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The self is an individual person as the object of its own reflective
consciousness Consciousness, at its simplest, is or of internal and external existence. Despite millennia of analyses, definitions, explanations and debates by philosophers and scientists, consciousness remains puzzling and controversial, being "at once t ...

consciousness
. Since the ''self'' is a reference by a subject to the same subject, this reference is necessarily
subjective Subjective may refer to: * Subjectivity, a subject's personal perspective, feelings, beliefs, desires or discovery, as opposed to those made from an independent, objective, point of view ** Subjective experience, the subjective quality of consciou ...
. The sense of having a self—or ''selfhood''—should, however, not be confused with
subjectivity Subjectivity in a philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical or mental reality Reality is the sum ...
itself. Ostensibly, this sense is directed outward from the subject to refer inward, back to its "self" (or itself). Examples of psychiatric conditions where such "sameness" may become broken include
depersonalization Depersonalization can consist of a detachment within the self, regarding one's mind or body, or being a detached observer of oneself. Subjects feel they have changed and that the world has become vague, dreamlike, less real, lacking in significanc ...
, which sometimes occurs in
schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a mental disorder A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning. Such features may b ...

schizophrenia
: the self appears different from the subject. The first-person perspective distinguishes selfhood from
personal identity 300px, What does it take for a person to persist from moment to moment—for the same person to exist at different moments? Personal identity is the unique numerical identity In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of genera ...
. Whereas "identity" is (literally) sameness and may involve
categorization Categorization is the ability and activity to recognize shared features or similarities between the elements of the experience of the world (such as Object (philosophy), objects, events, or ideas), organizing and classifying experience by asso ...

categorization
and
labeling Labelling or using a label is describing someone or something in a word or short phrase. For example, describing someone who has broken a law as a criminal. Labeling theory, Labelling theory is a theory in sociology which ascribes labelling of pe ...
, selfhood implies a first-person perspective and suggests potential uniqueness. Conversely, we use "person" as a third-person reference. Personal identity can be impaired in late-stage
Alzheimer's disease Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a that usually starts slowly and progressively worsens. It is the cause of 60–70% of cases of . The most common early symptom is difficulty in . As the disease advance ...
and in other
neurodegenerative A neurodegenerative disease is caused by the progressive loss of structure or function of neuron A neuron or nerve cell is an membrane potential#Cell excitability, electrically excitable cell (biology), cell that communicates with other cells ...
diseases. Finally, the self is distinguishable from "others". Including the distinction between sameness and otherness, the self versus other is a research topic in contemporary
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such questio ...

philosophy
and contemporary
phenomenology Phenomenology may refer to: * Empirical research, when used to describe measurement methods in some sciences * An empirical relationship or phenomenological model * Phenomenology (architecture), based on the experience of building materials and the ...
(see also psychological phenomenology),
psychology Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ...

psychology
,
psychiatry Psychiatry is the devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of s. These include various s related to mood, behaviour, , and s. See . Initial psychiatric assessment of a person typically begins with a and . Physical examinations and ...
,
neurology Neurology (from el, , "string, nerve" and the suffix , "study of") is a branch of dealing with . Neurology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of conditions and disease involving the and s (and their subdivisions, the ...
, and
neuroscience Neuroscience is the of the . It is a science that combines , , , , , and to understand the fundamental and emergent properties of s, and s. The understanding of the biological basis of , , , , and has been described by as the "epic chal ...

neuroscience
. Although
subjective experience In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, lang ...
is central to selfhood, the privacy of this experience is only one of many problems in the
Philosophy of self The philosophy of self is the study of the many conditions of identity Identity may refer to: Social sciences * Identity (social science), personhood or group affiliation in psychology and sociology Group expression and affiliation * Cu ...
and
scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. ...

scientific
study of
consciousness Consciousness, at its simplest, is or of internal and external existence. Despite millennia of analyses, definitions, explanations and debates by philosophers and scientists, consciousness remains puzzling and controversial, being "at once t ...

consciousness
.


Neuroscience

Two areas of the
brain A brain is an organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tiss ...

brain
that are important in retrieving self-knowledge are the
medial prefrontal cortex In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex The cerebral cortex, also known as the cerebral mantle, is the outer layer of neural tissue of the cerebrum of the brain A brain is an organ (anatomy), organ th ...
and the medial posterior parietal cortex.Pfeifer, J. H., Lieberman, M. D., & Dapretto, M. (2007). "I know you are but what am I?!": Neural bases of self and social knowledge retrieval in children and adults. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19(8), 1323-1337. The
posterior cingulate cortex The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is the caudal part of the cingulate cortex 250px, Coronal section of brain. Cingulate cortex is shown in yellow. The cingulate cortex is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cerebral cor ...
, the
anterior cingulate cortex In the human brain The human brain is the central organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-ex ...
, and
medial prefrontal cortex In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex The cerebral cortex, also known as the cerebral mantle, is the outer layer of neural tissue of the cerebrum of the brain A brain is an organ (anatomy), organ th ...
are thought to combine to provide humans with the ability to self-reflect. The
insular cortex The insular cortex (also insula and insular lobe) is a portion of the cerebral cortex The cerebral cortex, also known as the cerebral mantle, is the outer layer of neural tissue of the cerebrum of the brain in humans and other mammals. The cer ...

insular cortex
is also thought to be involved in the process of
self-reference Self-reference occurs in natural language, natural or formal languages when a Sentence (linguistics), sentence, idea or Well-formed formula, formula refers to itself. The reference may be expressed either directly—through some intermediate s ...
.Modinos G, Renken R, Ormel J, Aleman A. Self-reflection and the psychosis-prone brain: an fMRI study. Neuropsychology erial online May 2011;25(3):295-305. Available from: MEDLINE with Full Text, Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 7, 2011.


Psychology

The psychology of self is the study of either the
cognitive Cognition () refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many aspects of intellectual function Intellectual functioning refers to the "general men ...

cognitive
and
affective Affect, in psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousness, conscious and Unconscious mind, unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought. It is an academic discipline of imm ...
representation of one's identity or the subject of experience. The earliest formulation of the self in
modern psychology Today, psychology is defined as "the scientific study of behavior and mental processes." Philosophical interest in the human mind and behavior dates back to the ancient civilizations of Ancient Egypt, Egypt, History of Iran, Persia, Ancient Greec ...
forms the distinction between the self as ''I'', the subjective knower, and the self as ''Me'', the subject that is known. Current views of the self in psychology position the self as playing an integral part in human motivation, cognition, affect, and
social identity Identity is the qualities, beliefs, personality, looks and/or expressions that make a person (self-identity One's self-concept (also called self-construction, self-identity, self-perspective or self-structure) is a collection of belief ...

social identity
. Self following from
John Locke John Locke (; 29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment Enlightenment, enlighten or enlightened may refer to: Age of Enlightenment * ...

John Locke
has been seen as a product of
episodic memory Episodic may refer to: * The nature of television series that are divided into short programs known as episodes * Episodic memory, types of memory that result from specific incidents in a lifetime * In Geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek ...
but research upon those with
amnesia Amnesia is a deficit in memory Memory is the faculty of the brain by which data or information is encoded, stored, and retrieved when needed. It is the retention of information over time for the purpose of influencing future action. If Fo ...

amnesia
find they have a coherent sense of self based upon preserved conceptual autobiographical knowledge. It is increasingly possible to correlate cognitive and affective experience of self with neural processes. A goal of this ongoing research is to provide grounding and insight into the elements of which the complex multiply situated selves of human identity are composed. The 'Disorders of the Self' have also been extensively studied by psychiatrists. For example, facial and
pattern recognition Pattern recognition is the automated recognition of pattern A pattern is a regularity in the world, in human-made design, or in abstract ideas. As such, the elements of a pattern repeat in a predictable manner. A geometric pattern is a kind of ...
take large amounts of brain processing capacity but pareidolia cannot explain many constructs of self for cases of disorder, such as schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. One's sense of self can also be changed upon becoming part of a stigmatized group. According to Cox, Abramson, Devine, and Hollon (2012), if an individual has prejudice against a certain group, like the elderly and then later becomes part of this group this prejudice can be turned inward causing depression (i.e. deprejudice). The philosophy of a disordered self, such as in
schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a mental disorder A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning. Such features may b ...

schizophrenia
, is described in terms of what the psychiatrist understands are actual events in terms of neuron excitation but are delusions nonetheless, and the schizo-affective or a schizophrenic person also believes are actual events in terms of essential being. PET scans have shown that auditory stimulation is processed in certain areas of the brain, and imagined similar events are processed in adjacent areas, but hallucinations are processed in the same areas as actual stimulation. In such cases, external influences may be the source of consciousness and the person may or may not be responsible for "sharing" in the mind's process, or the events which occur, such as visions and auditory stimuli, may persist and be repeated often over hours, days, months or years—and the afflicted person may believe themselves to be in a state of rapture or possession. What the Freudian tradition has subjectively called, "sense of self" is for Jungian analytic psychology, where one's identity is lodged in the persona or ego and is subject to change in maturation.
Carl Jung Carl Gustav Jung ( ; born Karl Gustav Jung, ; 26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961), was a Swiss psychiatrist A psychiatrist is a physician A physician (American English), medical practitioner (English in the Commonwealth of Nations ...

Carl Jung
distinguished, "The self is not only the center but also the whole circumference which embraces both conscious and unconscious; it is the center of this totality...". The
Self in Jungian psychology The central dot represents the Ego whereas the Self can be said to consist of the whole with the centred dot. The Self in Jungian psychology is a dynamic concept which has undergone numerous modifications since it was first conceptualised as one of ...
is "the archetype of wholeness and the regulating center of the psyche ... a transpersonal power that transcends the ego." As a
Jungian archetype Jungian archetypes are defined as universal, archaic symbols and images that derive from the collective unconscious, as proposed by Carl Jung. They are the psychic counterpart of instinct. It is described as a kind of innate unspecific knowledge, ...
, it cannot be seen directly, but by ongoing individuating maturation and analytic observation, can be experienced objectively by its cohesive wholeness-making factor. Meanwhile
self psychology Self psychology, a modern psychoanalytic theory and its clinical applications, was conceived by Heinz Kohut in Chicago in the 1960s, 70s, and 80s, and is still developing as a contemporary form of psychoanalytic treatment. In self psychology, the ...
is a set of psychotherapeutic principles and techniques established by the Austrian-born American psychoanalyst
Heinz Kohut Heinz Kohut (3 May 1913 – 8 October 1981) was an Austrian Austrian may refer to: * Austrians, someone from Austria or of Austrian descent ** Someone who is considered an Austrian citizen, see Austrian nationality law * Something associated with ...
upon the foundation of the psychoanalytic method developed by Freud, and is specifically focused on the subjectivity of experience, which it alleges is mediated by a psychological structure called the self.


Sociology

The self can be redefined as a dynamic, responsive process that structures neural pathways according to past and present environments including material, social, and spiritual aspects.Self, Culture, & Society Class, 2015
Self-concept One's self-concept (also called self-construction, self-identity, self-perspective or self-structure) is a collection of beliefs about oneself. Generally, self-concept embodies the answer to the question ''"Who am I?"'' Self-concept is disting ...

Self-concept
is a concept or belief that an individual has of him or herself as an emotional, spiritual, and social being. Therefore, the self-concept is the idea of who I am, kind of like a self-reflection of one's well-being. For example, self-concept is anything you say about yourself. A
society A society is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. Numbers can be ...

society
is a group of people who share a common belief or aspect of self-interacting for the maintenance or betterment of the collective.
Culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals i ...

Culture
consists of explicit and implicit patterns of historically derived and selected ideas and their embodiment in institutions, cognitive and social practices, and artifacts. Cultural systems may, on the one hand, be considered as products of action, and on the other, as conditioning elements of further action. Therefore, the following sections will explore how the self and self-concept can be changed due to different cultures. Markus and Kitayama's early 1990s theory hypothesized that representations of the self in human cultures would fall on a continuum from ''independent'' to ''interdependent''. The independent self is supposed to be egoistic, unique, separated from the various contexts, critical in judgment, and prone to self-expression. The interdependent self is supposed to be altruistic, similar with the others, flexible according to contexts, conformist, and unlikely to express opinions that would disturb the harmony of his or her group of belonging. This theory enjoyed huge popularity despite its many problems such as being based on popular stereotypes and myths about different cultures rather than on rigorous scientific research as well as postulating a series of causal links between culture and self-construals without presenting any evidence supporting them. A large study from 2016 involving a total of 10,203 participants from 55 cultural groups found that there is no independent versus interdependent dimension of self-construal because traits supposed by Markus & Kitayama to form a coherent construct do not actually correlate, or if they correlate, they have correlations opposite to those postulated by Markus & Kitayama. There are seven separate dimensions of self-construal which can be found at both the cultural level of analysis and the individual level of analysis. These dimensions are ''difference versus similarity'' (if the individual considers himself or herself to be a unique person or to be the same as everybody else), ''self-containment versus connection to others'' (feeling oneself as being separated from others versus feeling oneself as being together with the others), ''self-direction versus receptiveness to influence'' (independent thinking versus conformity). Westerners, Latin Americans, and the Japanese are relatively likely to represent their individual self as unique and different from that of others while Arabs, South-East Asians, and Africans are relatively likely to represent themselves as being similar to that of others. Individuals from Uganda, Japan, Colombia, Namibia, Ghana, and Belgium were most likely to represent their selves as being emotionally separated from the community while individuals from Oman, Malaysia, Thailand, and central Brazil were most likely to consider themselves as emotionally connected to their communities. Japanese, Belgians, British, and Americans from Colorado were most likely to value independent thinking and consider themselves as making their own decisions in life independently from others. On the other hand, respondents from rural Peru, Malaysia, Ghana, Oman, and Hungary were most likely to place more value on following others rather than thinking for themselves as well as to describe themselves as being often influenced by others in their decisions. Middle Easterners from Lebanon, Turkey, Egypt, and Oman were most likely to value self-reliance and consider themselves as working on their own and being economically independent of others. On the other hand, respondents from Uganda, Japan, and Namibia were most likely to consider cooperation between different individuals in economical activities as being important. Chileans, Ethiopians from the highlands, Turks, and people from Lebanon placed a relatively high degree of importance on maintaining a stable pattern of behavior regardless of situation or context. Individuals from Japan, Cameroon, the United Kingdom, and Sweden were most likely to describe themselves as being adaptable to various contexts and to place value on this ability. Colombians, Chileans, US Hispanics, Belgians, and Germans were most likely to consider self-expression as being more important than maintaining harmony within a group. Respondents from Oman, Cameroon, and Malaysia were most likely to say that they prefer keeping harmony within a group to engaging in self-expression. Sub-Saharan Africans from Namibia, Ghana, and Uganda considered that they would follow their own interests even if this means harming the interests of those close to them. Europeans from Belgium, Italy, and Sweden had the opposite preference, considering self-sacrifice for other members of the community as being more important than accomplishing selfish goals. Contrary to the theory of Markus & Kitayama, egoism correlates negatively with individual uniqueness, independent thinking, and self-expression. Self-reliance correlates strongly and negatively with emotional self-containment, which is also unexpected given Markus & Kitayama's theory. The binary classification of cultural self-construals into independent versus interdependent is deeply flawed because in reality, the traits do not correlate according to Markus & Kitayama's self-construal theory, and this theory fails to take into consideration the extremely diverse and complex variety of self-construals present in various cultures across the world. The way individuals construct themselves may be different due to their culture.Kanagawa, 2001 The self is dynamic and complex and it will change or conform to whatever social influence it is exposed to. The main reason why the self is constantly dynamic is that it always looks for reasons to not be harmed. The self in any culture looks out for its well-being and will avoid as much threat as possible. This can be explained through the
evolutionary psychology Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchang ...
concept called
survival of the fittest "Survival of the fittest" is a phrase that originated from Darwinian Darwinism is a theory A theory is a reason, rational type of abstraction, abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemp ...
.


Philosophy

The philosophy of self seeks to describe essential qualities that constitute a person's uniqueness or essential being. There have been various approaches to defining these qualities. The self can be considered that being which is the source of consciousness, the
agent Agent may refer to: Espionage, investigation, and law *, spies or intelligence officers * Law of agency, laws involving a person authorized to act on behalf of another ** Agent of record, a person with a contractual agreement with an insuran ...
responsible for an individual's thoughts and actions, or the substantial nature of a person which endures and unifies consciousness over time. In addition to
Emmanuel Levinas Emmanuel Levinas (; ; 12 January 1906 – 25 December 1995) was a French philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reaso ...

Emmanuel Levinas
writings on "otherness", the distinction between "you" and "me" has been further elaborated in
Martin Buber Martin Buber ( he, מרטין בובר; german: Martin Buber; yi, מארטין בובער; February 8, 1878 – June 13, 1965) was an Austrian Jewish and Israeli philosopher best known for his philosophy of dialogue, a form of existentialism cente ...

Martin Buber
's philosophical work: Ich und Du.


Religion

Religious views on the Self vary widely. The Self is a complex and core subject in many forms of
spirituality The meaning of spirituality has developed and expanded over time, and various connotations can be found alongside each other. Traditionally, spirituality referred to a Religion, religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the origin ...

spirituality
. Two types of Self are commonly considered—the Self that is the ego, also called the learned, superficial Self of mind and body, egoic creation, and the Self which is sometimes called the "True Self", the "Observing Self", or the "Witness". In
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
, the Ātman (Self), despite being experienced as an individual, is actually a representation of the unified transcendent reality,
Brahman In Hinduism, ''Brahman'' ( sa, ब्रह्म) connotes the highest universal principle, the ultimate reality ''Ultimate reality'' is "something that is the supreme, final, and fundamental power in all reality". Buddhism In Theravada ...

Brahman
. Our experience of reality doesn't match the nature of Brahman due to māyā. One description of spirituality is the Self's search for "ultimate meaning" through an independent comprehension of the sacred. Another definition of spiritual identity is: "A persistent sense of Self that addresses ultimate questions about the nature, purpose, and meaning of life, resulting in behaviors that are consonant with the individual’s core values. Spiritual identity appears when the symbolic religious and spiritual value of a culture is found by individuals in the setting of their own life. There can be different types of spiritual Self because it is determined by one's life and experiences." Human beings have a Self—that is, they are able to look back on themselves as both subjects and objects in the universe. Ultimately, this brings questions about who we are and the nature of our own importance. Traditions such as
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
see the attachment to
Self The self is an individual person as the object of its own reflective consciousness Consciousness, at its simplest, is or of internal and external existence. Despite millennia of analyses, definitions, explanations and debates by philosoph ...
is an illusion that serves as the main cause of
suffering Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual. Suffering is the basic element that makes up the negative valence of affective ...
and unhappiness.
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Christianity
makes a distinction between the true self and the false self, and sees the false self negatively, distorted through
sin In a religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, sanctified places, prophecy, prophecies, ...

sin
: 'The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked; who can know it?' (
Jeremiah Jeremiah, Modern Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human acti ...

Jeremiah
17:9) According to Marcia Cavell, identity comes from both political and religious views. He also identified exploration and commitment as interactive parts of identity formation, which includes religious identity.
Erik Erikson Erik Homburger Erikson (born Erik Salomonsen; 15 June 1902 – 12 May 1994) was a Danish-German-American developmental psychologist Developmental psychology is the science, scientific study of how and why human beings change over the cour ...

Erik Erikson
compared faith with doubt and found that healthy adults take heed to their spiritual side.Kiesling, Chris; Montgomery, Marylin; Sorell, Gwendolyn; Colwell, Ronald. "Identity and Spirituality: A Psychosocial Exploration of the Sense of Spiritual Self"


See also

* Anatta— "not-self", there is no unchanging, permanent self, soul or essence in living beings *
Ātman (Buddhism) Ātman (), attā or attan in Buddhism is the concept of self, and is found in Buddhist literature's discussion of the concept of non-self ('' Anatta''). Most Buddhist traditions and texts reject the premise of a permanent, unchanging ''atman'' ...
, Buddhist concept of self *
Ātman (Hinduism) ''Ātman'' (; sa, आत्मन्) is a Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch ...
, inner self or soul in Hindu philosophy *
Attention Attention is the behavioral and cognitive process Cognition () refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many aspects of intellectual funct ...

Attention
*
Consciousness Consciousness, at its simplest, is sentience or awareness of internal and external existence. Despite millennia of analyses, definitions, explanations and debates by philosophers and scientists, consciousness remains puzzling and controversial ...

Consciousness
* Ego (disambiguation) * *
I (pronoun) In Modern English, ''I'' is the grammatical number, singular, grammatical person, first-person English personal pronouns, pronoun. Morphology In Standard English, Standard Modern English, ''I'' has five distinct word Morphology (linguistics), ...
*
Individual An individual is that which exists as a distinct entity An entity is something that exists as itself, as a subject or as an object, actually or potentially, concretely or abstractly, physically or not. It need not be of material existence. In ...
*
Individuation The principle of individuation, or ', describes the manner in which a thing is identified as distinguished from other things. The concept appears in numerous fields and is encountered in works of Leibniz, Carl Gustav Jung, Günther Anders, Gunther ...
*
Jīva (Jainism) ''Jīva'' ( sa, जीव) or ''Atman'' (; sa, आत्मन्) is a philosophical term used within Jainism Jainism (), traditionally known as ''Jain Dharma'', is an ancient Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed ...
, or Atman, used within Jainism to identify the soul *
Me (pronoun) In Modern English, ''I'' is the grammatical number, singular, grammatical person, first-person English personal pronouns, pronoun. Morphology In Standard English, Standard Modern English, ''I'' has five distinct word Morphology (linguistics), ...
, the first-person singular pronoun, referring to the speaker *
Meditation Meditation is a practice where an individual uses a technique – such as mindfulness Mindfulness is the practice of purposely bringing one's attention in the present moment without evaluation,Mindfulness Training as a Clinical Interventio ...

Meditation
*
Moral psychology Moral psychology is a field of study in both philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical reality Realit ...
*
Outline of self The following Outline (list), outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the self: Self – individuality, from one's own perspective. To each person, self is that person. Oneself can be a subject of Self (philosophy), philosop ...
*
Person (disambiguation) A person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of a culturally established form of social relations such as kinship ...
* Self remembering *
Self-awareness In philosophy of self The philosophy of self is the study of the many conditions of identity Identity may refer to: Social sciences * Identity (social science), personhood or group affiliation in psychology and sociology Group expre ...
*
Self-knowledge (psychology) Self-knowledge is a term used in psychology to describe the information that an individual draws upon when finding an answer to the question "What am I like?". While seeking to develop the answer to this question, self-knowledge requires ongoing se ...
* Social projection *
Soul In many religious, philosophical, and myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths. The main characters in myths are usually non-humans, such as ...

Soul
*
Sources of the Self ''Sources of the Self: The Making of the Modern Identity'' is a work of philosophy by Charles Taylor (philosopher), Charles Taylor, published in 1989 by Harvard University Press. It is an attempt to articulate and to write a history of the "modern ...
*
True self and false self True self (also known as real self, authentic self, original self and vulnerable self) and false self (also known as fake self, idealized self, superficial self and pseudo self) are psychological concepts, originally introduced into psychoanalysis ...
*
Will (philosophy) Will, generally, is a faculty of the mind; Within philosophy, will is important as one of the parts of the mind, along with reason and nous, understanding. It is considered central to the field of ethics because of its role in enabling deliberate a ...


References


Further reading

* Anthony Elliott, ''Concepts of the Self'' *
Anthony Giddens Anthony Giddens, Baron Giddens (born 18 January 1938) is an English sociologist who is known for his theory of structuration and his holistic Holism (from Ancient Greek, Greek ''holos'' "all, whole, entire") is the idea that various systems ( ...
, ''Modernity and self-identity: self and society in the late modern age'' * Ben Morgan (2013). ''On Becoming God: Late Medieval Mysticism and the Modern Western Self.'' New York: Fordham UP * Bernadette Roberts
''What is Self? A Research Paper''
* Charalambos Tsekeris
''Contextualising the self in contemporary social science''
* Charles Taylor, ''Sources of the self: the making of the modern identity'' * Clark Moustakas, ''The self: explorations in personal growth'' *
Fernando AndachtFernando Andacht is a Uruguayan-born semiotician. Andacht studied Letters at the University of the Republic, graduating in 1978. Afterwards he obtained an MA in General Linguistics at Ohio University (1981), a Doctorate in Latin American Studies at ...
, Mariela Michel,
A Semiotic Reflection on Selfinterpretation and Identity
' *
Jean Dalby Clift Jean Dalby Clift was an American priest of the Episcopal Church and a pastoral counselorPastoral counseling is a branch of counseling in which psychology, psychologically trained Minister (Christianity), ministers, rabbis, priests, imams, and ot ...
, ''Core Images of the Self: A Symbolic Approach to Healing and Wholeness'' *
Richard Sorabji Sir Richard Rustom Kharsedji Sorabji, (born 8 November 1934) is a British historian of ancient Western philosophy, and Professor of Philosophy Emeritus at King's College London. He has written his 'Intellectual Autobiography' in his ''Festschrift'' ...
, ''Self: ancient and modern insights about individuality, life, and death'' * Robert Kegan, ''The evolving self: problem and process in human development'' * Thomas M. Brinthaupt, Richard P. Lipka, ''The Self: definitional and methodological issues'' {{Authority control Concepts in metaphysics