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Salvation (from
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
: ''salvatio'', from ''salva'', 'safe, saved') is the state of being saved or protected from harm or a dire situation. In
religion Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion. Different religions may or may not contain v ...

religion
and
theology Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine Divinity or the divine are things that are either related to, devoted to, or proceeding from a deity.
, ''salvation'' generally refers to the deliverance of the
soul In many religious, philosophical, and myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths. The main characters in myths are usually non-humans, such as ...

soul
from
sin In a religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, sanctified places, prophecy, prophecies, ...

sin
and its consequences."Salvation." ''
Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary A historical dictionary or dictionary on historical principles is a dictionary which deals not only with the latterday meanings of words but also the historica ...
'' (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. 1989. "The saving of the soul; the deliverance from sin and its consequences."
The academic study of salvation is called ''
soteriology Soteriology (; el, σωτηρία ' " salvation" from σωτήρ ' "savior, preserver" and λόγος ' "study" or "word") is the study of religious doctrines of salvation. Salvation theory occupies a place of special significance in many rel ...
''.


Meaning

In
Abrahamic religions The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of -originated s that claim descent from the of the ancient and the worship of the . The Abrahamic religions are , with the t ...

Abrahamic religions
and theology, ''salvation'' is the saving of the
soul In many religious, philosophical, and myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths. The main characters in myths are usually non-humans, such as ...

soul
from
sin In a religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, sanctified places, prophecy, prophecies, ...

sin
and its consequences. It may also be called ''deliverance'' or ''redemption'' from sin and its effects. Depending on the religion or even denomination, salvation is considered to be caused either only by the
grace Grace may refer to: Places United States * Grace, Idaho Grace is a city in Caribou County, Idaho, in the United States. History The area of Grace is believed to have once been inhabited by the Shoshone Indians. The economy in and around Gra ...
of God (i.e. unmerited and unearned), or by faith, good deeds (works), or a combination thereof. Religions often emphasize that man is a sinner by nature and that the penalty of sin is death (physical death, spiritual death: spiritual separation from God and eternal punishment in hell).


Judaism

In contemporary
Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, monotheism, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people. It has its roots as an organized religion ...
, redemption (
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ancestors. It is the o ...
: ), refers to
God In monotheism, monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, creator deity, creator, and principal object of Faith#Religious views, faith.Richard Swinburne, Swinburne, R.G. "God" in Ted Honderich, Honderich, Ted. (ed)''The Oxfo ...
redeeming the
people of Israel Israelis ( he, ישראלים ''Yiśraʾelim'', ar, الإسرائيليين ''al-ʾIsrāʾīliyyin'') are the citizens or permanent residents of the State of Israel, a multiethnic state populated by Demographics of Israel, people of different ...

people of Israel
from their various exiles. This includes the final redemption from the present exile.Brandon, Samuel G. F.
999999 or triple nine most often refers to: * 999 (emergency telephone number) 250px, A sign on a beach in the coastguard in the event of an emergency 999 is an official emergency telephone number in a number of countries which allows the caller to ...
2012.
Salvation, Judaism
" ''
Encyclopædia Britannica The (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia") is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia which is now published exclusively as an online encyclopedia, online encyclopaedia. It was formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., ...
''. Accessed 25 June 2020.
Judaism holds that adherents do not need personal salvation as Christians believe. Jews do not subscribe to the doctrine of
original sin Original sin is the Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' a ...
. Instead, they place a high value on individual morality as defined in the law of God—embodied in what Jews know as the
Torah The Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") includes the first five books of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; : , or ), is the of scriptures, including the , the , and the . These texts are a ...

Torah
or The Law, given to
Moses Moses he, מֹשֶׁה, ''Mōše''; also known as Moshe Rabbenu ( he, מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ "Moshe our Teacher"); syr, ܡܘܫܐ, ''Mūše''; ar, موسى '; el, Mωϋσῆς, ' () is considered the most important prophet in Judais ...

Moses
by God on
biblical Mount Sinai In the Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, ''tà biblía'', "the books") is a collection of religious texts or scriptures sacred to Christians, Jews, Samaritans, Rastafari and others. It appears in the form of an antholo ...
. In Judaism, salvation is closely related to the idea of
redemption Redemption may refer to: Religion * Redemption (theology), an element of salvation to express deliverance from sin * Redemptive suffering, a Roman Catholic belief that suffering can partially remit punishment for sins if offered to Jesus * Pidyo ...
, a saving from the states or circumstances that destroy the value of human existence. God, as the universal spirit and Creator of the World, is the source of all salvation for humanity, provided an individual honours God by observing his precepts. So redemption or salvation depends on the individual. Judaism stresses that salvation cannot be obtained through anyone else or by just invoking a deity or believing in any outside power or influence. Malekar, Ezekiel Isaac. 20 November 2004.
The Speaking Tree: Concept of Salvation In Judaism
" ''The Times of India''. Accessed: 4 May 2013
When examining Jewish intellectual sources throughout history, there is clearly a spectrum of opinions regarding death versus the
afterlife The afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the world to come) is an existence in which the essential part of an individual's identity Identity may refer to: Social sciences * Identity (social science), personhood or group a ...

afterlife
. Possibly an over-simplification, one source says salvation can be achieved in the following manner: Live a holy and righteous life dedicated to
Yahweh Yahweh was the national god of ancient Kingdom of Israel (Samaria), Israel and Kingdom of Judah, Judah. His origins reach at least to the early Iron Age, and likely to the Late Bronze Age. In the oldest biblical literature, he is a Weather ...
, the God of Creation. Fast, worship, and celebrate during the appropriate holidays. By origin and nature, Judaism is an ethnic religion. Therefore, salvation has been primarily conceived in terms of the destiny of Israel as the elect people of Yahweh (often referred to as “the Lord”), the
God of IsraelGod of Israel may refer to: * God in Judaism, God as understood in Jewish theological discussion. * Yahweh, the national god of the ancient kingdoms of Israel and Judah. * Tetragrammaton, the four Hebrew letters YHWH as the name of God, and various ...
. In the biblical text of
Psalms The Book of Psalms ( or ; he, תְּהִלִּים, , lit. "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms, the Psalter or "the Psalms", is the first book of the ("Writings"), the third section of the Tanakh The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh ( ...

Psalms
, there is a description of death, when people go into the earth or the "
realm of the dead The underworld is the supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena that are not subject to the laws of nature.https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/supernatural By definition, a supernatural manifestation or event r ...
" and cannot praise God. The first reference to resurrection is collective in
Ezekiel Ezekiel (; he, יְחֶזְקֵאל ''Yĕḥezqēʾl'' ; in the Septuagint The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint (, ; from the la, septuaginta, lit=seventy; often abbreviated ''70''; in Roman numerals, LXX), is the earliest extant Koine ...

Ezekiel
's vision of the dry bones, when all the Israelites in exile will be resurrected. There is a reference to individual resurrection in the
Book of Daniel The Book of Daniel is a 2nd-century BCE biblical apocalypse with an ostensible 6th century BCE setting, combining a prophecy of history with an eschatology (a portrayal of end times) both cosmic in scope and political in focus. It gives "an acc ...
.Krell, Marc A. "Afterlife and Salvation". ''Religion Library: Judaism''

Accessed 4 May 2013
It was not until the 2nd century BCE that there arose a belief in an
afterlife The afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the world to come) is an existence in which the essential part of an individual's identity Identity may refer to: Social sciences * Identity (social science), personhood or group a ...

afterlife
, in which the dead would be resurrected and undergo divine judgment. Before that time, the individual had to be content that his posterity continued within the holy nation. The salvation of the individual Jew was connected to the salvation of the entire people. This belief stemmed directly from the teachings of the
Torah The Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") includes the first five books of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; : , or ), is the of scriptures, including the , the , and the . These texts are a ...

Torah
. In the Torah, God taught his people sanctification of the individual. However, he also expected them to function together (spiritually) and be accountable to one another. The concept of salvation was tied to that of restoration for Israel.


Christianity

Christianity, Christianity's primary premise is that the
incarnation Incarnation literally means ''embodied in flesh'' or ''taking on flesh''. It refers to the conception and birth of a sentient Sentience is the capacity to be aware of feeling Feeling was originally used to describe the physical sensation of to ...
and death of
Jesus Christ Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it i ...

Jesus Christ
formed the climax of a divine plan for humanity's salvation. This plan was conceived by
God In monotheism, monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, creator deity, creator, and principal object of Faith#Religious views, faith.Richard Swinburne, Swinburne, R.G. "God" in Ted Honderich, Honderich, Ted. (ed)''The Oxfo ...
before the creation of the world, achieved at the cross, and it would be completed at the
Last Judgment The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Reckoning, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, Doomsday or The Day of the Lord ( he, יום הדין, Yom ha-din, ar, یوم القيامة, Yawm al-qiyāmah, Day of Resurrection or ar, یوم الدین, ...
, when the
Second Coming of Christ of the Second Coming, c. 1700 The Second Coming (sometimes called the Second Advent or the Parousia) is a Christianity, Christian and Islam, Islamic belief that Jesus will return again, after his Ascension of Jesus, ascension to Heaven (Christia ...
would mark the catastrophic end of the world.Stefon, Matt.
999999 or triple nine most often refers to: * 999 (emergency telephone number) 250px, A sign on a beach in the coastguard in the event of an emergency 999 is an official emergency telephone number in a number of countries which allows the caller to ...
2019.
Christianity
" ''
Encyclopædia Britannica The (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia") is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia which is now published exclusively as an online encyclopedia, online encyclopaedia. It was formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., ...
''. Accessed 25 July 2020.
For Christianity, salvation is only possible through Jesus Christ. Christians believe that Jesus' death on the cross was the once-for-all sacrifice that atoned for the sin of humanity. The Christian religion, though not the exclusive possessor of the idea of redemption, has given to it a special definiteness and a dominant position. Taken in its widest sense, as deliverance from dangers and ills in general, most religions teach some form of it. It assumes an important position, however, only when the ills in question form part of a great system against which human power is helpless. According to Christian belief,
sin In a religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, sanctified places, prophecy, prophecies, ...

sin
as the human predicament is considered to be universal. For example, in the
Apostle Paul Paul; el, Παῦλος, translit=Paulos; cop, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; he, פאולוס השליח, name=, group= (born Saul of Tarsus;; ar, بولس الطرسوسي; el, Σαῦλος Ταρσεύς, Saũlos Tarseús; tr, Tarsuslu Pavlus A ...
declared everyone to be under sin—Jew and Gentile alike. Salvation is made possible by the life, death, and
resurrection of Jesus The resurrection of Jesus ( gr, ανάσταση του Ιησού) is the Christianity, Christian belief that God in Christianity, God Resurrection, raised Jesus on the third day after Crucifixion of Jesus, his crucifixion, starting – or Pr ...
, which in the context of salvation is referred to as the "
atonement Atonement (also atoning, to atone) is the concept of a person taking action to correct previous wrongdoing on their part, either through direct action to undo the consequences of that act, equivalent action to do good for others, or some other e ...
"."Christian Doctrines of Salvation". Religion facts. June 20, 2009. http://www.religionfacts.com/christianity/beliefs/salvation.htm Christian
soteriology Soteriology (; el, σωτηρία ' " salvation" from σωτήρ ' "savior, preserver" and λόγος ' "study" or "word") is the study of religious doctrines of salvation. Salvation theory occupies a place of special significance in many rel ...
ranges from exclusive salvationNewman, Jay. 1982. ''Foundations of religious tolerance.'' Toronto: University of Toronto Press. to
universal reconciliation In Christian theology Christian theology is the theology of Christianity, Christian belief and practice. * help them better understand Christian tenets * make comparative religion, comparisons between Christianity and other traditions * Christia ...
Parry, Robin A. 2004. ''Universal salvation? The Current Debate.'' William B. Eerdmans Publishing. concepts. While some of the differences are as widespread as Christianity itself, the overwhelming majority agrees that salvation is made possible by the work of Jesus Christ, the
Son of God Historically, many rulers have assumed titles such as the son of God, the son of a God or the son of heaven. The term "son of God" is used in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical ...
, dying on the cross. Variant views on salvation are among the main fault lines dividing the various
Christian denomination A Christian denomination is a distinct religious Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a rel ...
s, both between
Roman Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...

Roman Catholicism
and
Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an , based on the and of . It is the , with about 2.5 billion followers. Its adherents, known as , make up a majority of the population in , and believe that is the , whose comin ...
and within Protestantism, notably in the Calvinist–Arminian debate, and the fault lines include conflicting definitions of
depravity Depravity may refer to: * Total depravity, a theological doctrine that derives from the Augustinian concept of original sin *Lack of morality *Sin, an act that violates a known moral rule **in the Hebrew Bible, Jewish views on sin#Terminology * Dep ...
,
predestination Predestination, in Christian theology Christian theology is the theology of Christianity, Christian belief and practice. * help them better understand Christian tenets * make comparative religion, comparisons between Christianity and other tr ...

predestination
,
atonement Atonement (also atoning, to atone) is the concept of a person taking action to correct previous wrongdoing on their part, either through direct action to undo the consequences of that act, equivalent action to do good for others, or some other e ...
, but most pointedly justification. Salvation, according to most denominations, is believed to be a process that begins when a person first becomes a Christian, continues through that person's life, and is completed when they stand before Christ in judgment. Therefore, according to Catholic apologist James Akin, the faithful Christian can say in faith and hope, "I ''have been'' saved; I ''am being'' saved; and I ''will be'' saved." Christian salvation concepts are varied and complicated by certain theological concepts, traditional beliefs, and
dogmas Dogma is a belief or set of beliefs that is accepted by the members of a group without being questioned or doubted. It may be in the form of an official system of principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or ...
. Scripture is subject to individual and ecclesiastical interpretations. While some of the differences are as widespread as Christianity itself, the overwhelming majority agrees that salvation is made possible by the work of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, dying on the cross. The purpose of salvation is debated, but in general most
Christian theologians Christian theology is the theology Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the Divinity, divine and, more broadly, of religious belief. It is taught as an Discipline (academia), academic discipline, typically in universities and semin ...
agree that God devised and implemented his plan of salvation because he loves them and regards human beings as his children. Since human existence on Earth is said to be "given to sin," salvation also has connotations that deal with the
liberation Liberation or liberate may refer to: Concepts *Enlightenment (spiritual) **''Moksha'', the concept of salvation within Indian religions **''Nirvana'', a closely related term *Emancipation *Sexual liberation *Women's liberation or feminism *Libera ...

liberation
of human beings from sin, and the
suffering Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual. Suffering is the basic element that makes up the negative valence of affective ...

suffering
associated with the
punishment Punishment, commonly, is the imposition of an undesirable or unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, meted out by an authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of soci ...

punishment
of sin—i.e., "the
wages of sin ''Wages of Sin'' is the fourth studio album by the Swedish melodic death metal band Arch Enemy. It is the first Arch Enemy album to feature the vocals of Angela Gossow. It is also the first album they use Standard-C tuning, which they still use t ...
are
death Death is the permanent, irreversible cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic objects and dead organi ...
." Christians believe that salvation depends on the
grace Grace may refer to: Places United States * Grace, Idaho Grace is a city in Caribou County, Idaho, in the United States. History The area of Grace is believed to have once been inhabited by the Shoshone Indians. The economy in and around Gra ...
of God. Stagg writes that a fact assumed throughout the Bible is that humanity is in, "serious trouble from which we need deliverance…. The fact of sin as the human predicament is implied in the mission of Jesus, and it is explicitly affirmed in that connection." By its nature, salvation must answer to the plight of humankind as it actually is. Each individual's plight as sinner is the result of a fatal choice involving the whole person in bondage, guilt, estrangement, and death. Therefore, salvation must be concerned with the total person. "It must offer
redemption Redemption may refer to: Religion * Redemption (theology), an element of salvation to express deliverance from sin * Redemptive suffering, a Roman Catholic belief that suffering can partially remit punishment for sins if offered to Jesus * Pidyo ...
from bondage, forgiveness for guilt, reconciliation for estrangement, renewal for the marred image of God."


Mormonism

According to doctrine of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the plan of salvation is God's plan to save, redeem, and exalt all humankind who chose, either in this life, or in the world of spirits of the dead, to accept the grace of Jesus Christ by exercising faith in Him, repenting of their sins, and by making and keeping sacred covenants (including baptism). Since the vast majority of God's children depart this life without that opportunity, Christ's gospel is preached to the unbelieving spirits in spirit prison (1 Peter 3: 19) so that they might be judged by the same standards as the living and live by following God in their spirit form (1 Peter 4: 6). If they accept Christ, sincerely repent of their sins, and accept ordinances done on their behalf, they can, by the grace of Christ, receive salvation on the same terms as the living. For this reason, members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints do vicarious work for the dead in sacred temples. The elements of this plan are drawn from various sources, including the
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Gree ...

Bible
,
Book of Mormon The Book of Mormon is a of the , which, according to Latter Day Saint theology, contains writings of ancient s who lived on the from approximately 2200 BC to AD 421. It was first published in March 1830 by as ''The Book of Mormon: An Account ...
,
Doctrine & Covenants The Doctrine and Covenants (sometimes abbreviated and cited as D&C or D. and C.) is a part of the open Open or OPEN may refer to: citizen * Open (band), Australian pop/rock band * The Open (band), English indie rock band * ''Open'' (Blues Ima ...
, Pearl of Great Price, and numerous statements made by the leadership of
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, often informally known as the LDS Church or Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian Nontrinitarianism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism ...
(LDS Church).


Islam

In Islam, salvation refers to the eventual entrance to
Paradise In religion, paradise is a place of exceptional happiness and delight. Paradisiacal notions are often laden with pastoral A pastoral lifestyle is that of shepherds herding livestock around open areas of land according to season A season ...

Paradise
. Islam teaches that people who die disbelieving in
God In monotheism, monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, creator deity, creator, and principal object of Faith#Religious views, faith.Richard Swinburne, Swinburne, R.G. "God" in Ted Honderich, Honderich, Ted. (ed)''The Oxfo ...

God
do not receive salvation. It also teaches that non-Muslims who die believing in God but disbelieving in His message (Islam), are left to His will. Those who die believing in the one God and His message (Islam) receive salvation. Narrated Anas, that Muhammad said: Islam teaches that all who enter into Islam must remain so in order to receive salvation. For those who have not been granted Islam or to whom the message has not been brought:


Tawhid

Belief in the “One God”, also known as the ''
Tawhid Tawhid ( ar, توحيد, ', meaning "unification or oneness of God as per Islam (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middl ...
'' () in Arabic, consists of two parts (or principles): # ''Tawḥīdu r-Rubūbiyya'' (): Believing in the attributes of God and attributing them to no other but God. Such attributes include Creation, having no beginning, and having no end. These attributes are what make a God. Islam also teaches 99 names for God, and each of these names defines one attribute. One breaks this principle, for example, by believing in an Idol as an intercessor to God. The idol, in this case, is thought of having powers that only God should have, thereby breaking this part of Tawheed. No intercession is required to communicate with, or worship, God. # ''Tawḥīdu l-'ulūhiyya'' (): Directing worship, prayer, or deed to God, and God only. For example, worshiping an idol or any saint or prophet is also considered Shirk.


Sin and repentance

Islam also stresses that in order to gain salvation, one must also avoid sinning along with performing good deeds. Islam acknowledges the inclination of humanity towards sin. Therefore, Muslims are constantly commanded to seek God's forgiveness and repent. Islam teaches that no one can gain salvation simply by virtue of their belief or deeds, instead it is the Mercy of God, which merits them salvation. However, this repentance must not be used to sin any further. Islam teaches that God is Merciful. Islam describes a true believer to have
Love of God Love of God can mean either love for God In monotheism, monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, creator deity, creator, and principal object of Faith#Religious views, faith.Richard Swinburne, Swinburne, R.G. "God" in Te ...
and
Fear of God Fear of God refers to fear Fear is an emotion induced by perceived danger or threat, which causes physiological changes and ultimately behavioral changes, such as mounting an aggressive response or fleeing the threat. Fear in human beings may o ...
. Islam also teaches that every person is responsible for their own sins. The Quran states; Al-Agharr al-Muzani, a companion of Mohammad, reported that Ibn 'Umar stated to him that Mohammad said, Sin in Islam is not a state, but an action (a bad deed); Islam teaches that a child is born sinless, regardless of the belief of his parents, dies a Muslim; he enters heaven, and does not enter hell.


Five Pillars

Islam is built on five principles, acts of worship that Islam teaches to be mandatory. Not performing the mandatory acts of worship may deprive Muslims of the chance of salvation. According to Ibn 'Umar, Muhammad said that Islam is based on the following five principles: # To
testify In law and in religion, testimony is a solemn attestation as to the truth of a matter. Etymology The words "testimony" and "testify" both derive from the Latin word ''testis'', referring to the notion of a disinterested Third-party source, third- ...

testify
that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and Muhammad is Allah's Apostle. # To offer the dutifully and perfectly. # To pay
Zakat Zakat ( ar, زكاة; , "that which purifies", also Zakat al-mal , "zakat on wealth", or Zakah) is a form of almsgiving Alms (, ) or almsgiving involves giving to others as an act of virtue Virtue ( la, virtus ''Virtus'' () was a s ...

Zakat
to poor and needy (i.e. obligatory charity of 2.5% annually of surplus wealth). # To perform
Hajj The Hajj (; ar, حَجّ ' "wikt:pilgrimage, ''pilgrimage''"; sometimes also spelled Hadj, Hadji or Haj in English) is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city for Muslims. Hajj is a Fard ...
. (i.e. Pilgrimage to Mecca) # To observe fast during the month of Ramadhan.


Indian religions

Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
,
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
,
Jainism Jainism (), traditionally known as ''Jain Dharma'', is an ancient Indian religion. It is one of the oldest Indian religions. The three main pillars of Jainism are ''Ahimsa in Jainism, ahiṃsā'' (non-violence), ''anekāntavāda'' (non-absolut ...

Jainism
and
Sikhism Sikhism () or Sikhi ( pa, ਸਿੱਖੀ ', , from pa, ਸਿੱਖ, lit=disciple', 'seeker', or 'learner, translit=Sikh, label=none)''Sikhism'' (indigenously known as ''Sikhī'') originated from the word ''Sikh'', which comes from the Sanskr ...
share certain key concepts, which are interpreted differently by different groups and individuals. In these religions one is not liberated from sin and its consequences, but from the ''
saṃsāra ''Saṃsāra'' is a Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European ...

saṃsāra
'' (cycle of rebirth) perpetuated by passions and delusions and its resulting
karma Karma (; sa, कर्म}, ; pi, kamma, italic=yes) means action, work, or deed. For the believers in spirituality the term also refers to the Spirituality, spiritual principle of cause and effect, often descriptively called the principl ...

karma
. They differ however on the exact nature of this liberation. Salvation is always self-attained in Dharmic traditions, and a more appropriate term would be ''
moksha ''Moksha'' (; sa, मोक्ष, '; Tamil language, Tamil: ''vīdupēru''), also called ''vimoksha'', ''vimukti'' and ''mukti'', is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism for various forms of emancipation, enlightenment, liberat ...

moksha
'' ('liberation') or ''mukti'' ('release'). This state and the conditions considered necessary for its realization is described in early texts of Indian religion such as the
Upanishads The Upanishads (; sa, उपनिषद् ) are Vedic period, late Vedic Sanskrit texts of Hindu philosophy which supplied the basis of later Hindu philosophy.Wendy Doniger (1990), ''Textual Sources for the Study of Hinduism'', 1st Edition ...
and the
Pāli Canon The Pāli Canon is the standard collection of scripture Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious traditions consider to be sacred Sacred describes something ...
, and later texts such the
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali Patañjali Statue (traditional form indicating kundalini or incarnation of Shesha) The ''Yoga Sutras of Patañjali'' is a collection of Sanskrit sutras (aphorisms) on the theory and practice of yoga - 195 sutras (according to Vyasa, Vyāsa an ...
and the
Vedanta ''Vedanta'' (; sa, वेदान्त, ), also ''Uttara Mīmāṃsā'', is one of the six (''āstika'') schools of Hindu philosophy Hindu philosophy encompasses the philosophies, world views and teachings of Hinduism Hindui ...
tradition. ''Moksha'' can be attained by ''
sādhanā Sādhanā (Sanskrit साधना; ; ) Sadhana is a generic term coming from the yogic tradition that refers to any spiritual exercise that is aimed at progressing the sādhaka towards the very ultimate expression of his or her life in thi ...
'', literally 'means of accomplishing something'. It includes a variety of disciplines, such as
yoga Yoga (; sa, योग, lit=yoke' or 'union ) is a group of Asana, physical, mind, mental, and Spirituality#Asian traditions, spiritual practices or disciplines that originated in History of India, ancient India, aimed at controlling ('y ...

yoga
and
meditation Meditation is a practice where an individual uses a technique – such as mindfulness Mindfulness is the practice of purposely bringing one's attention in the present moment without evaluation,Mindfulness Training as a Clinical Interventio ...

meditation
.
Nirvana ' ( , , ; sa, निर्वाण} ''nirvāṇa'' ; Pali: ''nibbāna''; Prakrit: ''ṇivvāṇa'', literally "blown out", as in an oil lamp Richard Gombrich, ''Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benāres to Modern Colombo ...

Nirvana
is the profound peace of mind that is acquired with ''moksha''. In
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
and
Jainism Jainism (), traditionally known as ''Jain Dharma'', is an ancient Indian religion. It is one of the oldest Indian religions. The three main pillars of Jainism are ''Ahimsa in Jainism, ahiṃsā'' (non-violence), ''anekāntavāda'' (non-absolut ...

Jainism
, it is the state of being free from
suffering Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual. Suffering is the basic element that makes up the negative valence of affective ...

suffering
. In
Hindu philosophy Hindu philosophy encompasses the philosophies, world views and teachings of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion and ''dharma'', or way of life. It is the Major religious groups, world's third-largest religion, with over 1.2 billi ...
, it is union with the
Brahman In Hinduism, ''Brahman'' ( sa, ब्रह्म) connotes the highest universal principle, the ultimate reality ''Ultimate reality'' is "something that is the supreme, final, and fundamental power in all reality". Buddhism In Theravada ...

Brahman
(
Supreme Being In monotheistic Monotheism is the belief in one god. A narrower definition of monotheism is the belief in the existence of only one god God, in monotheistic thought, is conceived of as the supreme being, creator, and principal object of ...

Supreme Being
). The word literally means 'blown out' (as in a candle) and refers, in the Buddhist context, to the blowing out of the fires of desire, aversion, and delusion, and the imperturbable stillness of mind acquired thereafter.
Richard Gombrich Richard Francis Gombrich (; born 17 July 1937) is a British Indologist Indology or Indian studies is the academic study of the history History (from Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study ...
, ''Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benāres to Modern Colombo.'' Routledge
In
Theravada Buddhism Theravāda (; Pāli Pali () is a Middle Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also *Aryan invas ...
the emphasis is on one's own liberation from samsara. The
Mahayana Mahāyāna (; "Great Vehicle") is a term for a broad group of Buddhism, Buddhist traditions, Buddhist texts#Mahāyāna texts, texts, Buddhist philosophy, philosophies, and practices. Mahāyāna Buddhism developed in India (c. 1st century BCE on ...
traditions emphasize the ''
bodhisattva In Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware o ...

bodhisattva
'' path, in which "each Buddha and Bodhisattva is a redeemer," assisting the Buddhist in seeking to achieve the redemptive state.Joseph Edkins, ''Chinese Buddhism'' (1893), p. 364. The assistance rendered is a form of self-sacrifice on the part of the teachers, who would presumably be able to achieve total detachment from worldly concerns, but have instead chosen to remain engaged in the material world to the degree that this is necessary to assist others in achieving such detachment.


Jainism

In
Jainism Jainism (), traditionally known as ''Jain Dharma'', is an ancient Indian religion. It is one of the oldest Indian religions. The three main pillars of Jainism are ''Ahimsa in Jainism, ahiṃsā'' (non-violence), ''anekāntavāda'' (non-absolut ...

Jainism
, ''salvation'', ''moksha'', and ''nirvana'' are one and the same.: ''"Moksa and Nirvana are synonymous in Jainism".'' p.168Michael Carrithers, Caroline Humphrey (1991) ''The Assembly of listeners: Jains in society'' Cambridge University Press. : ''"Nirvana: A synonym for liberation, release, moksa."'' p.297 When a soul ( ''atman'') achieves ''moksha'', it is released from the cycle of births and deaths, and achieves its pure self. It then becomes a ''
siddha ''Siddha'' (Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European la ...

siddha
'' ('one who has accomplished his ultimate objective'). Attaining Moksha requires annihilation of all ''
karmas Karma (; sa, कर्म}, ; pi, kamma, italic=yes) means action, work, or deed. For the believers in spirituality The meaning of spirituality has developed and expanded over time, and various connotations can be found alongside each ...
'', good and bad, because if karma is left, it must bear fruit.


See also

*
Antinomianism Antinomianism (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: Myc ...
*
Assurance (theology)Assurance of salvation is a Protestantism, Protestant Christianity, Christian doctrine that states that the inner witness of the Holy Spirit (Christianity), Holy Spirit allows the Christian Disciple (Christianity), disciple to know that they are Just ...
*
Baptism Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian rite of initiation, admission and Adoption (theology), adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity. It may be pe ...

Baptism
*
Born again Born again, or to experience the new birth, is a phrase, particularly in evangelicalism Evangelicalism (), also called evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide trans-denominational movement within Protestant C ...
* Collective salvation * Divine filiation * Easter * Enlightenment (spiritual) * Gnosis * Heaven * Henosis * Legalism (theology) * Penance * Perseverance of the saints * Prevenient grace * Repentance * Regeneration (theology) * Sanctification * Soteriology * Steps to Christ * Total depravity


References


Sources

* * * Presentation
* * * * *


External links

* A. J. Wallace and R. D. Rusk,
"Moral Transformation: the Original Christian Paradigm of Salvation"
' A recent defence of the moral transformation perspective. * , a sermon by John Wesley (Methodist / Wesleyan perspective) *
"God's Plan of Salvation"
(conservative Evangelicalism, Evangelical perspective)
Salvation in Islam


by Samuele Bacchiocchi, Ph. D., Andrews University
''Redemption after Death''
by Charles Augustus Briggs: An article in the December 1889 Issue of The Magazine of Christian Literature Vol 1. No. 3. *

{{Authority control Salvation, Religious terminology