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A sailor, seaman, mariner, or seafarer is a person who works aboard a
watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or n ...
as part of its crew, and may work in any one of a number of different fields that are related to the operation and maintenance of a ship. The profession of the sailor is old, and the term ''sailor'' has its etymological roots in a time when
sailing ship A sailing ship is a sea-going vessel that uses sails mounted on Mast (sailing), masts to harness the power of wind and propel the vessel. There is a variety of sail plans that propel sailing ships, employing Square rig, square-rigged or Fore-an ...

sailing ship
s were the main mode of transport at sea, but it now refers to the personnel of all watercraft regardless of the mode of transport, and encompasses people who operate ships professionally, as a sport or recreationally. Be it for a military
navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense ...

navy
or civilian
merchant navy
merchant navy
. In a
navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense ...

navy
, there may be further distinctions: ''sailor'' may refer to any member of the navy even if they are based on land; while ''seaman'' may refer to a specific
enlisted rank An enlisted rank (also known as an enlisted grade or enlisted rate) is, in some armed services, any rank below that of a Officer (armed forces), commissioned officer. The term can be inclusive of non-commissioned officers or warrant officers, exc ...
.


Professional mariners

Seafarers hold a variety of professions and ranks, each of which carries unique responsibilities which are integral to the successful operation of an ocean-going vessel. A ship's crew can generally be divided into four main categories: the deck department, the engineering department, the steward's department, and others.


Deck department

Officer positions in the
deck department The deck department is an organisational team on board naval A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized for ...
include but are not limited to:
master Master or masters may refer to: Ranks or titles *Ascended master Ascended masters in the Ascended Master Teachings of a number of movements in the theosophical tradition are believed to be spiritually enlightened beings who in past incarn ...
and his
chief Chief may refer to: Title or rank Military and law enforcement * Chief master sergeant Chief Master Sergeant (CMSgt) is the ninth, and highest, United States Air Force enlisted rank insignia, enlisted rank in the United States Air Force, ...
,
second The second (symbol: s, also abbreviated: sec) is the base unit of time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, th ...
and
third Third or 3rd may refer to: Numbers *3rd, the ordinal form of the cardinal number 3 *fraction (mathematics), , a fraction that is one of three equal parts *Second#Sexagesimal divisions of calendar time and day, ¹⁄₆₀ of a ''second'', or ¹⁄ ...
officers. The official classifications for unlicensed members of the deck department are able seaman and
ordinary seaman __NOTOC__ An ordinary seaman (OS) is a member of the deck department The ship's bosun, an watchstander AB are seen here working aloft aboard a U.S. freighter to maintain cargo">watchstanding.html" ;"title="able seaman (AB) day worker, and a wat ...
. With some variation, the chief mate is most often charged with the duties of cargo mate. Second Mates are charged with being the medical officer in case of a medical emergency. All three mates each do four-hour morning and afternoon shifts on the bridge, when underway at sea. A common deck crew for a ship includes: * (1)
Captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a military rank in ar ...

Captain
/ Master * (1) Chief Officer / Chief Mate * (1) Second Officer / Second Mate * (1) Third Officer / Third Mate * (1)
Boatswain A boatswain ( , ), bo's'n, bos'n, or bosun, also known as a Petty Officer, deck boss, or a qualified member of the deck department, is the seniormost rate of the deck department The deck department is an organisational team on board and sh ...
(unlicensed Petty Officer: Qualified member Deck Dept.) * (2) Able seamen (unlicensed qualified rating) * (2) Ordinary seamen (entry-level rating) * (0-1)
Deck Cadet
Deck Cadet
/ unlicensed Trainee navigator / Midshipman


Engineering department

A ship's engineering department consists of the members of a ship's crew that operates and maintains the propulsion and other systems onboard the vessel. Marine engineering staff also deal with the "hotel" facilities on board, notably the
sewage Sewage (or domestic sewage, domestic wastewater, municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater Wastewater is generated after the use of fresh water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and n ...
, lighting,
air conditioning Air conditioning (also A/C, air conditioner) is the process of removing heat and controlling the humidity Humidity is the concentration of water vapour (99.9839 °C) , - , Boiling point , , - , specific gas constant , 461.5 ...
and water systems. Engineering staff manages bulk fuel transfers, from a fuel-supply barge in port. When underway at sea, the second and third engineers will often be occupied with oil transfers from storage tanks, to active working tanks. Cleaning of oil purifiers is another regular task. Engineering staff is required to have training in
firefighting Firefighting is the act of attempting to prevent the spread of and extinguish significant unwanted fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various r ...

firefighting
and first aid. Additional duties include maintaining the ship's boats and performing other nautical tasks. Engineers play a key role in cargo loading/discharging gear and safety systems, though the specific cargo discharge function remains the responsibility of deck officers and deck workers. A common engineering crew for a ship includes: * (1) Chief Engineer * (1)
Second Engineer A second engineer or first assistant engineer is a licensed member of the engineering department on a merchant vessel. This title is used for the person on a ship responsible for supervising the daily Maintenance, repair and operations, maintenanc ...

Second Engineer
/ First Assistant Engineer * (1)
Third Engineer A third engineer or second assistant engineer is a rank of engine officer who is part of the engine department on a ship. The third engineer is usually in charge of boilers, fuel, auxiliary engines, condensate and feed systems, and is the third m ...

Third Engineer
/ Second Assistant Engineer * (1)
Fourth Engineer A Fourth Engineer or Third Assistant Engineer is a rank of engine officer An engine officer, also called an engineering officer or simply engineer, is a licensed mariner qualified and responsible for operating and maintaining the propulsion plant ...
/ Third Assistant Engineer * (1) Motorman (unlicensed Junior Engineer: Qualified member Engine Dept.) * (2) Oiler (unlicensed qualified rating) * (2) Entry-level rating Wiper * (0–1)
Engine Cadet
Engine Cadet
/ unlicensed Trainee engineer American ships also carry a qualified member of the engine department. Other possible positions include motorman,
machinist A machinist is a tradesperson or trained professional, who not only operates machine tools, but has the knowledge of tooling and materials required to create set ups on machine tools including, but not limited to milling machines, grinders, l ...

machinist
,
electrician An electrician is a tradesman A tradesman, skilled tradesman, or tradie refers to a skilled worker who specializes in a particular occupation that requires work experience, on-the-job training, and often formal vocational education V ...

electrician
, refrigeration engineer and tankerman.


Steward's department

A typical
steward's department Seafaring is a tradition that encompasses a variety of professions and ranks. Each of these roles carries unique responsibilities that are integral to the successful operation of a seafaring vessel. A ship's crew can generally be divided into ''fo ...
for a cargo ship is a
chief steward#REDIRECT Chief steward A chief steward is the senior crew member working in the steward's department of a ship. Since there is no purser A ship's purser (also pusser)From which the Pusser's brand of rum takes its name. is the person on a ship ...
, a
chief cook A chief cook (often shortened to cook) is a seniormost unlicensed crewmember working in the steward's department of a merchant ship A merchant is a person who trade Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or enti ...
and a steward's assistant. All three positions are typically filled by unlicensed personnel. The chief steward directs, instructs, and assigns personnel performing such functions as preparing and serving meals; cleaning and maintaining officers' quarters and steward department areas; and receiving, issuing, and inventorying stores. The chief steward also plans menus, compiles supply, overtime, and cost control records. The steward may requisition or purchase stores and equipment. Galley's roles may include baking. A chief steward's duties may overlap with those of the steward's assistant, the
chief cook A chief cook (often shortened to cook) is a seniormost unlicensed crewmember working in the steward's department of a merchant ship A merchant is a person who trade Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or enti ...
, and other Steward's department crewmembers. A person in the
United States Merchant Marine The United States Merchant Marine refers to either United States civilian mariners, or to U.S. civilian and federally owned merchant vessel A merchant ship, merchant vessel, trading vessel, or merchantman is a watercraft Watercraft, also ...

United States Merchant Marine
has to have a
Merchant Mariner's Document {{unreferenced, date=June 2013 __NOTOC__ Under the Seafarers' Identity Documents Convention, 1958, countries with a Merchant Navy or Merchant Marine require identifying credentials for their mariners. The Merchant Mariner's Document (MMD) or Z-card ...
issued by the
United States Coast Guard The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is the maritime security, search and rescue, and maritime law enforcement, law enforcement military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's eight Uniformed services ...
in order to serve as a chief steward. All chief cooks who sail internationally are similarly documented by their respective countries because of international conventions and agreements. The only time that steward department staff are charged with duties outside the steward department is during the execution of the fire and boat drill.


Other departments

Various types of staff officer positions may exist onboard a ship, including junior assistant purser, senior assistant purser,
purser A ship's purser (also pusser)From which the Pusser's Pusser's Rum is a brand name of rum produced by Pusser's Rum Ltd. Nine years after the Royal Navy discontinued the daily rum ration in 1970, the company was founded to produce the rum from the ...

purser
, chief purser,
medical doctor A physician (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American Eng ...

medical doctor
, professional
nurse Nursing is a profession within the health care Healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being Well-being, also known as ''wellness'', ''prudential value'' or ''qua ...

nurse
, marine physician assistant, and
hospital corpsman A hospital corpsman (HM r corpsman is an Enlisted rank, enlisted medical specialist of the United States Navy, who may also serve in a United States Marine Corps, U.S. Marine Corps unit. The corresponding List of United States Coast Guard ...
. In the USA these jobsMaritime seagoing career – offshore and onshore
/ref> are considered administrative positions and are therefore regulated by Certificates of Registry issued by the United States Coast Guard.
Pilots An aircraft pilot or aviator is a person who controls the flight of an aircraft by operating its Aircraft flight control system, directional flight controls. Some other aircrew, aircrew members, such as navigators or flight engineers, are a ...
are also merchant marine officers and are licensed by the Coast Guard.


Working conditions

Mariners spend extended periods at sea. Most deep-sea mariners are hired for one or more voyages that last for several months. There is no job security after that. The length of time between voyages varies by job availability and personal preference.* The rate of unionization for these workers in the United States is about 36 percent, much higher than the average for all occupations. Consequently, merchant marine officers and seamen, both veterans and beginners, are hired for voyages through union hiring halls or directly by shipping companies. Hiring halls fill jobs by the length of time the person has been registered at the hall and by their union seniority. Hiring halls typically are found in major seaports. At sea, on larger vessels members of the deck department usually stand watch for 4 hours and are off for 8 hours, 7 days a week. Mariners work in all weather conditions. Working in damp and cold conditions often is inevitable, although ships try to avoid severe storms while at sea. It is uncommon for modern vessels to suffer disasters such as fire, explosion, or a sinking. Yet workers face the possibility of having to abandon ship on short notice if it collides with other vessels or runs aground. Mariners also risk injury or death from falling overboard and from hazards associated with working with machinery, heavy loads, and dangerous cargo. However, modern safety management procedures, advanced emergency communications, and effective international rescue systems place modern mariners in a much safer position. Most newer vessels are air conditioned, soundproofed from noisy machinery, and equipped with comfortable living quarters. These amenities have helped ease the sometimes difficult circumstances of long periods away from home. Also, modern communications such as email, instant messaging and social media platforms link modern mariners to their families. Nevertheless, some mariners dislike the long periods away from home and the confinement aboard ship. They consequently leave the profession.


Life at sea

Professional mariners live on the margins of society, with much of their life spent beyond the reach of land. They face cramped, stark, noisy, and dangerous conditions at sea. Yet men and women still go to sea. For some, the attraction is a life unencumbered with the restraints of life ashore. Seagoing adventure and a chance to see the world also appeal to many seafarers. Whatever the calling, those who live and work at sea invariably confront social isolation. Findings by the Seafarer's International Research Center indicate a leading cause of mariners leaving the industry is "almost invariably because they want to be with their families". U.S. merchant ships typically do not allow family members to accompany seafarers on voyages. Industry experts increasingly recognize isolation, stress, and fatigue as occupational hazards. Advocacy groups such as International Labor Organization, a United Nations agency, and the Nautical Institute seek improved international standards for mariners. One's service aboard ships typically extends for months at a time, followed by protracted shore leave. However, some seamen secure jobs on ships they like and stay aboard for years. In rare cases, veteran mariners choose never to go ashore when in port. Further, the quick turnaround of many modern ships, spending only a matter of hours in port, limits a seafarer's free-time ashore. Moreover, some seafarers entering U.S. ports from a watch list of 25 countries deemed high-risk face restrictions on shore leave due to security concerns in a post 9/11 environment. However, shore leave restrictions while in U.S. ports impact American seamen as well. For example, the International Organization of Masters, Mates & Pilots notes a trend of U.S. shipping terminal operators restricting seamen from traveling from the ship to the terminal gate. Further, in cases where transit is allowed, special "security fees" are at times assessed. Such restrictions on shore leave coupled with reduced time in port by many ships translate into longer periods at sea. Mariners report that extended periods at sea living and working with shipmates who for the most part are strangers takes getting used to. At the same time, there is an opportunity to meet people from a wide range of ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Recreational opportunities have improved aboard some U.S. ships, which may feature gyms and day rooms for watching movies, swapping
sea stories Nautical fiction, frequently also naval fiction, sea fiction, naval adventure fiction or maritime fiction, is a literary genre, genre of literature with a setting on or near the sea, that focuses on the human relationship to the sea and sea voyages ...
, and other activities. And in some cases, especially tankers, it is made possible for a mariner to be accompanied by members of his family. However, a mariner's off duty time at sea is largely a solitary affair, pursuing hobbies, reading, writing letters, and sleeping. Internet accessibility is fast coming to the sea with the advent of cheap satellite communication, mainly from
Inmarsat Inmarsat is a British satellite telecommunications company, offering global mobile services. It provides telephone A telephone is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of te ...
. The availability of affordable roaming SIM cards with online top-up facilities have also contributed to improved connection with friends and family at home.


Notable mariners

Erik the Red Erik Thorvaldsson ( 950 – 1003), known as Erik the Red, was a Viking, Norse explorer, described in medieval and Icelandic saga sources as having founded the first colonization, settlement in Greenland. He most likely earned the epithet "the ...
and his son
Leif Erikson Leif Erikson, Leiv Eiriksson or Leif Ericson; Icelandic: ''Leifur Eiríksson''; Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation an ...
were the first notable mariners known to sail in a primitive, partly man powered vessel across the Arctic and the North Atlantic Ocean. Barbarossa Hayrettin Pasha (Turkish: Barbaros Hayrettin Paşa or Hızır Hayrettin Paşa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha and becoming the Kaptan-ı Derya (Fleet Admiral) of the Ottoman Navy) (c. 1478 – 4 July 1546) was an Ottoman admiral who dominated the Mediterranean for decades. He was born on the island of Lesbos/ Mytilini and died in Istanbul, the Ottoman capital. Merchant seamen have gone on to make their mark on the world in a number of interesting ways.
Traian Băsescu Traian Băsescu (; born 4 November 1951) is a Romanian politician who served as President of Romania from 2004 to 2014. Early life Băsescu Traian was born in Basarabi (renamed Murfatlar in 2007), near the port city of Constanţa, Constanța, ...
, who started his career as a
third mate A third mate (3/M) or third officer is a licensed member of the deck department of a merchant ship. The third mate is a watchstanding, watchstander and customarily the ship's occupational safety and health, safety officer and fourth-in-command (f ...
in 1976 was the President of
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
from 2004 to 2014.
Arthur Phillip Admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general officer ...

Arthur Phillip
joined the Merchant Navy in 1751 and 37 years later founded the city of
Sydney, Australia Sydney ( ; Dharug language, Dharug: ; Greater Sydney, Dharug language, Dharug: ) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital city of the state of New South Wales, and the List of cities in Australia by population, most populous city in ...

Sydney, Australia
. Merchant mariner
Douglass North Douglass Cecil North (November 5, 1920 – November 23, 2015) was an American economist known for his work in economic history. He was the co-recipient (with Robert William Fogel) of the 1993 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. In the word ...

Douglass North
went from seaman to navigator to winner of the 1993 Nobel Prize in Economics.
Jimmy Carter James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician, businessman, and philanthropist who served as the 39th president of the United States from 1977 to 1981. A member of the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Par ...

Jimmy Carter
went on to become the 39th President of the United States after service in the US Navy. Members of the British Merchant Navy have won the
Distinguished Service CrossThe Distinguished Service Cross (D.S.C.) is a military decoration for courage. Different versions exist for different countries. *Distinguished Service Cross (Australia) *Distinguished Service Cross (United Kingdom) *Distinguished Service Cross (Un ...
and have had careers taking them from 'Deck Boy Peter' to . Canadian merchant seamen have won
the Victoria Cross The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest and most prestigious award of the Orders, decorations, and medals of the United Kingdom, British honours system. It is awarded for courage, valour "in the presence of the enemy" to members of the British A ...

the Victoria Cross
and the
Medal of Honor The Medal of Honor (MOH) is the United States government's highest and most prestigious military decoration Military awards and decorations are distinctions given as a mark of honor for military heroism, meritorious or outstanding service o ...
. American merchant seamen have won the Medal of Honor in the
Korean War The Korean War (see § Names) was a war fought between North Korea North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. It b ...
and
Vietnam War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Vietnam War , partof = the Indochina Wars The Indochina Wars ( vi, Chiến tranh Đông Dương) were a series of wars fought in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled ...

Vietnam War
, and one went on to become the One doesn't have to look far to find merchant seamen who became war heroes in
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...
,
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...
,
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...
,
Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_type = Seal (device), National seal , national_mott ...

Peru
, or
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), hu ...
. Since World War II, a number of merchant seamen have become notorious criminals. American William Colepaugh was convicted as a Nazi spy in World War II and
Fritz Sauckel Ernst Friedrich Christoph "Fritz" Sauckel (27 October 1894 – 16 October 1946) was a German Nazi Nazism (), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus; ), is the ideology An ideology () is a set of beliefs or philosophi ...

Fritz Sauckel
was convicted as a Nazi war criminal. Briton Duncan Scott-Ford was hanged for treachery in World War II.
George Hennard The Luby's shooting, also known as the Luby's massacre, was a mass shooting A mass shooting is an incident involving multiple victims of gun violence. There is no widely accepted definition of the term ''mass shooting''. The United States ...
was an American mass murderer who claimed 24 victims on a rampage at Luby's Cafeteria in
Killeen, Texas Killeen is a city in Bell County, Texas, United States. According to the 2010 census, its population was 127,921, making it the 21st-most populous city in Texas and the largest of the three principal cities of Bell County. It is the principal cit ...
. And Perry Smith's own murderous rampage was made famous in
Truman Capote Truman Garcia Capote (; born Truman Streckfus Persons, September 30, 1924 – August 25, 1984) was an American novelist, screenwriter, playwright, and actor. Several of his short stories, novels, and plays have been praised as literary classic ...
's
non-fiction novel The non-fiction novel is a literary genre A literary genre is a category of literary composition. Genres may be determined by literary technique, setting tone, tone, Content (media), content, or even (as in the case of fiction) length. They gener ...
''
In Cold Blood ''In Cold Blood'' is a non-fiction novel by American author Truman Capote, first published in 1966. It details the 1959 murders of four members of the Herbert Clutter family in the small farming community of Holcomb, Kansas. Capote learned ...
.'' Mariners are well represented in the visual arts. French pilot's assistant
Paul Gauguin Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (, ; ; 7 June 1848 – 8 May 1903) was a French Post-Impressionist artist. Unappreciated until after his death, Gauguin is now recognized for his experimental use of color and Synthetism, Synthetist style that were di ...
later became a leading post-impressionist painter and pioneered modern art's synthetist style. American seaman
Haskell Wexler Haskell Wexler, ASC ASC may refer to: Organizations Australia * Australian Sports Commission * ASC Pty Ltd (former Australian Submarine Corporation), a naval shipbuilder * ASC Shipbuilding established by ASC Pty Ltd but now a subsidiary of BAE S ...
later won two
Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking F ...
s, the latter for a biography of his shipmate
Woody Guthrie Woodrow Wilson Guthrie (; July 14, 1912 – October 3, 1967) was an American singer-songwriter, who is considered to be one of the most significant figures in American folk music. His music, including songs such as " This Land Is Your Land" ...

Woody Guthrie
. British Merchant Navy member
Ken Russell Henry Kenneth Alfred Russell (3 July 1927 – 27 November 2011) was a British film director, known for his pioneering work in television and film and for his flamboyant and controversial style. His films in the main were liberal adaptations ...

Ken Russell
later directed films such as '' Tommy'', ''
Altered States ''Altered States'' is a 1980 American science-fiction Space exploration, as predicted in August 1958 in the science fiction magazine ''Imagination (magazine)">Imagination.'' Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre o ...
'' and ''
The Lair of the White Worm ''The Lair of the White Worm'' is a horror novel by the Irish writer Bram Stoker Abraham "Bram" Stoker (8 November 1847 – 20 April 1912) was an Irish author, best known today for his 1897 Gothic fiction, Gothic horror novel ''Dracula''. ...
''. Merchant seaman
Johnny Craig John Thomas Alexis Craig (April 25, 1926 – September 13, 2001),John T. Craig
at the < ...
was already a working comic book artist before he joined up, but
Ernie Schroeder Ernest C. Schroeder (January 9, 1916 – September 20, 2006)Ernest C. Schroeder
S ...
wouldn't start drawing comics until after returning home from World War II. Merchant sailors have also made a splash in the world of sport. In football, with
Fred Blackburn Fred Blackburn (29 July 1902 – 1 May 1990) was a British Labour Party (UK), Labour Party politician who was the Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Member of Parliament (MP) for Stalybridge and Hyde (UK Parliament constituency), Stalybridge ...
in England and the likes of
Dan Devine Daniel John Devine (December 22, 1924 – May 9, 2002) was an American football player and coach. He served as the head football coach at Arizona State University from 1955 to 1957, the University of Missouri from 1958 to 1970, and the Universi ...
and Heisman Trophy winner
Frank Sinkwich Frank Francis Sinkwich Sr. (October 10, 1920 – October 22, 1990) was an American football American football, referred to simply as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams ...
in the U.S. In track and field, American seamen Cornelius Johnson and
Jim Thorpe James Francis Thorpe (Fox language, Sac and Fox (Sauk): ''Wa-Tho-Huk'', translated as "Bright Path"; May 22 or 28, 1887March 28, 1953) was an American athlete and Olympic gold medalist. A member of the Sac and Fox Nation, Thorpe was the ...

Jim Thorpe
both won Olympic medals, though Thorpe didn't get his until 30 years after his death. Seamen Jim Bagby, Jr. and
Charlie Keller Charles Ernest Keller (September 12, 1916 – May 23, 1990) was an American professional baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting (baseball), batting and field ...

Charlie Keller
went on to Major League Baseball.
Drew Bundini Brown Drew Bundini Brown (March 21, 1928 – September 24, 1987) was an assistant trainer and cornerman Image:corner_person.jpg, A cornerman giving instructions. In combat sports, a cornerman, or second, is a coach or trainer assisting a fighter duri ...
was Muhammad Ali's assistant trainer and cornerman, and
Joe Gold Joe Gold (born Sidney Gold; March 10, 1922 – July 11, 2004) was an American bodybuilder and businessman. He was the founder of Gold's Gym and World Gym. He has been credited with being the father of the bodybuilding and the fitness craze. ...

Joe Gold
went on to make his fortune as the bodybuilding and fitness guru of
Gold's Gym Gold's Gym International, Inc. is an American chain of international co-ed fitness centers (commonly referred to as gyms) originally started by Joe Gold in Venice, Los Angeles, Venice Beach, California. Each gym offers a variety of cardio and stre ...
. Other sporting notables include Dutchman Henk de Velde known for sailing solo around the world, and Briton
Matthew Webb Captain Matthew Webb (19 January 1848 – 24 July 1883) was the first recorded person to swim the English Channel The English Channel,, "The Sleeve"; nrf, la Maunche, "The Sleeve" ( Cotentinais) or (Jèrriais), (Guernésiais), "The Ch ...

Matthew Webb
who was the first person to swim the
English Channel The English Channel,, "The Sleeve"; nrf, la Maunche, "The Sleeve" (Cotentinais Cotentinais is the dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two ...

English Channel
without the use of artificial aid. Irish Merchant Navy member
Kevin McClory Kevin O'Donovan McClory (8 June 1924 – 20 November 2006) was an Irish screenwriter, film producer, and film director. McClory was best known for producing the James Bond film '' Thunderball'' and for his legal battles with the character's cre ...
spent 14 days in a lifeboat and later went on to write the James Bond movies ''Never Say Never Again'' and ''Thunderball''. Members of the American Beat Movement
Allen Ginsberg Irwin Allen Ginsberg (; June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet and writer. As a student at Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is ...

Allen Ginsberg
,
Jack Kerouac Jean-Louis Lebris de Kérouac (; March 12, 1922 – October 21, 1969), known as Jack Kerouac, was an American novelist and poet of French Canadians, French Canadian ancestry, who, alongside William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg, was a pioneer o ...

Jack Kerouac
,
Bob Kaufman Robert Garnell Kaufman (April 18, 1925 – January 12, 1986) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States ...
, and
Herbert Huncke Herbert Edwin Huncke (January 9, 1915 – August 8, 1996) was an American writer and poet, and an active participant in a number of emerging cultural, social and aesthetic movements of the 20th century in America. He was a member of the Beat ...
were all Merchant Mariners. It is perhaps not surprising that the writers of , ''The American Practical Navigator'', and ''Two Years Before the Mast'' were Merchant Mariners. It might be surprising that the writers of ''Borat'', ''A Hard Day's Night'', and ''
Cool Hand Luke ''Cool Hand Luke'' is a 1967 American prison drama film directed by Stuart Rosenberg, starring Paul Newman and featuring George Kennedy in an Oscar-winning performance. Newman stars in the title role as Luke, a prisoner in a Florida prison camp ...
'' were. A number of U.S. Merchant Mariners from World War II later played well known television characters. The list includes Milburn Drysdale on ''The Beverly Hillbillies'',
Archie Bunker Archibald "Archie" Bunker is a fictional character from the 1970s American television sitcom ''All in the Family'' and its spin-off ''Archie Bunker's Place'', played by Carroll O'Connor. Bunker, a main character of the series, is a World War II v ...
on ''All in the Family'',
Peter Falk Peter Michael Falk (September 16, 1927 – June 23, 2011) was an American film and television actor. He is best known for his role as Lieutenant Columbo in the long-running television series ''Columbo ''Columbo'' () is an American crime dr ...

Peter Falk
on ''Columbo'', on ''The Rockford Files'', Steve McGarret on ''Hawaii Five-O'', Uncle Jesse Duke on ''The Dukes of Hazzard'' and Cheyenne Bodie on ''Cheyenne''.


Other uses

An ancient term, the word "sailor" has come to mean many things. Sailor may refer to: * A person who is under sail and not on a vessel with motorized power of any kind in the
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
, * A person who goes out
sailing Sailing employs the wind—acting on sail A sail is a tensile structure by Vladimir Shukhov (during construction), Nizhny Novgorod, 1895 in Kings Domain, Melbourne A tensile structure is a construction of elements carrying only tension ...
,
boating Boating is the leisurely activity of travelling by boat A boat is a watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical ...

boating
or
yachting Yachting is the use of recreational boats and ships called ''yacht A yacht is a sailing or power vessel used for pleasure, cruising, or racing. There is no standard definition, so the term applies to such vessels that have a cabin with amenit ...
, * A person who practices the art of controlling the motion of a sailing ship or
sailboat A sailboat or sailing boat is a boat A boat is a watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered ...

sailboat
across a body of water, * A member of a military naval force, * Anyone on a boat, * Anyone from a recruit to an
admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general officer, general in ...

admiral
in a
navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense ...

navy
or
coast guard A coast guard or coastguard is a maritime security Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in Togo * Maritime Southeast Asia * The Maritimes ...

coast guard
, * Members of the
deck department The deck department is an organisational team on board naval A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized for ...
as opposed to members of other departments in the Merchant Navy.


See also

*
Airman An airman is a member of an air force or air arm of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense ar ...
*
British Merchant Navy The Merchant Navy is the maritime register of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as ...
*
Marines Marines, or naval infantry, are typically a military force trained to operate in littoral zones The littoral zone or nearshore is the part of a sea, lake, or river that is close to the shore. In coastal environments, the littoral zone exten ...

Marines
*
Sailing Sailing employs the wind—acting on sail A sail is a tensile structure by Vladimir Shukhov (during construction), Nizhny Novgorod, 1895 in Kings Domain, Melbourne A tensile structure is a construction of elements carrying only tension ...
*
Sailing (sport) The sport of sailing involves a variety of competitive sailing Sailing employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the ''water'' (sailing ship, sailboat, Windsurfing, windsurfer, or Kitesurf ...
* Sailor jargon *
Sailor suit A sailor suit is a uniform A uniform is a variety of clothing A kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel, and attire) are items worn on the body. Typically, clothing is made of fabr ...

Sailor suit
*
Seafarer's professions and ranks Seafaring is a tradition that encompasses a variety of professions and ranks. Each of these roles carries unique responsibilities that are integral to the successful operation of a seafaring vessel. A ship's crew can generally be divided into ''fou ...
*
Seaman Seaman may refer to: * Sailor, a member of a marine watercraft's crew * Seaman (rank), a military rank in some navies * Seaman (name) (including a list of people with the name) * Seaman (video game), ''Seaman'' (video game), a 1999 simulation vide ...
*
The Marine Society ''The'' () is a grammatical article Article often refers to: * Article (grammar) An article is any member of a class of dedicated words that are used with noun phrases to mark the identifiability of the referents of the noun phrases. The ca ...
*
United States Merchant Marine The United States Merchant Marine refers to either United States civilian mariners, or to U.S. civilian and federally owned merchant vessel A merchant ship, merchant vessel, trading vessel, or merchantman is a watercraft Watercraft, also ...

United States Merchant Marine
*
Ocean rowing Ocean rowing is the sport of rowing Rowing is the act of propelling a boat using the motion of oar An oar is an implement used for water-borne propulsion. Oars have a flat blade at one end. Rowers grasp the oar at the other end. The d ...


Notes


References


External links


Survey of Water Transport Occupations

Seafarer Fatigue: The Cardiff Research Programme

Sailor at Etymology Online


{{Authority control Nautical terminology Water transport Military specialisms Marine occupations