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Sucrose is a type of
sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides are joined by glycosidic linkage. Like monosacc ...

sugar
made up of one
molecule A molecule is an electrically Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position In physics, motion is the phenomenon ...

molecule
of
glucose Glucose is a simple with the . Glucose is the most abundant , a subcategory of s. Glucose is mainly made by and most during from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight, where it is used to make in s, the most abundant carbohydr ...

glucose
and one molecule of
fructose Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a ketonic simple sugar Monosaccharides (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a cou ...

fructose
joined together. It is a
disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar formed wh ...
, a molecule composed of two
monosaccharides Monosaccharides (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 ...
: glucose and fructose. Sucrose is produced naturally in plants, from which
table sugar White sugar, also called table sugar, granulated sugar or regular sugar, is a commonly used type of sugar Sugar is the generic name for Sweetness, sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. Table sugar, granulated s ...
is refined. It has the
molecular formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and take ...
. For human consumption, sucrose is extracted and refined from either
sugarcane Sugarcane or sugar cane is a species of (often hybrid) tall, perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, ...

sugarcane
or
sugar beet A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose Sucrose is a type of sugar Sugar is the generic name for Sweetness, sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. Table sugar, granulated ...
.
Sugar mill A sugar cane mill is a factory that processes sugar cane to produce raw or white sugar Sugar is the generic name for Sweetness, sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. Table sugar, granulated sugar, or regular su ...

Sugar mill
s – typically located in
tropical regions The tropics are the region of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continent A continent is one of several larg ...

tropical regions
near where sugarcane is grown – crush the cane and produce raw sugar which is shipped to other factories for refining into pure sucrose. Sugar beet factories are located in
temperate climate In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, plan ...
s where the beet is grown, and process the beets directly into refined sugar. The sugar refining process involves washing the raw sugar crystals before dissolving them into a sugar syrup which is filtered and then passed over carbon to remove any residual colour. The sugar syrup is then concentrated by boiling under a vacuum and crystallized as the final purification process to produce crystals of pure sucrose that are clear, odorless, and sweet. Sugar is often an added ingredient in food production and food
recipe A recipe is a set of instructions that describes how to prepare or make something, especially a dish Dish, dishes or DISH may refer to: Culinary * Dish (food), something prepared to be eaten * Dishware, plates and bowls for eating, cutting bo ...

recipe
s. About 185 million
tonne The tonne ( or ; symbol: t) is a metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilogram The kilogram (also kilogramme) is the base unit of mass Mass is the physical quantity, quantity of ''matter'' in a physical body. It is also a meas ...
s of sugar were produced worldwide in 2017. Sucrose is particularly dangerous from the point of view of
tooth decay Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is the breakdown of teeth A tooth (plural teeth) is a hard, calcified Calcification is the accumulation of calcium salts in a Tissue (biology), body tissue. It normally occurs in the ...
because ''
Streptococcus mutans ''Streptococcus mutans'' is a facultatively anaerobic, gram-positive 300px, Violet-stained gram-positive cocci and pink-stained gram-negative bacillus (shape), bacilli In bacteriology, gram-positive bacteria are bacteria that give a positive ...
'' bacteria convert it into a sticky, extracellular,
dextran Dextran is a complex branched glucan (polysaccharide , a beta-glucan polysaccharide Image:amylose 3Dprojection.svg">350px, Amylose is a linear polymer of glucose mainly linked with α(1→4) bonds. It can be made of several thousands of glucose ...

dextran
-based
polysaccharide Polysaccharides (), or polycarbohydrates, are the most abundant carbohydrate A carbohydrate () is a biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallograp ...
that allows them to cohere, forming plaque. Sucrose is the only sugar that bacteria can use to form this sticky polysaccharide.


Etymology

The word ''sucrose'' was coined in 1857, by the English chemist William Miller from the
French
French
("sugar") and the generic chemical suffix for sugars ''
-ose The suffix In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analys ...
''. The abbreviated term ''Suc'' is often used for ''sucrose'' in scientific literature. The name ''saccharose'' was coined in 1860 by the French chemist
Marcellin Berthelot Pierre Eugène Marcellin Berthelot (; 1827–1907) was a French chemist A chemist (from Greek ''chēm(ía)'' alchemy; replacing ''chymist'' from Medieval Latin ''alchemist'') is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific m ...

Marcellin Berthelot
. Saccharose is an obsolete name for sugars in general, especially sucrose.


Physical and chemical properties


Structural O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-fructofuranoside

In sucrose, the
monomer In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in th ...

monomer
s glucose and fructose are linked via an ether bond between C1 on the
glucosyl hydroxyl A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is a functional group with the chemical formula -OH and composed of one oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element with the chemical symbol, symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalco ...
subunit and C2 on the fructosyl unit. The bond is called a
glycosidic linkage A glycosidic bond or glycosidic linkage is a type of covalent bond A covalent bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. These electron pairs are known as shared pairs or bonding pairs, and the stable ba ...
. Glucose exists predominantly as a mixture of α and β "pyranose"
anomer An anomer is a type of geometric variation found at certain atoms in carbohydrate is a disaccharide found in animal milk. It consists of a molecule of D-galactose and a molecule of D-glucose bonded by beta-1-4 glycosidic linkage. A carboh ...
s, but sucrose has only the α form. Fructose exists as a mixture of five
tautomer Tautomers () are structural isomer In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, ...

tautomer
s but sucrose has only the β-D-fructofuranose form. Unlike most disaccharides, the glycosidic bond in sucrose is formed between the reducing ends of both glucose and fructose, and not between the reducing end of one and the non-reducing end of the other. This linkage inhibits further bonding to other saccharide units, and prevents sucrose from spontaneously reacting with cellular and circulatory macromolecules in the manner that glucose and other reducing sugars do. Since sucrose contains no anomeric hydroxyl groups, it is classified as a non-
reducing sugar A reducing sugar is any sugar that is capable of acting as a reducing agent because it has a free aldehyde group or a free ketone group. All monosaccharides are reducing sugars, along with some disaccharides, some oligosaccharides, and some polysac ...

reducing sugar
. Sucrose crystallizes in the
monoclinic In crystallography Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure). The word "crystallography" is derived from the Greek language, Greek words ''crystallon'' " ...

monoclinic
space group In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...
P21 with room-temperature lattice parameters ''a'' = 1.08631 nm, ''b'' = 0.87044 nm, ''c'' = 0.77624 nm, β = 102.938°. The purity of sucrose is measured by
polarimetry Polarimetry is the measurement and interpretation of the polarization of transverse waves, most notably electromagnetic wave Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interac ...

polarimetry
, through the rotation of
plane-polarized light Polarization ( also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillation Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (ofte ...
by a sugar solution. The
specific rotation In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they underg ...
at using yellow "sodium-D" light (589 nm) is +66.47°. Commercial samples of sugar are assayed using this parameter. Sucrose does not deteriorate at ambient conditions.


Thermal and oxidative degradation

Sucrose does not melt at high temperatures. Instead, it decomposes at to form
caramel Caramel ( or ) is a medium to dark-orange confectionery product made by heating a variety of sugars. It can be used as a flavoring in puddings and desserts, as a filling in bonbons, or as a topping for ice cream, and custard. The process of car ...
. Like other
carbohydrate A carbohydrate () is a biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a ...
s, it combusts to
carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of s that constitute a particular or molecule, using symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as pare ...

carbon dioxide
and water. Mixing sucrose with the oxidizer
potassium nitrate Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula . It is an ionic salt of potassium ions K+ and nitrate ions NO3−, and is therefore an alkali metal nitrate. It occurs in nature as a mineral, niter (or nitre in the UK). It is a ...

potassium nitrate
produces the fuel known as
rocket candy Rocket Candy, or R-Candy, is a type of rocket propellant for model rockets made with sugar Sugar is the generic name for Sweetness, sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. Table sugar, granulated sugar, or regula ...

rocket candy
that is used to propel amateur rocket motors. This reaction is somewhat simplified though. Some of the carbon does get fully oxidized to carbon dioxide, and other reactions, such as the
water-gas shift reaction The water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) describes the reaction of carbon monoxide and water vapor (99.9839 °C) , - , Boiling point , , - , specific gas constant , 461.5 J/( kg·K) , - , Heat of vaporization , 2.27 MJ/kg , - , Hea ...
also take place. A more accurate theoretical equation is: Sucrose burns with
chloric acid
chloric acid
, formed by the reaction of
hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid +(aq) Cl−(aq) or H3O+ Cl− also known as muriatic acid, is an aqueous solution An aqueous solution is a solution Solution may refer to: * Solution (chemistry) Image:SaltInWaterSolutionLiquid.jpg, upMaking a salin ...

hydrochloric acid
and
potassium chlorate Potassium chlorate is a compound containing potassium, chlorine and oxygen, with the molecular formula KClO3. In its pure form, it is a white crystalline substance. After sodium chlorate, it is the second most common chlorate in industrial use. It ...
: Sucrose can be dehydrated with
sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid (American spelling Despite the various English dialects spoken from country to country and within different regions of the same country, there are only slight regional variations in English orthography English orthogra ...

sulfuric acid
to form a black,
carbon Carbon (from la, carbo "coal") is a with the C and 6. It is lic and —making four s available to form s. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Carbon makes up only about 0.025 percent of Earth's crust. Three occur naturally, ...

carbon
-rich solid, as indicated in the following idealized equation: The formula for sucrose's decomposition can be represented as a two-step reaction: the first simplified reaction is dehydration of sucrose to pure carbon and water, and then carbon oxidises to with from air.


Hydrolysis

Hydrolysis Hydrolysis (; ) is any chemical reaction in which a molecule of water breaks one or more chemical bonds. The term is used broadly for substitution Substitution may refer to: Arts and media *Chord substitution, in music, swapping one chord fo ...

Hydrolysis
breaks the
glycosidic bond A glycosidic bond or glycosidic linkage is a type of covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate. A glycosidic bond is formed between the hemiacetal or hemiketal group ...
converting sucrose into
glucose Glucose is a simple with the . Glucose is the most abundant , a subcategory of s. Glucose is mainly made by and most during from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight, where it is used to make in s, the most abundant carbohydr ...

glucose
and
fructose Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a ketonic simple sugar Monosaccharides (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a cou ...

fructose
.
Hydrolysis Hydrolysis (; ) is any chemical reaction in which a molecule of water breaks one or more chemical bonds. The term is used broadly for substitution Substitution may refer to: Arts and media *Chord substitution, in music, swapping one chord fo ...

Hydrolysis
is, however, so slow that solutions of sucrose can sit for years with negligible change. If the
enzyme Enzymes () are proteins that act as biological catalysts (biocatalysts). Catalysts accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrate (chemistry), substrates, and the enzyme converts the substrates in ...

enzyme
sucraseSucrase is a digestive enzyme that catalysis, catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose to its subunits fructose and glucose. One form, sucrase-isomaltase, is secreted in the small intestine on the brush border. The sucrase enzyme invertase, which occurs m ...

sucrase
is added, however, the reaction will proceed rapidly. Hydrolysis can also be accelerated with acids, such as
cream of tartar Potassium bitartrate, also known as potassium hydrogen tartrate, with formula K C4H5O6, is a byproduct of winemaking Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine, starting with the selection of the fruit, its Ethanol fermentation, ferme ...
or lemon juice, both weak acids. Likewise, gastric acidity converts sucrose to glucose and fructose during digestion, the bond between them being an acetal bond which can be broken by an acid. Given (higher) heats of combustion of 1349.6 kcal/mol for sucrose, 673.0 for glucose, and 675.6 for fructose, hydrolysis releases about per mole of sucrose, or about 3 small calories per gram of product.


Synthesis and biosynthesis of sucrose

The
biosynthesis Biosynthesis is a multi-step, enzyme Enzymes () are proteins that act as biological catalysts (biocatalysts). Catalysts accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrate (chemistry), substrates, and ...

biosynthesis
of sucrose proceeds via the precursors
UDP-glucose Uridine diphosphate glucose (uracil-diphosphate glucose, Uridine diphosphate, UDP-glucose) is a nucleotide sugar. It is involved in glycosyltransferase reactions in metabolism. Functions UDP-glucose is used in nucleotide sugars metabolism, nucleot ...

UDP-glucose
and
fructose 6-phosphate Fructose 6-phosphate (sometimes called the Neuberg ester) is a derivative of fructose, which has been phosphorylated at the 6-hydroxy group. It is one of several possible fructosephosphates. The β-D-form of this compound is very common in cell (bi ...

fructose 6-phosphate
, catalyzed by the enzyme sucrose-6-phosphate synthase. The energy for the reaction is gained by the cleavage of
uridine diphosphate Uridine diphosphate, abbreviated UDP, is a nucleotide diphosphate. It is an ester of pyrophosphoric acid with the nucleoside uridine. UDP consists of the pyrophosphate Functional group, group, the pentose sugar ribose, and the nucleobase uracil. ...

uridine diphosphate
(UDP). Sucrose is formed by plants,
algae Algae (; singular alga ) is an informal term for a large and diverse group of photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert Conversion or convert may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Co ...

algae
and cyanobacteria but not by other
organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological ...

organism
s. Sucrose is the end product of
photosynthesis Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert Conversion or convert may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Conversion (Doctor Who audio), "Conversion" (''Doctor Who'' audio), an episode of the audio drama ' ...

photosynthesis
and is found naturally in many food plants along with the
monosaccharide Monosaccharides (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ap ...
fructose Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a ketonic simple sugar Monosaccharides (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a cou ...

fructose
. In many fruits, such as
pineapple The pineapple (''Ananas comosus'') is a tropical plant with an edible fruit and is the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae. The pineapple is indigenous to South America, where it has been cultivated for many centurie ...

pineapple
and
apricot An apricot (, ) is a fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The ...

apricot
, sucrose is the main sugar. In others, such as
grapes A grape is a fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term ...

grapes
and
pear Pears are fruits produced and consumed around the world, growing on a tree and harvested in the Northern Hemisphere in late summer into October. The pear tree and shrub are a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological ...

pear
s, fructose is the main sugar.


Chemical synthesis

After numerous unsuccessful attempts by others, Raymond Lemieux and George Huber succeeded in synthesizing sucrose from
acetylated Acetylation (or in IUPAC nomenclature The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize chemical nomenclature. There are two main areas: * IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry (R ...
glucose and fructose in 1953.


Sources

In nature, sucrose is present in many plants, and in particular their roots, fruits and
nectar Nectar is a sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide found in animal milk. It consists of a molecule of D-galactose and a molecule of D-glucose bonded by beta-1-4 glycosidic linkag ...

nectar
s, because it serves as a way to store energy, primarily from
photosynthesis Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert Conversion or convert may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Conversion (Doctor Who audio), "Conversion" (''Doctor Who'' audio), an episode of the audio drama ' ...

photosynthesis
. Many mammals, birds, insects and bacteria accumulate and feed on the sucrose in plants and for some it is their main food source. Although
honeybee A honey bee (also spelled honeybee) is a eusocial flying insect within the genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles t ...

honeybee
s consume sucrose, the
honey Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance made by honey bees Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance made by honey bees and some other Bee, bees. Bees produce honey from the sugary secretions of plants (floral nectar) or from secretion ...

honey
they produce consists primarily of
fructose Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a ketonic simple sugar Monosaccharides (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a cou ...

fructose
and
glucose Glucose is a simple with the . Glucose is the most abundant , a subcategory of s. Glucose is mainly made by and most during from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight, where it is used to make in s, the most abundant carbohydr ...

glucose
, with only trace amounts of sucrose. As fruits ripen, their sucrose content usually rises sharply, but some fruits contain almost no sucrose at all. This includes grapes, cherries, blueberries, blackberries, figs, pomegranates, tomatoes, avocados, lemons and limes. Sucrose is a naturally occurring sugar, but with the advent of
industrialization Industrialisation ( alternatively spelled industrialization) is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society An agrarian society, or agricultural society, is any community whose economy is b ...
, it has been increasingly refined and consumed in all kinds of processed foods.


Production


History of sucrose refinement

The production of table sugar has a long history. Some scholars claim Indians discovered how to crystallize sugar during the
Gupta dynasty The Gupta Empire was an empire which existed from the early 4th century CE to late 6th century CE. At its zenith, from approximately 319 to 467 CE, it covered much of the . This period is considered as the by historians. The ruling dynasty of ...
, around AD 350. Adas, Michael (2001)
''Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History''
. Temple University Press. . p. 311.
Other scholars point to the ancient manuscripts of China, dated to the 8th century BC, where one of the earliest historical mentions of
sugar cane Sugarcane or sugar cane is a species of (often hybrid) tall, perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, ...

sugar cane
is included along with the fact that their knowledge of sugar cane was derived from India. By about 500 BC, residents of modern-day India began making sugar syrup, cooling it in large flat bowls to produce raw sugar crystals that were easier to store and transport. In the local Indian language, these crystals were called (), which is the source of the word ''candy''. The army of
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title ...

Alexander the Great
was halted on the banks of river
Indus#REDIRECT Indus River
{{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R from miscapitalisation {{R unprintworthy ...

Indus
by the refusal of his troops to go further east. They saw people in the Indian subcontinent growing sugarcane and making "granulated, salt-like sweet powder", locally called (), pronounced as () in Greek (Modern Greek, , ). On their return journey, the Greek soldiers carried back some of the "honey-bearing reeds". Sugarcane remained a limited crop for over a millennium. Sugar was a rare commodity and traders of sugar became wealthy. Venice, at the height of its financial power, was the chief sugar-distributing center of Europe. Arabs started producing it in
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
and
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
. Only after the
Crusades The Crusades were a series of religious wars initiated, supported, and sometimes directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The term refers especially to the Eastern Mediterranean campaigns in the period between 1095 and 1271 that h ...

Crusades
did it begin to rival honey as a sweetener in Europe. The Spanish began cultivating sugarcane in the
West Indies The West Indies are a subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, in ...
in 1506 (
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...

Cuba
in 1523). The
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...

Portuguese
first cultivated sugarcane in
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
in 1532. Sugar remained a luxury in much of the world until the 18th century. Only the wealthy could afford it. In the 18th century, the demand for table sugar boomed in Europe and by the 19th century it had become regarded as a human necessity. The use of sugar grew from use in tea, to
cake Cake is a form of sweet food made from flour, sugar, and other ingredients, that is usually baked Baking is a method of preparing food that uses dry heat, typically in an oven, but can also be done in hot ashes, or on hot stones. Th ...

cake
s,
confectionery Confectionery is the Art (skill), art of making confections, which are food items that are rich in sugar and carbohydrates. Exact definitions are difficult. In general, however, confectionery is divided into two broad and somewhat overlappi ...

confectionery
and
chocolate Chocolate is a food product made from roasted and ground cacao pods, that is available as a liquid, solid or paste, on its own or as a flavoring agent Flavor, or flavour, is the perceptual Perception (from the Latin Latin ...

chocolate
s. Suppliers marketed sugar in novel forms, such as solid cones, which required consumers to use a sugar nip, a pliers-like tool, in order to break off pieces. The demand for cheaper table sugar drove, in part, colonization of tropical islands and nations where labor-intensive sugarcane plantations and table sugar manufacturing could thrive. Growing sugar cane crop in hot humid climates, and producing table sugar in high temperature sugar mills was harsh, inhumane work. The demand for cheap and docile labor for this work, in part, first drove slave trade from Africa (in particular West Africa), followed by indentured labor trade from South Asia (in particular India). Millions of slaves, followed by millions of indentured laborers were brought into the Caribbean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Islands, East Africa, Natal, north and eastern parts of South America, and southeast Asia. The modern ethnic mix of many nations, settled in the last two centuries, has been influenced by table sugar. Beginning in the late 18th century, the production of sugar became increasingly mechanized. The
steam engine from Stott Park Bobbin Mill, Cumbria, England A steam engine is a heat engine In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energ ...

steam engine
first powered a sugar mill in
Jamaica Jamaica (; ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or ...

Jamaica
in 1768, and, soon after, steam replaced direct firing as the source of process heat. During the same century, Europeans began experimenting with sugar production from other crops. Andreas Marggraf identified sucrose in
beet root The beetroot is the taproot portion of a beet plant, usually known in Canada and the USA as beets while the vegetable is referred to as beetroot in British English, and also known as the table beet, garden beet, red beet, dinner beet or golden ...
and his student Franz Achard built a sugar beet processing factory in Silesia (Prussia). The beet-sugar industry took off during the
Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major World war, global conflicts pitting the First French Empire, French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon, Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of Coalition forces of the Napoleonic W ...
, when France and the continent were cut off from Caribbean sugar. In 2009, about 20 percent of the world's sugar was produced from beets. Today, a large beet refinery producing around 1,500 tonnes of sugar a day needs a permanent workforce of about 150 for 24-hour production.


Trends

Table sugar (sucrose) comes from plant sources. Two important sugar crops predominate:
sugarcane Sugarcane or sugar cane is a species of (often hybrid) tall, perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, ...

sugarcane
(''Saccharum spp.'') and
sugar beet A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose Sucrose is a type of sugar Sugar is the generic name for Sweetness, sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. Table sugar, granulated ...
s (''Beta vulgaris''), in which sugar can account for 12% to 20% of the plant's dry weight. Minor commercial sugar crops include the
date palm ''Phoenix dactylifera'', commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae The Arecaceae is a family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birt ...

date palm
(''Phoenix dactylifera''),
sorghum ''Sorghum'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circum ...

sorghum
(''Sorghum vulgare''), and the
sugar maple ''Acer saccharum'', the sugar maple, is a species of flowering plant in the soapberry and lychee family Sapindaceae. It is native to the hardwood forests of eastern Canada, from Nova Scotia west through southern Quebec, central Ontario, centra ...

sugar maple
(''Acer saccharum''). Sucrose is obtained by extraction of these crops with hot water; concentration of the extract gives syrups, from which solid sucrose can be crystallized. In 2017, worldwide production of table sugar amounted to 185 million tonnes. Most cane sugar comes from countries with warm climates, because sugarcane does not tolerate frost. Sugar beets, on the other hand, grow only in cooler temperate regions and do not tolerate . About 80 percent of sucrose is derived from sugarcane, the rest almost all from sugar beets. In mid-2018, India and Brazil had about the same production of sugar – 34 million tonnes – followed by the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
,
Thailand Thailand ( th, ประเทศไทย), historically known as Siam, () officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia. It is located at the centre of the Mainland Southeast Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, spanning , wi ...

Thailand
, and China as the major producers. India, the European Union, and China were the leading domestic consumers of sugar in 2018. Beet sugar comes from regions with cooler climates: northwest and eastern Europe, northern Japan, plus some areas in the United States (including California). In the northern hemisphere, the beet-growing season ends with the start of harvesting around September. Harvesting and processing continues until March in some cases. The availability of processing plant capacity and the weather both influence the duration of harvesting and processing – the industry can store harvested beets until processed, but a frost-damaged beet becomes effectively unprocessable. The United States sets high sugar prices to support its producers, with the effect that many former purchasers of sugar have switched to
corn syrup Corn syrup is a food syrup which is made from the starch Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of numerous glucose Glucose is a simple sugar with the Chemical formula#Molecular formula, molecular formula . Glucose is the m ...

corn syrup
(beverage manufacturers) or moved out of the country (candy manufacturers). The low prices of
glucose syrup Glucose is a simple sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide found in animal milk. It consists of a molecule of D-galactose and a molecule of D-glucose bonded by beta-1-4 glycosidic li ...
s produced from
wheat Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus ''Triticum''; the most widely grown is common wheat Common wheat (''Triticum aestivum'' ...

wheat
and corn (
maize Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American North America is a continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be ...

maize
) threaten the traditional sugar market. Used in combination with
artificial sweetener A sugar substitute is a food additive that provides a sweetness, sweet taste like that of sugar while containing significantly less food energy than sugar-based sweeteners, making it a zero-calorie (non-nutritive) or low-calorie sweetener. Artif ...
s, they can allow drink manufacturers to produce very low-cost goods.


High-fructose corn syrup

High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is significantly cheaper as a sweetener for food and beverage manufacturing than refined sucrose. This has led to sucrose being partially displaced in U.S. industrial food production by HFCS and other non-sucrose natural sweeteners. Reports in public media have regarded HFCS as less safe than sucrose. However, the most common forms of HFCS contain either 42 percent fructose, mainly used in processed foods, or 55 percent fructose, mainly used in soft drinks, as compared to sucrose, which is 50 percent fructose. Given approximately equal glucose and fructose content, there does not appear to be a significant difference in safety. That said, clinical
dietitian A dietitian, medical dietitian, or dietician is an expert in identifying and treating disease-related malnutrition Malnutrition is 'a state of nutrition in which a deficiency or excess (or imbalance) of energy, protein and other nutrients c ...
s, medical professionals, and the United States
Food and Drug Administration The United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, st ...
(FDA) agree that dietary sugars are a source of
empty calorie In human nutrition, the term empty calories applies to foods and beverages composed primarily or solely of sugar, certain fats and oils, or alcohol-containing beverages. These supply food energy Food energy is chemical energy that animals (incl ...
s associated with certain health problems, and recommend limiting the overall consumption of sugar-based sweeteners.


Types


Cane

Since the 6th century BC, cane sugar producers have crushed the harvested vegetable material from sugarcane in order to collect and filter the juice. They then treat the liquid (often with ) to remove impurities and then neutralize it. Boiling the juice then allows the sediment to settle to the bottom for dredging out, while the scum rises to the surface for skimming off. In cooling, the liquid crystallizes, usually in the process of stirring, to produce sugar crystals.
Centrifuge A centrifuge is a device that uses centrifugal force to separate various components of a fluid. This is achieved by rotation around a fixed axis, spinning the fluid at high speed within a container, thereby separating fluids of different densitie ...

Centrifuge
s usually remove the uncrystallized syrup. The producers can then either sell the sugar product for use as is, or process it further to produce lighter grades. The later processing may take place in another factory in another country. Sugarcane is a major component of Brazilian agriculture; the country is the world's largest producer of sugarcane and its derivative products, such as crystallized sugar and
ethanol Ethanol (also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic Organic may refer to: * Organic, of or relating to an organism, a living entity * Organic, of or relating to an anatomical organ (anatomy), ...

ethanol
(
ethanol fuel Ethanol fuel is ethanol, ethyl alcohol, the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, used as fuel. It is most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline. The first production car running entirely on ethanol w ...
).


Beet

Beet sugar producers slice the washed beets, then extract the sugar with hot water in a "
diffuser Diffuser may refer to: Aerodynamics * Diffuser (automotive), a shaped section of a car's underbody which improves the car's aerodynamic properties * Part of a Jet engine#Air intakes, jet engine air intake, especially when operated at supersonic spe ...
". An alkaline solution ("
milk of lime Limewater is the common name for a dilute aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide. Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, is sparsely soluble at room temperature in water (1.5 g/L at 25 °C). "Pure" (i.e. less than or fully saturated) limewater is cl ...
" and
carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of s that constitute a particular or molecule, using symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as pare ...

carbon dioxide
from the lime kiln) then serves to
precipitate In aqueous solution, precipitation is the process of transforming a dissolved substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a de ...
impurities (see
carbonatation Carbonatation is a chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter ...
). After filtration, evaporation concentrates the juice to a content of about 70% solids, and controlled crystallisation extracts the sugar. A centrifuge removes the sugar crystals from the liquid, which gets recycled in the crystalliser stages. When economic constraints prevent the removal of more sugar, the manufacturer discards the remaining liquid, now known as
molasses Molasses () or black treacle Treacle () is any uncrystallised syrup In cooking, a syrup or sirup (from ar, شراب; ''sharāb'', beverage, wine and la, sirupus) is a condiment that is a thick, viscous The viscosity of a fluid ...

molasses
, or sells it on to producers of animal feed. Sieving the resultant white sugar produces different grades for selling.


=Cane versus beet

= It is difficult to distinguish between fully refined sugar produced from beet and cane. One way is by
isotope analysis Isotope analysis is the identification of isotopic signatureAn isotopic signature (also isotopic fingerprint) is a ratio of non-radiogenic 'stable isotopes The term stable isotope has a meaning similar to stable nuclide, but is preferably used ...
of carbon. Cane uses
C4 carbon fixation carbon fixation or the Hatch–Slack pathway is one of three known photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert Conversion or convert may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Conversion ( ...
, and beet uses
C3 carbon fixation 300px, Calvin–Benson cycle carbon fixation is the most common of three metabolic pathways for carbon fixation in photosynthesis, along with C4 carbon fixation, and Crassulacean acid metabolism, CAM. This process converts carbon dioxide and r ...
, resulting in a different ratio of 13C and 12C isotopes in the sucrose. Tests are used to detect fraudulent abuse of
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
subsidies or to aid in the detection of adulterated
fruit juice Juice is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isochoric flow) refers to a fluid flow, flow i ...
. Sugar cane tolerates hot climates better, but the production of sugar cane needs approximately four times as much water as the production of sugar beet. As a result, some countries that traditionally produced cane sugar (such as
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
) have built new beet sugar factories since about 2008. Some sugar factories process both sugar cane and sugar beets and extend their processing period in that way. The production of sugar leaves residues that differ substantially depending on the raw materials used and on the place of production. While cane
molasses Molasses () or black treacle Treacle () is any uncrystallised syrup In cooking, a syrup or sirup (from ar, شراب; ''sharāb'', beverage, wine and la, sirupus) is a condiment that is a thick, viscous The viscosity of a fluid ...

molasses
is often used in food preparation, humans find molasses from sugar beets unpalatable, and it consequently ends up mostly as industrial
fermentation Fermentation is a metabolic Metabolism (, from el, μεταβολή ''metabolē'', "change") is the set of life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that have biological processes, such as Cell signalin ...
feedstock (for example in
alcohol In chemistry, alcohol is an organic compound that carries at least one hydroxyl functional group (−OH) bound to a Saturated and unsaturated compounds, saturated carbon atom. The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethan ...

alcohol
distilleries), or as
animal feed Animal feed is food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that emb ...
. Once dried, either type of molasses can serve as fuel for burning. Pure beet sugar is difficult to find, so labelled, in the marketplace. Although some makers label their product clearly as "pure cane sugar", beet sugar is almost always labeled simply as sugar or pure sugar. Interviews with the 5 major beet sugar-producing companies revealed that many store brands or "private label" sugar products are pure beet sugar. The lot code can be used to identify the company and the plant from which the sugar came, enabling beet sugar to be identified if the codes are known.


Culinary sugars


=Mill white

= Mill white, also called plantation white, crystal sugar or superior sugar is produced from raw sugar. It is exposed to
sulfur dioxide Sulfur dioxide (IUPAC The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC ) is an international federation of National Adhering OrganizationsNational Adhering Organizations in chemistry are the organizations that work as the autho ...
during the production to reduce the concentration of color compounds and helps prevent further color development during the crystallization process. Although common to sugarcane-growing areas, this product does not store or ship well. After a few weeks, its impurities tend to promote discoloration and clumping; therefore this type of sugar is generally limited to local consumption.


=Blanco directo

= Blanco directo, a white sugar common in India and other south Asian countries, is produced by precipitating many impurities out of cane juice using
phosphoric acid Phosphoric acid, also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid, is a weak acid with the chemical formula . The pure compound is a colorless solid. All three hydrogens are acidic to varying degrees and can be lost from the molecule ...

phosphoric acid
and
calcium hydroxide Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula calcium, Ca(Hydroxide, OH)2. It is a colorless crystal or white powder and is produced when quicklime (calcium oxide) is mixed or slaking (ge ...

calcium hydroxide
, similar to the
carbonatation Carbonatation is a chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter ...
technique used in beet sugar refining. Blanco directo is more pure than mill white sugar, but less pure than white refined.


=White refined

= White refined is the most common form of sugar in North America and Europe. Refined sugar is made by dissolving and purifying raw sugar using
phosphoric acid Phosphoric acid, also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid, is a weak acid with the chemical formula . The pure compound is a colorless solid. All three hydrogens are acidic to varying degrees and can be lost from the molecule ...

phosphoric acid
similar to the method used for blanco directo, a
carbonatation Carbonatation is a chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter ...
process involving calcium hydroxide and carbon dioxide, or by various filtration strategies. It is then further purified by filtration through a bed of
activated carbon Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon Carbon (from la, carbo "coal") is a with the C and 6. It is lic and —making four s available to form s. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Carbon makes ...

activated carbon
or
bone char Bone char ( lat, carbo animalis) is a porous, black, granular material produced by charringCharring is a chemical process of incomplete combustion of certain solids when subjected to high heat. Heat distillation removes water vapour and volatile ...
. Beet sugar refineries produce refined white sugar directly without an intermediate raw stage. White refined sugar is typically sold as ''granulated sugar,'' which has been dried to prevent clumping and comes in various crystal sizes for home and industrial use: * Coarse-grain, such as ''sanding sugar'' (also called "pearl sugar", "decorating sugar", ''nibbed sugar'' or ''sugar nibs'') is a coarse grain sugar used to add sparkle and flavor atop baked goods and candies. Its large reflective crystals will not dissolve when subjected to heat. * Granulated, familiar as table sugar, with a grain size about 0.5 mm across.Sugar Crystal Challenge
. IEEE
"Sugar cubes" are lumps for convenient consumption produced by mixing granulated sugar with sugar syrup. * Caster (0.35 mm), a very fine sugar in Britain and other Commonwealth countries, so-named because the grains are small enough to fit through a sugar caster which is a small vessel with a perforated top, from which to sprinkle sugar at table."castor, n.2." OED Online. Oxford University Press, June 2017. Web. 25 July 2017. It says castor is a misspelling that is now the preferred spelling. Commonly used in baking and mixed drinks, it is sold as "superfine" sugar in the United States. Because of its fineness, it dissolves faster than regular white sugar and is especially useful in meringues and cold liquids. Caster sugar can be prepared at home by grinding granulated sugar for a couple of minutes in a mortar or food processor. * Powdered sugar, Powdered, ''10X sugar,'' ''confectioner's sugar'' (0.060 mm), or ''icing sugar'' (0.024 mm), produced by grinding sugar to a fine powder. The manufacturer may add a small amount of anticaking agent to prevent clumping — either cornstarch (1% to 3%) or tri-calcium phosphate. Brown sugar comes either from the late stages of cane sugar refining, when sugar forms fine crystals with significant
molasses Molasses () or black treacle Treacle () is any uncrystallised syrup In cooking, a syrup or sirup (from ar, شراب; ''sharāb'', beverage, wine and la, sirupus) is a condiment that is a thick, viscous The viscosity of a fluid ...

molasses
content, or from coating white refined sugar with a cane molasses syrup (blackstrap molasses). Brown sugar's color and taste becomes stronger with increasing molasses content, as do its moisture-retaining properties. Brown sugars also tend to harden if exposed to the atmosphere, although proper handling can reverse this.


Measurement


Dissolved sugar content

Scientists and the sugar industry use degrees Brix (symbol °Bx), introduced by Adolf Ferdinand Wenceslaus Brix, Adolf Brix, as units of measurement of the mass ratio of dissolved substance to water in a liquid. A 25 °Bx sucrose solution has 25 grams of sucrose per 100 grams of liquid; or, to put it another way, 25 grams of sucrose sugar and 75 grams of water exist in the 100 grams of solution. The Brix degrees are measured using an infrared sensor. This measurement does not equate to Brix degrees from a density or refractive index measurement, because it will specifically measure dissolved sugar concentration instead of all dissolved solids. When using a refractometer, one should report the result as "refractometric dried substance" (RDS). One might speak of a liquid as having 20 °Bx RDS. This refers to a measure of percent by weight of ''total'' dried solids and, although not technically the same as Brix degrees determined through an infrared method, renders an accurate measurement of sucrose content, since sucrose in fact forms the majority of dried solids. The advent of in-line infrared Brix measurement sensors has made measuring the amount of dissolved sugar in products economical using a direct measurement.


Consumption

Refined sugar was a luxury before the 18th century. It became widely popular in the 18th century, then graduated to becoming a necessary food in the 19th century. This evolution of taste and demand for sugar as an essential food ingredient unleashed major economic and social changes. Eventually, table sugar became sufficiently cheap and common enough to influence standard cuisine and flavored drinks. Sucrose forms a major element in confectionery and desserts. Cooks use it for sweetening. It can also act as a Sugaring, food preservative when used in sufficient concentrations. Sucrose is important to the structure of many foods, including biscuits and cookies, cakes and pies, candy, and ice cream and sorbets. It is a common ingredient in many processed and so-called "junk foods".


Nutritional information

Fully refined sugar is 99.9% sucrose, thus providing only
carbohydrate A carbohydrate () is a biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a ...
as dietary nutrient and 390 kilocalories per 100 g serving (USDA data, right table). There are no micronutrients of significance in fully refined sugar (right table).


Metabolism of sucrose

In humans and other mammals, sucrose is broken down into its constituent
monosaccharides Monosaccharides (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 ...
,
glucose Glucose is a simple with the . Glucose is the most abundant , a subcategory of s. Glucose is mainly made by and most during from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight, where it is used to make in s, the most abundant carbohydr ...

glucose
and
fructose Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a ketonic simple sugar Monosaccharides (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a cou ...

fructose
, by
sucraseSucrase is a digestive enzyme that catalysis, catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose to its subunits fructose and glucose. One form, sucrase-isomaltase, is secreted in the small intestine on the brush border. The sucrase enzyme invertase, which occurs m ...

sucrase
or isomaltase glycoside hydrolases, which are located in the cell membrane, membrane of the microvilli lining the duodenum. The resulting glucose and fructose molecules are then rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream. In bacteria and some animals, sucrose is digested by the enzyme invertase. Sucrose is an easily assimilated nutrient, macronutrient that provides a quick source of energy, provoking a rapid rise in blood glucose upon ingestion. Sucrose, as a pure
carbohydrate A carbohydrate () is a biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a ...
, has an energy content of 3.94 kilocalories per gram (or 17 kilojoules per gram). If consumed excessively, sucrose may contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome, including increased risk for Diabetes mellitus type 2, type 2 diabetes, weight gain and obesity in adults and children.


Tooth decay

Dental caries, Tooth decay (dental caries) has become a pronounced health hazard associated with the consumption of sugars, especially sucrose. Oral bacteria such as ''
Streptococcus mutans ''Streptococcus mutans'' is a facultatively anaerobic, gram-positive 300px, Violet-stained gram-positive cocci and pink-stained gram-negative bacillus (shape), bacilli In bacteriology, gram-positive bacteria are bacteria that give a positive ...
'' live in dental plaque and metabolize ''any'' free sugars (not just sucrose, but also
glucose Glucose is a simple with the . Glucose is the most abundant , a subcategory of s. Glucose is mainly made by and most during from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight, where it is used to make in s, the most abundant carbohydr ...

glucose
, lactose,
fructose Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a ketonic simple sugar Monosaccharides (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a cou ...

fructose
, and cooked starches) into lactic acid. The resultant lactic acid lowers the pH of the tooth's surface, stripping it of minerals in the process known as tooth decay. All 6-carbon sugars and disaccharides based on 6-carbon sugars can be converted by dental plaque bacteria into acid that demineralizes teeth, but sucrose may be uniquely useful to ''Streptococcus sanguinis'' (formerly ''Streptococcus sanguis'') and ''Streptococcus mutans''. Sucrose is the only dietary sugar that can be converted to sticky glucans (dextran-like polysaccharides) by extracellular enzymes. These glucans allow the bacteria to adhere to the tooth surface and to build up thick layers of plaque. The anaerobic conditions deep in the plaque encourage the formation of acids, which leads to carious lesions. Thus, sucrose could enable ''S. mutans'', ''S. sanguinis'' and many other species of bacteria to adhere strongly and resist natural removal, e.g. by flow of saliva, although they are easily removed by brushing. The glucans and levans (fructose polysaccharides) produced by the plaque bacteria also act as a reserve food supply for the bacteria. Such a special role of sucrose in the formation of tooth decay is much more significant in light of the almost universal use of sucrose as the most desirable sweetening agent. Widespread replacement of sucrose by high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has not diminished the danger from sucrose. If smaller amounts of sucrose are present in the diet, they will still be sufficient for the development of thick, anaerobic plaque and plaque bacteria will metabolise other sugars in the diet, such as the glucose and fructose in HFCS.


Glycemic index

Sucrose is a
disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar formed wh ...
made up of 50%
glucose Glucose is a simple with the . Glucose is the most abundant , a subcategory of s. Glucose is mainly made by and most during from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight, where it is used to make in s, the most abundant carbohydr ...

glucose
and 50%
fructose Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a ketonic simple sugar Monosaccharides (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a cou ...

fructose
and has a glycemic index of 65. Sucrose is digested rapidly, but has a relatively low glycemic index due to its content of fructose, which has a minimal effect on blood glucose. As with other sugars, sucrose is digested into its components via the enzyme
sucraseSucrase is a digestive enzyme that catalysis, catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose to its subunits fructose and glucose. One form, sucrase-isomaltase, is secreted in the small intestine on the brush border. The sucrase enzyme invertase, which occurs m ...

sucrase
to glucose (blood sugar). The glucose component is transported into the blood where it serves immediate metabolic demands, or is converted and reserved in the liver as glycogen.


Gout

The occurrence of gout is connected with an excess production of uric acid. A diet rich in sucrose may lead to gout as it raises the level of insulin, which prevents excretion of uric acid from the body. As the concentration of uric acid in the body increases, so does the concentration of uric acid in the joint liquid and beyond a critical concentration, the uric acid begins to precipitate into crystals. Researchers have implicated sugary drinks high in fructose in a surge in cases of gout.


Sucrose intolerance


UN dietary recommendation

In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) published a new guideline on sugars intake for adults and children, as a result of an extensive review of the available scientific evidence by a multidisciplinary group of experts. The guideline recommends that both adults and children ensure their intake of free sugars (monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods and beverages by the manufacturer, cook or consumer, and sugars naturally present in honey, syrups, fruit juices and fruit juice concentrates) is less than 10% of total energy intake. A level below 5% of total energy intake brings additional health benefits, especially with regards to dental caries.


Religious concerns

The sugar refining industry often uses
bone char Bone char ( lat, carbo animalis) is a porous, black, granular material produced by charringCharring is a chemical process of incomplete combustion of certain solids when subjected to high heat. Heat distillation removes water vapour and volatile ...
(calcinated animal bones) for decolorizing. About 25% of sugar produced in the U.S. is processed using bone char as a filter, the remainder being processed with
activated carbon Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon Carbon (from la, carbo "coal") is a with the C and 6. It is lic and —making four s available to form s. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Carbon makes ...

activated carbon
. As bone char does not seem to remain in finished sugar, Jewish religious leaders consider sugar filtered through it to be pareve, meaning that it is neither meat nor dairy and may be used with either type of food. However, the bone char must source to a kosher animal (e.g. cow, sheep) for the sugar to be kosher.


Trade and economics

One of the most widely traded commodities in the world throughout history, sugar accounts for around 2% of the global dry cargo market. International sugar prices show great volatility, ranging from around 3 to over 60 cents per pound in the 50 years. About 100 of the world's 180 countries produce sugar from beet or cane, a few more refine raw sugar to produce white sugar, and all countries consume sugar. Consumption of sugar ranges from around 3 kilograms per person per annum in Ethiopia to around 40 kg/person/yr in Belgium. Consumption per capita rises with income per capita until it reaches a plateau of around 35 kg per person per year in middle income countries. Many countries subsidize sugar production heavily. The European Union, the United States, Japan, and many developing countries subsidize domestic production and maintain high tariffs on imports. Sugar prices in these countries have often exceeded prices on the international market by up to three times; , with world market sugar futures prices strong, such prices typically exceed world prices by two times. Within international trade bodies, especially in the World Trade Organization, the "G20 developing nations, G20" countries led by Brazil have long argued that, because these sugar markets in essence exclude cane sugar imports, the G20 sugar producers receive lower prices than they would under free trade. While both the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
and United States maintain trade agreements whereby certain developing and less developed country, less developed countries (LDCs) can sell certain quantities of sugar into their markets, free of the usual import tariffs, countries outside these preferred trade régimes have complained that these arrangements violate the "most favoured nation" principle of international trade. This has led to numerous tariffs and levies in the past. In 2004, the World Trade Organization, WTO sided with a group of cane sugar exporting nations (led by Brazil and Australia) and ruled the EU sugar-régime and the accompanying ACP-EU Sugar Protocol (whereby a group of African, Caribbean, and Pacific countries receive preferential access to the European sugar market) illegal. In response to this and to other rulings of the WTO, and owing to internal pressures on the EU sugar-régime, the European Commission proposed on 22 June 2005 a radical reform of the EU sugar-régime, cutting prices by 39% and eliminating all EU sugar exports. The African, Caribbean, Pacific and least developed country sugar exporters reacted with dismay to the EU sugar proposals. On 25 November 2005, the Council of the EU agreed to cut EU sugar prices by 36% as from 2009. In 2007, it seemed that the U.S. Sugar Program could become the next target for reform. However, some commentators expected heavy lobbying from the U.S. sugar industry, which donated $2.7 million to US House and US Senate incumbents in the 2006 US election, more than any other group of US food-growers. Especially prominent lobbyists include The Fanjul Brothers, so-called "sugar barons" who made the single individual contributions of soft money to both the Democratic and Republican parties in the political system of the United States of America. Small quantities of sugar, especially specialty grades of sugar, reach the market as 'fair trade' commodities; the fair trade system produces and sells these products with the understanding that a larger-than-usual fraction of the revenue will support small farmers in the developing world. However, whilst the Fairtrade Foundation offers a premium of $60.00 per tonne to small farmers for sugar branded as "Fairtrade", government schemes such as the U.S. Sugar Program and the ACP Sugar Protocol offer premiums of around $400.00 per tonne above world market prices. However, the EU announced on 14 September 2007 that it had offered "to eliminate all duties and quotas on the import of sugar into the EU". The US Sugar Association has launched a campaign to promote sugar over artificial substitutes. The Association aggressively challenges many common beliefs regarding negative side-effects of sugar consumption. The campaign aired a high-profile television commercial during the 2007 Primetime Emmy Awards on FOX Television. The Sugar Association uses the trademark tagline "Sugar: sweet by nature".Sugar Association Sucrose is also a Genshin Impact character
. Sugar.org. Retrieved on 2011-11-18.


References


Further reading

*


External links





{{Authority control Disaccharides Sugar Sugar substitutes