชียงใหม่ , nod, ), sometimes written as Chiengmai or Chiangmai, is the largest city in northern Thailand Northern Thailand ) , royal_anthem = '' Sansoen Phra Barami''( en, "Glorify ...

Chiang Mai
,
Thailand Thailand ( th, ประเทศไทย), historically known as Siam, () officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia. It is located at the centre of the Mainland Southeast Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, spanning , wi ...

Thailand
Jhum fire.jpg ,
Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh (, literally "land of dawn-lit mountains") is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...

Arunachal Pradesh
, India


See also

*
2006 Southeast Asian haze The 2006 Southeast Asian haze event was caused by continued uncontrolled burning from "slash and burn Slash-and-burn agriculture is a farming method that involves the cutting and burning of plants in a forest A forest is an area ...
*
2013 Southeast Asian haze The 2013 Southeast Asian haze was a haze Haze is traditionally an in which dust, smoke, and other dry obscure the clarity of the sky. The manual of codes includes a classification of horizontal obscuration into categories of fo ...
*
2015 Southeast Asian haze The 2015 Southeast Asian haze was an air pollution Air pollution is the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to the health of humans and other Outline of life forms, living beings, or cause damage to the climate or to ...
* 2019 Amazon rainforest wildfires * History of the forest in Central Europe *
Scorched earth A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy Military strategy is a set of ideas implemented by military organization Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the s of a so as to offer such as a may req ...

Scorched earth


Literature

* * Nesholen, Birger. (1994). "Svedjebrukerne," ''Østlandske Skogsområder'', Den Norske Turistforening. * Pyne, Stephen J. (1997) ''Vestal Fire: An Environmental History, Told through Fire, of Europe and Europe's Encounter with the World''. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. * Stagg, Frank Noel. (1956). ''East Norway and its Frontier''. Allen & Unwin. * Conklin H.C., 1961,
The Study of Shifting Cultivation
', Current Anthropology, vol. 2, no. 1, Chicago.


References


External links

*
Video of slash-and-burn
at the Telkkämäki Nature Reserve, Finland, in 2012
Video of slash-and-burn
in Sweden around 1930–32 (from the YouTube channel of the
Nordic Museum The Nordic Museum ( sv, Nordiska museet) is a museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for and displays a collection (artwork), collectio ...

Nordic Museum
) {{DEFAULTSORT:Slash-and-burn Agriculture by type Environmental issues with forests Fire in culture Tropical agriculture Forest management Agriculture in Sweden Agriculture in the United Kingdom Forestry in Finland Forestry in Norway Forestry in Russia Forestry in Sweden Forestry in the United Kingdom Agriculture in Russia Agriculture in Finland