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Muhammad_and_his_companions_on_an_Ottoman_miniature_.html" ;"title="Ottoman_miniature.html" ;"title="Muhammad and his companions on an Ottoman miniature">Muhammad and his companions on an Ottoman miniature ">Ottoman_miniature.html" ;"title="Muhammad and his companions on an Ottoman miniature">Muhammad and his companions on an Ottoman miniature Companions of the Prophet ( ar, اَلصَّحَابَةُ; ''aṣ-ṣaḥāba'' meaning "the companions", from the verb meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") were the disciples and followers of Muhammad who "saw or met the prophet during his lifetime and were physically in his presence". "Al-ṣaḥāba" is definite plural; the indefinite singular is masculine ('), feminine ('). Later scholars accepted their testimony of the words and deeds of Muhammad, the occasions on which the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts are texts related to a religious tradition. They differ from literary texts by being a compilation or di ...

Quran
was revealed and other various important matters of
Islamic history The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic and cultural developments of Muslim world, Islamic civilization. Most historians accept that Islam originated in Mecca and Medina at the start of the 7th century CE. Muslims regard Is ...
and practice. The testimony of the companions, as it was passed down through trusted chains of narrators (''
isnad Hadith studies ( ar, علم الحديث ''ʻilm al-ḥadīth'' "science of hadith", also science of hadith, or science of hadith criticism or hadith criticism) consists of several religious scholarly disciplines used by Muslim scholars in the ...
''s), was the basis of the developing Islamic tradition. From the traditions (''
hadith Ḥadīth ( or ; ar, حديث , pl. aḥādīth, , , , literally means "talk" or "discourse") or Athar ( ar, أثر, , literally means "tradition") in Islam refers to what the majority of Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or pr ...

hadith
'') of the life of Muhammad and his companions are drawn the Muslim way of life (''
sunnah In Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced , or (when the stress is on the first ...
''), the code of conduct (''
sharia Sharia (, ar, ), Islamic law, or Sharia law, is a religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition. It is derived from the religious precepts of Islam, derived from the hadith. In Arabic, the term ''sharīʿah'' refers to God in Islam, G ...
'') it requires, and the
jurisprudence Jurisprudence, or legal theory, is the theoretical study of the propriety of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. ...
(''
fiqh ''Fiqh'' (; ar} ) is Islamic jurisprudence. Muhammad-> Sahabah, Companions-> Tabi‘un, Followers-> Fiqh. The commands and prohibitions chosen by God were revealed through the agency of the Prophet in both the Quran and the Sunnah (words, dee ...
'') by which Muslim communities should be regulated. The two largest
Islamic denominations There are three traditional types of schools in Islam: madhhab, schools of jurisprudence, Sufism, Sufi orders and Schools of Islamic theology, schools of theology. Other types of Islamic denominations and movements have arisen in the modern era. ...
, the
Sunni Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany as a ramus) is a woody structural member connected to but not part o ...
and
Shia Shia Islam or Shi'ism is the second largest branch Image:Tree Leaves.JPG, The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany as a ramus) is a woody structural member connected to but not par ...
, take different approaches in weighing the value of the companions' testimonies, have different ''
hadith Ḥadīth ( or ; ar, حديث , pl. aḥādīth, , , , literally means "talk" or "discourse") or Athar ( ar, أثر, , literally means "tradition") in Islam refers to what the majority of Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or pr ...

hadith
'' collections and, as a result, have different views about the ṣaḥābah. The second generation of
Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pron ...
after the ṣaḥāba, born after the death of the
Islamic prophet Prophets in Islam ( ar, الأنبياء في الإسلام, translit=al-ʾAnbiyāʾ fī al-ʾIslām) are individuals in Islam who are believed to spread God in Islam, God's message on Earth and to serve as models of ideal human behaviour. Som ...
Muhammad, who knew at least one ṣaḥāba, are called '' Tābi‘ūn'' (also "the successors"). The third generation of Muslims after the '' Tābi‘ūn'', who knew at least one ''Tābi‘'', are called '' tābi‘ al-tābi‘īn''. The three generations make up the ''
salaf Salaf ( ar, سلف, "ancestors" or "predecessors"), also often referred to with the honorific expression of "al-salaf al-ṣāliḥ" (, "the pious predecessors") are often taken to be the first three generations of Muslims. The first generation o ...
'' of Islam.


Types

In Islām, companions of Muḥammad are classified into categories including the Muhajirūn who accompanied Muhammad from
Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah ( ) and commonly shortened to Makkah ( ),Quran 48:22 ' () is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city in Islam. It is inland ...

Mecca
to
Medina Medina,, ', "the radiant city"; or , ', (), "the city" officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (, ), commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (, ), is the second holiest city in Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in Eng ...

Medina
, the Ansar who lived in Medina, and the Badriyyūn who fought at the
Battle of Badr The Battle of Badr ( ar, غَزْوَةُ بَدِرْ ), also referred to as The Day of the Criterion (, ) in the Quran, Qur'an and by Muslims, was fought on Tuesday, 13 March 624 CE (17 Ramadan (calendar month), Ramadan, 2 Anno Hegirae, AH), ...

Battle of Badr
. Two important groups among the Companions are the Muhajirūn "migrants", those who had faith in Muhammad when he began to preach in Mecca and who departed with him when he was persecuted there, and the Ansar, the people of
Medina Medina,, ', "the radiant city"; or , ', (), "the city" officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (, ), commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (, ), is the second holiest city in Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in Eng ...

Medina
who welcomed Muhammad and his companions and stood as their protectors. Lists of prominent companions usually run to 50 or 60 names, the people most closely associated with Muhammad. However, there were clearly many others who had some contact with Muhammad and their names and biographies were recorded in religious reference texts such as
ibn Sa'd Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Sa‘d ibn Manī‘ al-Baṣrī al-Hāshimī or simply Ibn Saʿ'd ( ar, ابن سعد) and nicknamed ''Scribe of Waqidi'' (''Katib al-Waqidi''), was a scholar A scholar is a person who pursues academic and int ...
's early ''Book of the Major Classes''.
Al-Qurtubi Imam Abu 'Abdullah Al-Qurtubi or Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Abu Bakr al-Ansari al-Qurtubi ( ar, أبو عبدالله القرطبي) (d. 1272) was an Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost Autonomous commun ...
's ''Istīʻāb fī maʻrifat al-Aṣhāb'', who died in 1071, consists of 2770 biographies of male and 381 biographies of female ṣaḥābah. According to an observation in
al-Qastallani Shihāb al-Dīn Abu'l-‘Abbās Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Abī Bakr al-Qasṭallānī al-Qutaybī al-Shāfi‘ī ( ar, أحمد بن محمد ابن أبي بكر ابن عبد الملك بن أحمد بن حسين بن علي القسطلاني ...
's ''
Al-Muwahib al-LadunniyyahAl-Muwahib al-ladunniyya bi al-minah al-Muhammadiyya is a book by Islamic scholar In Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' i ...
'', an untold number of persons had already converted to Islam by the time Muhammad died. There were 10,000 by the time of the
Conquest of Mecca The conquest of Mecca ( ar, فتح مكة ') was the conquering of the town of Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah () and commonly shortened to Makkah,Quran 48:22 ' () is the Holy sites in islam, holiest city in Islam and the ...
and 70,000 during the
Expedition of Tabuk Image:Tabuk, Saudi Arabia locator map.png, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia The Expedition of Tabuk, also known as the Expedition of Usra, was a military expedition that was initiated by Muhammad in October 630 CE (AH 9). Muhammad led a force of as many as 30, ...
in 630. Some Muslims assert that they were more than 200,000 in number: it is believed that 124,000 witnessed the
Farewell Sermon The Final Sermon ( ar, خطبة الوداع, ''Khuṭbatu l-Widāʿ''also known as Muhammad's Final Sermon or the Last Sermon, is a religious speech, delivered by the Islamic prophet Prophets in Islam ( ar, الأنبياء في الإسل ...
Muhammad delivered after making
Farewell PilgrimageThe Farewell Pilgrimage ( ar, حِجَّة ٱلْوَدَاع, Ḥijjatu Al-Wadāʿ) refers to the one Hajj The Hajj (; ar, حَجّ ' " pilgrimage"; sometimes also spelled Hadj, Hadji or Haj in English) is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mec ...
to Mecca.


Definitions


Sunni

The most widespread definition of a companion is someone who met Muhammad, believed in him, and died a
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God) is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that Muhammad is a Muhammad in Islam, ...

Muslim
. The Sunni scholar
ibn Hajar al-Asqalani Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī or ''Ibn Ḥajar'' ( ar, ابن حجر العسقلاني, full name: ''Shihābud-Dīn Abul-Faḍl Aḥmad ibn Nūrud-Dīn ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī Banu Kinanah, al-Kināni'') (18 February 1372 ...
(d.852 H) said, Anyone who died after rejecting Islam and becoming an apostate is not considered as a companion. Those who saw him but held off believing in him until after his passing are not considered ṣahābah but tābiʻūn. . According to Sunni scholars, Muslims of the past should be considered companions if they had any contact with Muhammad, and they were not liars or opposed to him and his teachings. If they saw him, heard him, or were in his presence even briefly, they are companions. All companions are assumed to be just (''ʻudul'') unless they are proven otherwise; that is, Sunni scholars do not believe that companions would lie or fabricate hadith unless they are proven liars, untrustworthy or opposed to Islam. Some Quranic references are important to Sunni Muslim views of the reverence due to all companions; It sometimes admonishes them, as when
Aisha ʿĀʾishah bint Abī Bakr ( ar, عائشة بنت أبي بكر , 613/614 – 678 CE), also transcribed as Aisha (, also , ) or variants, was Muhammad's third and youngest wife. In Islamic writings, her name is thus often prefixed by the ti ...

Aisha
, daughter of the first Sunni
caliph A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state An Islamic state is a form of government based on Islamic law. As a term, it has been used to describe various historical Polity, polities and theories of governance in the Islami ...
Abu Bakr , image = Rashidun Caliph Abu Bakr as-Șiddīq (Abdullah ibn Abi Quhafa) - أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن عثمان التيمي القرشي أول الخلفاء الراشدين.svg , title = Al-Siddiq Atiq , ...
and the wife of Muhammad, was accused of infidelity. Differing views on the definition of a Companion were also influenced by the debate between the Traditionalists and the
Muʿtazila Muʿtazila ( ar, المعتزلة ') is a Rationalism, rationalist schools of Islamic theology, school of Islamic theology as well as some Sunni scholars like
Javed Ahmad Ghamidi Jāvēd Ahmed Ghāmidī ( ur, ) (born April 07, 1952) is a Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English language, English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's L ...
and
Amin Ahsan Islahi Amin Ahsan Islahi (1904 – 15 December 1997) was a Pakistani List of modern-day Muslim scholars, Muslim scholar, famous for his Urdu exegeses of Quran, Tadabbur-i-Qur’an (Pondering on the Quran) – an exegesis that he based on Hamidu ...

Amin Ahsan Islahi
state that not every individual who met or had accidentally seen Muhammad can be considered a Companion. In their view, the Qurʻan has outlined a high level of faith as one of the distinctive qualities of the ṣaḥābah. Hence, they admit to this list only those individuals who had substantial contact with Muhammad, lived with him, and took part in his campaigns and efforts at proselytizing. In other words, Companion is used to refer to sahaba of the prophet who were in a long-term relationship with him and support him in an essential event up to their death. In view of such admonitions, the Shia have different views on each ṣaḥābiyy, depending on what they accomplished. They do not accept that the testimony of nearly all ṣaḥābah is an authenticated part of the chain of narrators in a hadith and that not all the ṣaḥābah were righteous just because they saw or were with Muhammad. The Shia further argue that the righteousness of ṣaḥābah can be assessed by their loyalty towards Muhammad's family after his death and they accept hadith from the Imams of the Ahl al-Bayt, believing them to be cleansed from sin through their interpretation of the Qurʻan and the hadith of the Cloak. Shia Muslims believe that some companions are accountable for the loss of the caliphate by the
Ali , house = Quraysh ( Banu Hashim) , house-type = Tribe , father = Abu Talib ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib , mother = Fatimah bint Asad , religion = Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, ...

Ali
's family. As verses 30-33 from
Al-Aḥzāb Section from verses 73 of Sura al-Ahzab Al-Ahzab ( ar, الأحزاب, ; the confederates, George Sale translation "the clans", "the coalition", "the combined forces") is the 33rd chapter ('' sūrah'') of the Quran The Quran (, ; ar, ...
, Shias believe their argument that one must discriminate between the virtues of the companions by verses relating to Muhammad's wives.


Baháʼí Faith

The
Baháʼí Faith The Baháʼí Faith (; fa , بهائی ') is a relatively new religion teaching the Baháʼí Faith and the unity of religion, essential worth of all religions and Baháʼí Faith and the unity of humanity, the unity of all people. Establish ...
recognises the companions of Muhammad. They are mentioned in the Kitáb-i-Íqán, the primary theological work of the Baháʼí religion.


Hadith


Sunni views

According to the ''
History of the Prophets and Kings The ''History of the Prophets and Kings'' ( ar, تاريخ الرسل والملوك ''Tārīkh al-Rusul wa al-Mulūk''), more commonly known as ''Tarikh al-Tabari'' () or ''Tarikh-i Tabari'' or ''The History of al-Tabari '' ( fa, تاریخ الط ...
'', after the death of the
Islamic prophet Prophets in Islam ( ar, الأنبياء في الإسلام, translit=al-ʾAnbiyāʾ fī al-ʾIslām) are individuals in Islam who are believed to spread God in Islam, God's message on Earth and to serve as models of ideal human behaviour. Som ...
Muhammad,
Abu Bakr , image = Rashidun Caliph Abu Bakr as-Șiddīq (Abdullah ibn Abi Quhafa) - أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن عثمان التيمي القرشي أول الخلفاء الراشدين.svg , title = Al-Siddiq Atiq , ...
,
Umar ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb ( ar, عمر بن الخطاب; 3 November 644), also spelled Omar, was the second Rashidun caliph , image = تخطيط كلمة الخلفاء الراشدون.png , caption = Calligraphic Calligrap ...

Umar
and
Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, fully Abū ‘Ubaydah ‘Āmir ibn ‘Abdillāh ibn al-Jarāḥ ( ar, أبو عبيدة عامر بن عبدالله بن الجراح; 583–639 CE), was one of the Sahabah, Companions of the Prophets in Islam, ...
and the Anṣār of
Medina Medina,, ', "the radiant city"; or , ', (), "the city" officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (, ), commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (, ), is the second holiest city in Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in Eng ...

Medina
held consultations and selected Abu Bakr as the first caliph. Then
'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf ( ar, عبد الرحمن بن عوف) (c.581 CE – c.654 CE) was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, Th ...
and
Uthman Uthman ibn Affan ( ar, عثمان بن عفان, ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān; – 17 June 656), also spelled by the Turkish and Persian rendering Osman, was the third Rashidun , image = تخطيط كلمة الخلفاء الراشدون.png ...

Uthman
, companion and son-in-law of Muhammad and also essential chief of the
Banu Umayyah The Umayyad dynasty ( ar, بَنُو أُمَيَّةَ, Banū Umayya, Sons of Umayya) or Umayyads (), were the ruling family of the Muslim caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Isla ...
, selected Umar as the second caliph after the death of Abū Bakr and the other Anṣar and
Muhajirun The ''Muhajirun'' ( ar, المهاجرون, al-muhājirūn, singular , ) were the first converts to Islam and the Islamic prophet Muhammad's advisors and relatives, who emigrated with him from Mecca to Medina, the event known in Islam as the '' ...
accepted him. Sunni Muslim scholars classified companions into many categories, based on a number of criteria. The hadith quoted above shows ranks of ''ṣaḥābah, tābi‘īn,'' and ''tābi‘ at-tābi‘īn.''
Al-Suyuti Al-Suyuti ( 1445–1505 CE); aka Jalaluddin; was an Egyptians, Egyptian scholar, historian and jurist. From a family of Persians, Persian origin, he was described as one of the most prolific writers of the Middle Ages. His biographical dictionary ...
recognized eleven levels of companionship. The general involvement in military campaign with Muhammad by Sahabah were highlighted by Third generation scholar named
Ibn al-Mubarak , image = , image_size = , era = Islamic Golden Age The Islamic Golden Age ( ar, العصر الذهبي للإسلام , al-'asr al-dhahabi lil-islam), was a period of cultural, economic, and scientifi ...
, that once asked about who is better between
Mu'awiya ibn Abi Sufyan#REDIRECT Muawiyah I Muawiyah I ( ar, معاوية بن أبي سفيان, Muʿāwiya ibn Abī Sufyān; –April 680) was the founder and first caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate and fifth Caliph of Islam, serving from 661 until his death. He became ...
and
Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz ( ar, عمر بن عبد العزيز, ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz; 2 November 682 – ), commonly known as Umar II (عمر الثاني), was the eighth Umayyad The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE; , ; ar, ٱلْخِل ...
, who were famous for his piety. Ibn Mubarrak simply responded: "''...dust particles in Muawiyah Nose (while fighting in Hunayn under Muhammad) were better than six hundred Umar (ibn Abd al Aziz)...."''


Shia views

Following the consultation of companions about the successor of Muhammad, Shi'i scholars, therefore, deprecate hadith believed to have been transmitted from alleged unjust companions and place much more reliance on hadith believed to have been related by Muhammad's family members and companions who supported Ali. The Shia claim that Muhammad announced his successor during his lifetime at Dawat Zul Asheera then many times during his prophethood and finally at the
event of Ghadir Khumm Event may refer to: Gatherings of people * Ceremony A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed in a sequestered place and according to a set sequence. Rit ...

event of Ghadir Khumm
. Shias consider that any hadith where Muhammad is claimed to have absolved all ṣaḥābah from sin is a false report by those who opposed the Ahl al-Bayt.


See also

*
List of Sahabah ''Sahabah, Aṣ-ṣaḥābah'' ( ar, الصحابة, "The Companions") were the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad who had seen or met him, believed in him at the time when he was alive and also died as Muslims. While all the Sahabah were ...
*
List of non-Arab Sahabah The list of non-Arab Sahaba includes non-Arabs among the original Sahaba Ottoman_miniature.html"_;"title="Muhammad_and_his_companions_on_an_Ottoman_miniature">Muhammad_and_his_companions_on_an_Ottoman_miniature_ Companions_of_the_Prophet_or_ ...
* The ten to whom Paradise was promised *
Apostles upright=1.35, Jesus and his Twelve Apostles, Chi-Rho symbol ☧, Catacombs of Domitilla">Chi_Rho.html" ;"title="fresco with the Chi Rho">Chi-Rho symbol ☧, Catacombs of Domitilla, Rome In Christian theology and ecclesiology, apostles, parti ...

Apostles
*
Apostles of Baháʼu'lláh The Apostles of Baháʼu'lláh were nineteen prominent early followers of Baháʼu'lláh Baháʼu'lláh (12 November 1817 – 29 May 1892) was a Persian religious leader, and the founder of the Baháʼí Faith, which advocates universal ...


Notes


References


Further reading

* Osman, Amr, Companions, in ''Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God'' (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014. *
Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Sa‘d ibn Manī‘ al-Baṣrī al-Hāshimī or simply Ibn Saʿ'd ( ar, ابن سعد) and nicknamed ''Scribe of Waqidi'' (''Katib al-Waqidi''), was a scholar A scholar is a person who pursues academic and int ...
, Muhammad – ''The book of The Major Classes'', only partially translated into English; see '' Men of Medina'' and ''Women of Medina'' published by Ta-Ha Publishers, and first two volumes as published by Kitab Bhavan, New Delhi. *
Wilferd Madelung Wilferd Ferdinand Madelung (b. 1930) is a German-American author and scholar of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , ...
– '' The Succession to Muhammad'',
Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge , mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts. Non literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowledg ...
, 1997. *
Maxime Rodinson Maxime Rodinson (; 26 January 1915, Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents as of 2018, in an ...
– ''
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...
'', 1961, as translated into English and published in 1980 by Pantheon Books. *
William Montgomery Watt William Montgomery Watt (14 March 1909 – 24 October 2006) was a Scottish people, Scottish Oriental studies, Orientalist, historian, academic and Anglican ministry, Anglican priest. From 1964 to 1979, he was Professor of Arabic language, Arabic ...
– '' Muhammad at Medina'', Oxford University Press 1956.


External links


List of Male SahabaList of Female SahabaSahaba: Companions of the ProphetThe Companions of the Prophet as seen by the Shi’a and the Sunnis Sermons of the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali b. Abi Talib, from ''Nahj al-Balaghah''Names of Sahabiyat
{{Authority control Islamic terminology Life of Muhammad