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A silhouette ( , ) is the image of a person, animal, object or scene represented as a solid shape of a single colour, usually black, with its edges matching the outline of the subject. The interior of a silhouette is featureless, and the silhouette is usually presented on a light background, usually white, or none at all. The silhouette differs from an
outline Outline or outlining may refer to: * Outline (list), a document summary, in hierarchical list format * Code folding, a method of hiding or collapsing code or text to see content in outline form * Outline drawing, a sketch depicting the outer edg ...
, which depicts the edge of an object in a linear form, while a silhouette appears as a solid shape. Silhouette images may be created in any visual artistic media, but were first used to describe pieces of cut paper, which were then stuck to a backing in a contrasting colour, and often framed. Cutting portraits, generally in profile, from black card became popular in the mid-18th century, though the term ''silhouette'' was seldom used until the early decades of the 19th century, and the tradition has continued under this name into the 21st century. They represented a cheap but effective alternative to the
portrait miniature A portrait miniature is a miniature portrait A portrait is a painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in ...
, and skilled specialist artists could cut a high-quality bust portrait, by far the most common style, in a matter of minutes, working purely by eye. Other artists, especially from about 1790, drew an outline on paper, then painted it in, which could be equally quick. From its original graphic meaning, the term ''silhouette'' has been extended to describe the sight or representation of a person, object or scene that is
backlit A backlight is a form of illumination used in liquid crystal display A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display A flat-panel display (FPD) is an electronic display device s, LED display and Vacuum fluorescent display, VF display ...
, and appears dark against a lighter background. Anything that appears this way, for example, a figure standing backlit in a doorway, may be described as "in silhouette". Because a silhouette emphasises the outline, the word has also been used in the fields of
fashion Fashion is a form of self-expression and autonomy at a particular period and place and in a specific context, of clothing Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel, and attire) are items worn on the body. Typically, clothing is made of fab ...

fashion
and fitness to describe the shape of a person's body or the shape created by wearing clothing of a particular style or period.


Etymology and origins

The word ''silhouette'' is derived from the name of
Étienne de Silhouette Étienne de Silhouette (5 July 1709 – 20 January 1767) was a French people, French Ancien Régime Controller-General of Finances under Louis XV of France, Louis XV. Life Sometimes said to be akin to the next Niccolò Machiavelli, he was born at L ...
, a French
finance minister A finance minister is an executive or cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass she ...
who, in 1759, was forced by France's credit crisis during the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain and Kingdom of France, France. In Europe, the conflict ar ...
to impose severe economic demands upon the French people, particularly the wealthy. Because of de Silhouette's austere economies, his name became synonymous with anything done or made cheaply and so with these outline portraits. Prior to the advent of photography, silhouette profiles cut from black card were the cheapest way of recording a person's appearance. The term ''silhouette'', although existing from the 18th century, was not applied to the art of portrait-making until the 19th century. In the 18th and early 19th century, “profiles” or “shades” as they were called were made by one of three methods: # painted on ivory, plaster, paper, card, or in reverse on glass; # “hollow-cut” where the negative image was traced and then cut away from light colored paper which was then laid atop a dark background; and # “cut and paste” where the figure was cut out of dark paper (usually free-hand) and then pasted onto a light background.


History


Mythological origins

The silhouette is closely tied in mythology to the origins of art.
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, includi ...

Pliny the Elder
, in his ''Natural History'' (circa 77–79 AD) Books XXXIV and XXXV, recounts the origin of painting. In Chapter 5 of Book XXXV, he writes, “We have no certain knowledge as to the commencement of the art of painting, nor does this enquiry fall under our consideration. The Egyptians assert that it was invented among themselves, six thousand years before it passed into Greece; a vain boast, it is very evident. As to the Greeks, some say that it was invented at Sicyon, others at Corinth; but they all agree that it originated in tracing lines round the human shadow ..omnes umbra hominis lineis circumducta“. In Chapter 15, he tells the story of Butades of Corinth: :: “Butades, a potter of Sicyon, was the first who invented, at Corinth, the art of modelling portraits in the earth which he used in his trade. It was through his daughter that he made the discovery; who, being deeply in love with a young man about to depart on a long journey, traced the profile of his face, as thrown upon the
wall A wall is a structure and a surface that defines an area; carries a load; provides security Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability. The term is used in a wide ...

wall
by the light of the lamp 'umbram ex facie eius ad lucernam in pariete lineis circumscripsit'' Upon seeing this, her father filled in the outline, by compressing clay upon the surface, and so made a face in relief, which he then hardened by fire along with other articles of pottery.” :: In accord with the myth, Greek
Black-figure pottery Black-figure pottery painting, also known as the black-figure style or black-figure ceramic (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Re ...
painting, also known as the black-figure style or black-figure ceramic (Greek, μελανόμορφα, melanomorpha, common between the 7th and 5th centuries BC) employs the silhouette and characteristic profile views of figures and objects on pottery forms. The pots themselves exhibit strong forms in outline that are indicators of their purpose, as well as being decorative.


Profile portraits

For the depiction of portraits, the profile image has marked advantage over a full-face image in many circumstances, because it depends strongly upon the proportions and relationship of the bony structures of the face (the forehead, nose and chin) making the image is clear and simple. For this reason profile portraits have been employed on
coin A coin is a small, flat, (usually, depending on the country or value) round piece of metal A metal (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hell ...

coin
age since the
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...
era. The early Renaissance period saw a fashion for painted profile portraits and people such as
Federico da Montefeltro Federico da Montefeltro, also known as Federico III da Montefeltro KG (7 June 1422 – 10 September 1482), was one of the most successful mercenary captains (''condottieri ''Condottieri'' (; singular ''condottiero'' or ''condottiere'') we ...

Federico da Montefeltro
and
Ludovico Sforza Ludovico Maria Sforza (; 27 July 1452 – 27 May 1508), also known as Ludovico il Moro (; "the Moor"), was an Italian Renaissance nobleman who ruled as Duke of Milan from 1494-1499. His ascendancy followed the death of his nephew Gian Galeazzo Sf ...
were depicted in profile portraits. The profile portrait is strongly linked to the silhouette. Recent research at
Stanford University Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Du ...

Stanford University
indicates that where previous studies of face recognition have been based on frontal views, studies with silhouettes show humans are able to extract accurate information about gender and age from the silhouette alone. This is an important concept for artists who design characters for visual media, because the silhouette is the most immediately recognisable and identifiable shape of the character.


Rise of popularity and development in the nineteenth century

A silhouette portrait can be painted or drawn. However, the traditional method of creating silhouette portraits is to cut them from lightweight black cardboard, and mount them on a pale (usually white) background. This was the work of specialist artists, often working out of booths at fairs or markets, whose trade competed with that of the more expensive miniaturists patronised by the wealthy. A traditional silhouette portrait artist would cut the likeness of a person, freehand, within a few minutes.Roving Artist
Classic portraits
/ref> Some modern silhouette artists also make silhouette portraits from photographs of people taken in profile.Custom Silhouette Pictures by Karl Johnson
, accessed November 2, 2008.
These profile images are often head and shoulder length (bust), but can also be full length. The work of the
physiognomist Physiognomy (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is a ...

physiognomist
Johann Caspar Lavater Johann Kaspar (or Caspar) Lavater (; 15 November 1741 – 2 January 1801) was a Switzerland, Swiss poet, writer, philosopher, physiognomist and theologian. Early life Lavater was born in Zürich, and was educated at the ''Gymnasium (school), Gy ...
, who used silhouettes to analyse facial types, is thought to have promoted the art. The 18th century silhouette artist
August Edouart Auguste Amant Constant Fidèle Edouart (1789–1861) was a French-born portrait artist who worked in England, Scotland and the United States in the 19th century. He specialized in silhouette A silhouette ( , ) is the image of a person, anima ...
cut thousands of portraits in duplicate. His subjects included French and British nobility and US presidents. Much of his personal collection was lost in a shipwreck. In England, the best known silhouette artist, a painter not a cutter, was John Miers, who travelled and worked in different cities, but had a studio on the Strand in London. He advertised "three minute sittings", and the cost might be as low as half a crown around 1800. Miers' superior products could be in
grisaille Grisaille ( or ; french: grisaille, lit=greyed , from ''gris'' 'grey') is a painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a s ...

grisaille
, with delicate highlights added in gold or yellow, and some examples might be painted on various backings, including
gesso Gesso (; "chalk Chalk is a soft, white, porous Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the (i.e. "empty") spaces in a , and is a of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a between 0% and 100%. Strictly speaking, some tests ...
, glass or
ivory Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusk Tusks are elongated, continuously growing front teeth A tooth (plural teeth) is a hard, calcification, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to Mastica ...
. The size was normally small, with many designed to fit into a
locket A locket is a pendant A pendant is a loose-hanging piece of jewellery, generally attached by a small loop to a necklace, which may be known as a "pendant necklace". A pendant earring is an earring with a piece hanging down. Its name ste ...

locket
, but otherwise a bust some 3 to 5 inches high was typical, with half- or full-length portraits proportionately larger. In America, silhouettes were highly popular from about 1790 to 1840. The physionotrace apparatus invented by Frenchman Gilles-Louis Chrétien in 1783-84 facilitated the production of silhouette portraits by deploying the mechanics of the
pantograph A pantograph (Greek roots παντ- "all, every" and γραφ- "to write", from their original use for copying writing) is a mechanical linkage A mechanical linkage is an assembly of systems connected to manage forces and movement. The mo ...

pantograph
to transmit the tracing (via an eyepiece) of the subject's profile silhouette to a needle moving on an
engraving Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface by cutting grooves into it with a burin Burin may refer to: Tools * Burin (engraving), a tool with a narrow sharp face at the tip used for engraving and other pu ...

engraving
plate, from which multiple portrait copies could be printed. The signaled the end of the silhouette as a widespread form of portraiture.


Maintaining the tradition

The skill was not lost, and travelling silhouette artists continued to work at state fairs into the 20th century. and
Dai Vernon Dai Vernon (pronounced alternatively as "DIE" or as "DAY" as in David) (June 11, 1894 – August 21, 1992), a.k.a. The Professor, was a Canadian magician. His sleight of hand Sleight of hand (also known as prestidigitation or ''legerdema ...
were artists active in
Coney Island Coney Island is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body A planet is an astronomic ...
at this time as well. The popularity of the silhouette portrait is being reborn in a new generation of people who appreciate the silhouette as a nostalgic way of capturing a significant occasion. In the United States and the UK silhouette artists have websites advertising their services at weddings and other such functions. In England there is an active group of silhouette artists. In Australia, S. John Ross plied his scissors at
agricultural show An agricultural show is a public event exhibiting the equipment, animals, sports and recreation associated with agriculture and animal husbandry. The largest comprise a livestock show (a judged event or display in which selective breeding, breedi ...
s for 60 years until his death in 2008. Other artists such as Douglas Carpenter produce silhouette images using pen and ink.Silhouette artist
accessed November 2, 2008.


The silhouette in art, media and illustrations

Since the late 18th century, silhouette artists have also made small scenes cut from card and mounted on a contrasting background like the portraits. These pictures, known as "paper cuts", were often, but not necessarily, silhouette images. Among 19th century artists to work in this way was the author
Hans Christian Andersen Hans Christian Andersen (, ; 2 April 1805 – 4 August 1875) was a Danish author. Although a prolific writer of plays, travelogues, novels, and poems, he is best remembered for his literary fairy tales A fairy tale, fairytale, wond ...

Hans Christian Andersen
. The modern artist
Robert Ryan Robert Bushnell Ryan (November 11, 1909 – July 11, 1973) was an American actor and activist. Known for his portrayals of hardened cops and ruthless villains, Ryan performed for over three decades. He has received one nomination for an Academ ...
creates intricate images by this technique, sometimes using them to produce silk-screen prints. In the late 19th and early 20th century several illustrators employed designs of similar appearance for making book illustrations. Silhouette pictures could easily be printed by blocks that were cheaper to produce and longer lasting than detailed black and white illustrations. Silhouette pictures sometimes appear in books of the early 20th century in conjunction with colour plates. (The colour plates were expensive to produce and each one was glued into the book by hand.) Illustrators who produced silhouette pictures at this time include
Arthur Rackham Arthur Rackham (19 September 1867 – 6 September 1939) was an English book illustrator. He is recognised as one of the leading figures during the Golden Age of British book illustration. His work is noted for its robust pen and ink drawings ...
and
William Heath Robinson William Heath Robinson (31 May 1872 – 13 September 1944) was an English cartoonist, illustrator and artist, best known for drawings of whimsically elaborate machines to achieve simple objectives. In the UK, the term "Heath Robinson contr ...
. In breaking with literal realism, artists of the Vorticist, Futurist and Cubist movements employed the silhouette. Illustrators of the late 20th century to work in silhouette include Jan Pienkowski and
Jan Ormerod Jan Ormerod (23 September 1946 – 23 January 2013), born Janet Louise Hendry, was an Australian illustrator of children's books. She first came to prominence from her wordless picture book ''Sunshine'' which won the 1982 Mother Goose Award Th ...
. In the early 1970s, French artist Philippe Derome uses the black cut silhouette in his portraits of black people. In the 21st century, American artist
Kara Walker Kara Elizabeth Walker (born November 26, 1969) is an American contemporary painter, silhouettist, print-maker, installation artist, filmmaker, and professor who explores race, gender Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and d ...
develops this use of silhouette to present racial issues in confronting images.


Shadow theatre

Originating in the orient with traditions such as the shadow theatres of
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
, the
shadow play Shadow play, also known as shadow puppetry, is an ancient form of storytelling Storytelling describes the social and cultural activity of sharing narrative, stories, sometimes with improvisation, theatre, theatrics or embellishment. Every cul ...
became a popular entertainment in Paris during the 18th and 19th century. In the Paris of the late 19th century, the shadow theatre was particularly associated with the cabaret ''
Le Chat Noir Le Chat Noir (; French for "The Black Cat") was a nineteenth-century entertainment establishment, in the bohemian Montmartre Image:StPierreParis.jpg, upSaint-Pierre de Montmartre (originally 1133, much of it destroyed in 1790 and rebuilt in ...
'' where Henri Rivière was the designer.


Movies

Since their pioneering use by
Lotte Reiniger Charlotte "Lotte" Reiniger (2 June 1899 – 19 June 1981) was a German film director A film director controls a 's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the (or script) while guiding the and s in the fulfilment of that . The direct ...
in silent films, silhouettes have been used for a variety of iconic, graphic, emotional, or conversely for distancing, effects in many movies. These include many of the opening credit sequences of the
James Bond The ''James Bond'' series focuses on a fictional British Secret Service The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the foreign intelligence service of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain ...
films. The opening sequence of the television series ''
Alfred Hitchcock Presents ''Alfred Hitchcock Presents'' is an American television anthology series created, hosted, and produced by Alfred Hitchcock, and aired on CBS and NBC between 1955 and 1965. It features dramas, thrillers, and mysteries. Between 1962 and 1965 it wa ...

Alfred Hitchcock Presents
'' features a silhouetted profile of
Alfred Hitchcock Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock (13 August 1899 – 29 April 1980) was an English film director, producer, and screenwriter. He is one of the most influential and widely studied filmmakers in the history of cinema. Known as the "Master of S ...
stepping into a
caricature A caricature is a rendered image showing the features of its subject in a simplified or exaggerated way through sketching, pencil strokes, or through other artistic drawings (compare to: cartoon A cartoon is a type of illustration that is ty ...

caricature
d outline of himself, and in his movie Psycho the killer in the shower scene manifests as a terrifying silhouette. A scene from ''
E.T. ''E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial'' (or simply ''E.T.'') is a 1982 American science fiction film Science fiction (or sci-fi) is a film genre A film genre is a stylistic or thematic category for motion pictures A film, also called a ...
'' showing the central characters on a flying bicycle silhouetted against the full moon became a well-known movie
poster A poster is a temporary promotion of an idea, product, or event put up in a public space for mass consumption. Typically, posters include both textual and graphic elements, although a poster may be either wholly graphical or wholly text. Post ...
. ''
Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 1 ''Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 1'' is a 2010 fantasy film Fantasy films are films that belong to the fantasy Fantasy is a genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, a ...
'' contains an animated sequence in silhouette illustrating a short story ''The Tale of the Three Brothers'' that is embedded in the film. The sequence was produced by
Ben Hibon Ben Hibon is a Swiss animation director. Hibon was born in Geneva, Switzerland, where he completed studies in Fine Art. He moved to London in 1996 to study Graphic Design at the Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design, followed by a master' ...
for Framestore, with artwork by Alexis Lidell. Silhouettes have also been used by recording artists in
music video A music video is a video Video is an electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum ...
s. One example is the video for "Buttons" by The Pussycat Dolls, in which Nicole Scherzinger is seen in silhouette. Michael Jackson used his own distinctive silhouette both on stage and in videos such as "You Rock My World". Early iPod commercials portrayed silhouetted dancers wearing an iPod and earbuds. The cult television program, Mystery Science Theater 3000 features the three main characters of the series watching a movie as silhouettes at the bottom of the screen.


Architecture

The discipline of architecture that studies the shadows cast by or upon buildings is called Sciography. The play of shadows upon buildings was very much in vogue a thousand years ago as evidenced by the surviving examples of "mukarnas" art where the shadows of 3 dimensional ornamentation with stone masonry around the entrance of mosques form pictures. As outright pictures were avoided in Islam, tessellations and calligraphic pictures were allowed, "accidental" silhouettes are a creative alternative.


Photography

Many photographers use the technique of photographing people, objects or landscape elements against the light, to achieve an image in silhouette. The background light might be natural, such as a cloudy or open sky, mist or fog, sunset or an open doorway (a technique known as contre-jour), or it might be contrived in a studio; see low-key lighting. Silhouetting requires that the exposure be adjusted so that there is no detail (underexposure) within the desired silhouette element, and overexposure for the background to render it bright; so a lighting ratio of 16:1 or greater is the ideal. The Zone System was an aid to film photographers in achieving the required exposure ratios. High contrast film, adjustment of film development, and/or high contrast photographic paper may be used in chemical-based photography to enhance the effect in the darkroom. With digital processing the contrast may be enhanced through the manipulation of the contrast curve for the image.


In graphic design

In media the term "to silhouette" is used for the process of separating or masking a portion of an image (such as the background) so that it does not show. Traditionally silhouettes have often been used in advertising, particularly in poster design, because they can be cheaply and effectively printed.


Other uses


Fashion and fitness

The word "silhouette", because it implies the outline of a form, has been used in both fashion and fitness to describe the outline shape of the body from a particular angle, as altered by clothing in fashion usage, and clothed or unclothed where fitness is concerned
(e.g. a usage applied here by the Powerhouse Museum
. Advertising for both these fields urges people, women in particular, to achieve a particular appearance, either by corsetry, Dieting, diet or exercise. The term was in use in advertising by the early 20th century. Many gyms and fitness studios use the word "silhouette" either in their name or in their advertising. Historians of costume also use the term when describing the effect achieved by the clothes of different periods, so that they might describe and compare the silhouette of the 1860s with that of the other decades of the 19th century. A desirable silhouette could be influenced by many factors. The invention of crinoline steel influenced the silhouette of women in the 1850s and 60s. The posture of the Alexandra of Denmark, Princess Alexandra influenced the silhouette of English women in the Edwardian period. See advertisement left.


Identification

Because silhouettes give a very clear image, they are often used in any field where the speedy identification of an object is necessary. Silhouettes have many practical applications. They are used for traffic signs (see pic below). They are used to identify towns or countries with silhouettes of monuments or maps. They are used to identify natural objects such as trees, insects and dinosaurs. They are used in forensic science.


Journalism

For interviews, some individuals choose to be videotaped in silhouette to mask their facial features and protect their anonymity, typically accompanied by a dubbed voice. This is done when the individuals may be endangered if it is known they were interviewed.


Computer modelling

Computer vision researchers have been able to build computational models for perception that are capable of generating and 3D reconstruction, reconstructing 3D shapes from single or multi-view depth maps or silhouettes


Business Documents

Silhouettes have also been used to create images that serve as business documents. Slave owners have had silhouettes made of the people they enslaved in order to document them as property and in order to accompany other business documents such as a Bill of sale, Bill of Sale. File:Flora NPG.2021.33.jpg, Paper-cut silhouette on paperboard of enslaved woman Flora. File:NPG-AD NPG 2021 1 int.jpg, Bill of Sale of the enslaved woman Flora.


Military usage

Silhouettes of ships, planes, tanks, and other military vehicles are used by soldiers and sailors for learning to identify different craft.


Firearm targets

File:Target-human silhouette.png, Human silhouette shooting target, targets are use for military, police and civilian firearms training. File:Metallic silhouettes.jpg, Metallic silhouette, like these of the National Rifle Association are used for target shooting.


Silhouette images

File:JaneAustenSilhouette.png, A traditional silhouette image of Jane Austen, 18th century File:Beethoven 16 Silhouette.jpg, Beethoven as a boy, finely cut with details of hair and clothing, 18th century File:Mudflap girl.svg, The Mudflap girl is a common modern image on car mudflaps File:Human evolution.svg, Silhouette image representing human evolution File:Japan road sign 207-A.svg, Traffic signs often use silhouettes. This sign warns that the road crosses a railway line. File:Flag of Cyprus.svg, The flag of Cyprus shows a map of the country in silhouette form. Countries are often identified by silhouette maps. File:Statue of Liberty, Silhouette.jpg, A silhouette of the Statue of Liberty in New York City, New York. Monuments are often identified by their silhouettes. File:Toro Osborne Cabezas de San Juan.JPG, The Osborne bull advertising sign in Las Cabezas de San Juan, Spain.


Recent photographic images

File:Flickr - Nicholas T - Rumination.jpg, Rumination File:Below Bethesda Terrace in the Central Park.jpg, Below Bethesda Terrace File:Jrballe Tenryuji Kyoto Japan two people relaxing.JPG, Relaxing at a Japanese temple File:President and First Lady Obama watch fireworks 07-04-09.jpg, Barack and Michelle Obama watching fireworks File:Valborgarmessa.jpg, Walpurgis night File:Lined up for sunset (5089832428).jpg, Lined up for sunset File:The Silent.jpg, The Silent File:Sunrise at al-Masjid al-Nabawi.jpg, Sunset at al Masjid al-Nabawi File:Still Water At Dusk.jpg, Still water at dusk File:Cambodia 08 - 021 - sunset (3199504538).jpg, Cambodia at sunset File:Sonnenuntergang, Bodensee.jpg, Sunset on Lake Constance File:Silhouette of the Palace of Westminster.jpg, Silhouette of the Palace of Westminster


See also

* Osborne bull * :Silhouettists, Silhouette artists * Clipping path


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * * *


Film

* Reiniger, Lotte: ''Homage to the Inventor of the Silhouette Film''. Dir. Katja Raganelli. DVD. Milestone Film, 1999.


External links


GAP
Guild of American Papercutters *
Profile Likenesses of the Executive and Legislature of Georgia (Silhouette Book), by William H. Brown, 1855
from the collection of th
Georgia Archives

Kara Walker's A Horrible Beautiful Beast

Kara Walker's 2007 Whitney Exhibit
* * {{Authority control Paper art Photographic techniques Composition in visual art Shadows Silhouettes,