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In general linguistics, a reflexive pronoun, sometimes simply called a reflexive, is an anaphoric
pronoun In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated ) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase. Pronouns have traditionally been regarded as one of the parts of speech, but some modern theorists would not consider them to form a single ...

pronoun
that must be coreferential with another nominal (its
antecedent An antecedent is a preceding event, condition, cause, phrase, or word. More specifically, it may refer to: * Antecedent (behavioral psychology), the stimulus that occurs before a trained behavior * Antecedent (genealogy), antonym of descendant, gen ...
) within the same clause. In the
English language English is a West Germanic language first spoken in early medieval England, which has eventually become the leading language of international discourse in the 21st century. It is named after the Angles, one of the ancient Germanic peoples tha ...

English language
specifically, a reflexive pronoun will end in ''‑self'' or ''‑selves'', and refer to a previously named noun or pronoun (''myself'', ''yourself'', ''ourselves'', ''themselves'', etc.). English
intensive pronounsIn general linguistics, an intensive pronoun (or self-intensifier) is a form that adds emphasis to a statement; for example, "I did it ''myself''." While English intensive pronouns (e.g., ''myself'', ''yourself'', ''himself, herself'', ''ourselves'', ...
, used for emphasis, take the same form. In
generative grammar Generative grammar is a concept in generative linguistics, a linguistic theory that regards linguistics as the study of a hypothesised innate grammatical structure. It is a biological or biologistic modification of structuralist theories, derivi ...
, a reflexive pronoun is an
anaphor In linguistics, anaphora () is the use of an expression whose interpretation depends upon another expression in context (its antecedent or postcedent). In a narrower sense, anaphora is the use of an expression that depends specifically upon an ant ...
that must be bound by its antecedent (see
binding Binding may refer to: Computing * Binding, associating a network socket with a local port number and IP address * Data binding, the technique of connecting two data elements together ** UI data binding, linking a user interface element to an elemen ...
). In a general sense, it is a
noun phraseA noun phrase, or nominal (phrase), is a phrase that has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head or performs the same grammatical function as a noun. Noun phrases are very common cross-linguistically, and they may be the most frequently occurring ...
that obligatorily gets its meaning from another noun phrase in the sentence. Different languages have different
binding domainsA binding domain is a protein domain which binds to a specific atom or molecule, such as calcium or DNA. A protein domain is a part of a protein sequence and a tertiary structure that can change, function, and live by itself independent of the rest ...
for reflexive pronouns, according to their structure.


Origins and usage

In
Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian subcontinent and the Iranian Plateau. A few of these languages, su ...
, has its origins in
Proto-Indo-European Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the theorized common ancestor of the Indo-European language family. Its proposed features have been derived by linguistic reconstruction from documented Indo-European languages. No direct record of Proto-Indo-Europea ...
. In some languages, some distinction exists between normal object and reflexive pronouns, mainly in the third person: whether one says "I like me" or "I like myself", there is no question that the object is the same person as the subject; but, in "They like them(selves)", there can be uncertainty about the identity of the object unless a distinction exists between the reflexive and the nonreflexive. In some languages, this distinction includes
genitive In grammar, the genitive case (abbreviated ), is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun—thus, indicating an attributive relationship of one noun to the other noun. A genitive can al ...
forms: see, for instance, the Danish examples below. In languages with a distinct reflexive pronoun form, it is often
gender-neutral Gender neutrality (adjective form: gender-neutral), also known as gender-neutralism or the gender neutrality movement, is the idea that policies, language, and other social institutions (social structures, gender roles, or gender identity) shoul ...
. A reflexive pronoun is normally used when the object of a sentence is the same as the subject. Each personal pronoun (such as ''I'', ''you'', ''he'' and ''she'') has its own reflexive form: * ''I — myself'' * ''you — yourself/yourselves'' * ''he — himself'' * ''she — herself'' * ''one — oneself'' * ''it — itself'' * ''we — ourselves'' * ''they — themselves'' These pronouns can also be used ''intensively'', to emphasize the identity of whoever or whatever is being talked about: * Jim bought himself a book (reflexive) * Jim himself bought a book (intensive)
Intensive pronounIn general linguistics, an intensive pronoun (or self-intensifier) is a form that adds emphasis to a statement; for example, "I did it ''myself''." While English intensive pronouns (e.g., ''myself'', ''yourself'', ''himself, herself'', ''ourselves'', ...
s usually appear near and/or before the subject of the sentence. Usually after prepositions of locality it is preferred to use a
personal Personal may refer to: Aspects of persons' respective individualities * Privacy * Personality * Personal, personal advertisement, variety of classified advertisement used to find romance or friendship Companies * Personal, Inc., a Washington, D. ...
object pronoun rather than a reflexive pronoun: * Close the door ''after you.'' (NOT ''... after yourself.'') * He was pulling a small cart ''behind him.'' (NOT ''... behind himself.'') * She took her dog ''with her.'' (NOT ... ''with herself.'') Compare: * She's very pleased ''with herself.'' (NOT ... ''with her.'') Certain verbs have reflexive pronouns in some languages but not in English: * Do you ''shave'' on Sundays? (NOT Do you ''shave yourself'' on Sundays?) * Try to ''concentrate.'' (NOT Try to ''concentrate yourself'') * I ''feel'' strange''.'' (NOT I ''feel myself'' strange.) The list of such verbs: * ''complain, concentrate, get up/hot/tired, lie down, meet, relax, remember, sit down, wake up, shave, undress, wash, acclimatise, adapt, behave, hide, move...''


Non-reflexive usage in English

Non-reflexive use of reflexive pronouns is rather common in English. Most of the time, reflexive pronouns function as
emphatic pronounIn general linguistics, an intensive pronoun (or self-intensifier) is a form that adds emphasis to a statement; for example, "I did it ''myself''." While English intensive pronouns (e.g., ''myself'', ''yourself'', ''himself, herself'', ''ourselves'', ...
s that highlight or emphasize the individuality or particularity of the noun. Grammatically, the position of reflexive pronouns in this usage is either right after the noun the pronouns are emphasizing or, if the noun is subject, after-verb-or-object position is also possible. For example, "Why don't you ''yourself'' do the job?", "Why don't you do the job ''yourself''?", or "I want to fix my phone ''itself''; I will not fix your watch as well." Some speakers use reflexive pronouns without local linguistic antecedents to refer to discourse participants or people already referenced in a discourse: for example, "Please, forward the information to ''myself'', Anything else for ''yourself'' today?". Within the linguistics literature, reflexives with discourse antecedents are often referred to as logophors. Standard English allows use of logophors in some contexts: for example, "John was angry. Embarrassing pictures of himself were on display." However, within Standard English, this logophoric use of reflexives is generally limited to positions where the reflexive does not have a coargument. The newer non-standard usage does not respect this limitation. In some cases, reflexives without local antecedents may be better analyzed as emphatic pronouns without any true reflexive sense. It is common in some dialects of English to use standard
object pronoun In linguistics, an object pronoun is a personal pronoun that is used typically as a grammatical object: the direct or indirect object of a verb, or the object of a preposition. Object pronouns contrast with subject pronouns. Object pronouns in Engli ...
s to express reflexive relations, especially in the first and sometimes second persons, and especially for a recipient: for example, "I want to get me some supper." While this was seemingly standard in Old English through the Early Modern Period (with "self" constructs primarily used for emphatic purposes), it is held to be dialectal or nonstandard in Modern English. It is also common in informal speech to use ''myself'' in a conjunctive phrase when the pronoun 'me' would be more economical and grammatical as with "She stood by Jane and myself." Leaving Jane out of it, "She stood by myself" would probably sound better as "She stood by me." Hence, "She stood by Jane and me" can be seen as more grammatically correct.


In languages other than English


Chinese

In
Mandarin Chinese Mandarin (; ) is a group of Sinitic (Chinese) languages spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the Beijing dialect, the basis of the phonology of Standard Chinese. Because Mandarin originated in North China and ...
, the reflexive pronoun is ''zìjǐ'' (自己), meaning "self". The antecedent it refers to can be inferred by context, which is generally the subject of the sentence: * ''Wǒ'' bǎohù ''zìjǐ''. (''我''保护自己。) (''I'' protect ''myself''.) * ''Tā'' bǎohù ''zìjǐ''. (''他''保护自己。) (''He'' protects ''himself''.) * ''Wǒ'' gěi tā ''zìjǐ de'' shū. (''我''给他自己的书。) (''I'' gave him ''my own'' book.) * ''Tā'' gěi wǒ ''zìjǐ de'' shū. (''他''给我自己的书。) (''He'' gave me ''his own'' book.) The antecedent can be reiterated before the reflexive pronoun; this can be used to refer to an antecedent that's not the subject: * ''Wǒ gěi tā ''wǒ zìjǐ de'' shū.'' (我给他''我自己的''书。) (''I gave him ''my own'' book.) * ''Wǒ gěi tā ''tā zìjǐ de'' shū.'' (我给他''他自己的''书。) (''I gave him ''his own'' book.) Like English, the reflexive can also be used to emphasize the antecedent: * ''Wáng xiānshēng zìjǐ'' zuò le. (''王先生自己''做了。) (''Mr. Wang did it himself'' .) The reflexive can also be the subject of an embedded clause. * ''Tā'' juédé ''zìjǐ'' hěn cōngmíng. (''他''觉得自己很聪明。) (''He'' considers ''himself'' very clever. ''He'' feels that ''he'' is very clever.) Also unlike English, the reflexive can refer to antecedents outside of the embedded clause. Because of this, it may be ambiguous whether the antecedent refers to the subject of the main clause or the embedded clause, in which case it may be necessary to reiterate the antecedent: * Wǒ juédé Wáng xiānshēng bù xǐhuān ''zìjǐ''. (我觉得王先生不喜欢''自己''。) (I feel that Mr. Wang doesn't like ''(him)self''.) * Wǒ juédé Wáng xiānshēng bù xǐhuān ''wǒ zìjǐ''. (我觉得王先生不喜欢''我自己''。) (I feel that Mr. Wang doesn't like ''me''.) * Wǒ juédé Wáng xiānshēng bù xǐhuān ''tā zìjǐ''. (我觉得王先生不喜欢''他自己''。) (I feel that Mr. Wang doesn't like ''himself''.) The reflexive pronoun in
Cantonese Chinese Cantonese ( zh, t=廣東話, s=广东话, first=t; Yale: ''Gwóngdūng wá'') is a language within the Chinese (Sinitic) branch of the Sino-Tibetan languages originating from the city of Guangzhou (also known as Canton) and its surrounding area in ...
, ''jihgéi'',
cognate In linguistics, cognates, also called lexical cognates, are words that have a common etymological origin. Cognates are often inherited from a shared parent language, but they may also involve borrowings from some other language. For example, the ...
to Mandarin ''zìjǐ'' (and thus also written as 自己), also follows the same rules. This was also the case in
Classical Chinese Classical Chinese, also known as Literary Chinese (文言文, ''wényánwén'' or 古文, ''gǔwén''), is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han dynasty, a written form ...
, which simply used 己 (
Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese. The earliest examples of Chinese are divinatory inscriptions on oracle bones from around 1250&n ...
: *''kəʔ'').


Danish

Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity * Danis ...
uses the separate reflexive pronoun '' sig'' for third person pronouns, and 'selv' to mark intensive. * ''Jeg beskytter mig (selv).'' (''I protect myself'') * ''Jeg beskytter ham (selv).'' (''I protect him (myself)'') * ''Han beskytter ham.'' (''He protects him.'' ''Him'' designates a person other than the one designated by ''He''.) * ''Han beskytter sig (selv).'' (''He protects himself.'') In Danish, there is also a difference between normal and reflexive genitives, the latter being used only in the singular: * ''Anna gav Maria hendes bog.'' (Anna gave Maria her 'Maria's, or possibly some unknown third person's''book.) * ''Anna gav Maria sin bog.'' (Anna gave Maria her [''Anna's''] book.) In the latter case, wikt:sin, sin is a case of a ''reflexive possessive pronoun'', i.e. it reflects that the subject in the phrase (Anna) owns the object (the book).


Esperanto

The Esperanto third-person reflexive pronoun is ''si'', or ''sia'' for the possessive (to which can be added ''-j'' for plural agreement and ''-n'' for direct object). * ''Li legas liajn librojn.'' (''He reads his (someone else's) books.'') * ''Li legas siajn librojn.'' (''He reads his (own) books.'') * ''Ŝi legas siajn librojn.'' (''She reads her (own) books.'') * ''Ili legas siajn librojn.'' (''They read their (own) books.'') * ''Li amas lin.'' (''He loves him (someone else).'') * ''Li amas sin.'' (''He loves himself.'') * ''Li rimarkis ŝian amon al si.'' (''He noticed her love for herself (reflexive).'') * ''Li rimarkis ŝian amon al li.'' (''He noticed her love for him (using a normal pronoun).'') * ''Li rimarkis sian amon al si.'' (''He noticed his (own, reflexive) love for himself (reflexive).'') * ''Li rimarkis sian amon al li.'' (''He noticed his (own, reflexive) love for him (someone else, not reflexive).'') * ''Li diras, ke la hundo lavas sian vizaĝon.'' (''He says that the dog is washing its (the dog's) face.'') * ''Li diras, ke la hundo lavas lian vizaĝon.'' (''He says that the dog is washing his (the speaker's or someone else's, but not the dog's) face.'')


French

In French, the main reflexive pronoun is 'se', with its indefinite pronoun, indefinite form ''soi''. There are also intensifying reflexive pronouns, such as ''moi-même'', ''toi-même'', ''lui-même/elle-même/soi-même'', ''nous-mêmes'', ''vous-mêmes'' and ''eux-mêmes/elles-mêmes'', similar in meaning (but not often used) to myself, yourself, etc. French also uses reflexive verbs to express actions that somebody is doing to themselves. Many of these are related to daily routine. For example, * Je me lave (I get washed, lit "I wash myself") * Tu te laves (You get washed, lit "You wash yourself") * Il/elle/on se lave (He/she/one gets washed, lit "He/she/one washes her/him/oneself") * Nous nous lavons (We get washed, lit "We wash ourselves") * Vous vous lavez (You get washed, lit "You wash yourselves") * Ils/elles se lavent (They get washed, lit "They wash themselves")


German

In German, the reflexive case is not distinguishable from the accusative and dative cases except in the third person reflexive. As discussed above, the reflexive case is most useful when handling third person because it is not always clear that pronouns refer to the same person, whereas in the first and second persons, it is clear: ''he hit him'' and ''he hit himself'' have different meanings, but ''I hit me'' and ''I hit myself'' mean the same thing although the former is nonstandard English. Because the accusative and dative cases are different, the speaker must know whether the verb is reflexive accusative or reflexive dative. There are very few reflexive dative verbs, which must be memorised to ensure that the correct grammar is used. The most notable one is ''(sich) weh tun'' (to hurt oneself): ''Ich tue mir weh.'' (I hurt myself.) See also German pronouns.


Hindi

In Hindustani grammar, Hindi, there are two primary reflexive pronouns, the reflexive pronoun खुद (''khud'') [from PIE ''*swé''] meaning "self" and pronoun अपना (apnā) [from Proto-Indo-Iranian language, PII ''*HáHtmā'' "self"] which is the possessive reflexive pronoun and both these pronouns are used with all the three, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd, persons. There's also the pronoun आपस (''āpas)'' which is used with either the Inessive case, inessive case-marker में (''mẽ)'' forming the reflexive pronoun आपस में (''āpas mẽ)'' meaning "among oneselves" or the genitive postpostion का (kā) forming the reflexing pronoun आपस का (''āpas kā'') meaning "of ourselves". The genitive reflexive pronoun can also be used to emphasise when used with the personal genitive pronouns, so e.g. मेरा (''merā'') "mine" becomes मेरा अपना (''merā apnā'') "my very own". Alternatively, using the genitive postposition का (''kā'') with खुद (''khud)'' gives मेरे खुदका ''(mere khudkā)'' meaning the same as मेरा अपना ''(merā apnā)''. These reflexive pronouns can be used with case-marking postpositions as shown below in the table to the right.


Hungarian

* Beszélek ''magam''ról. (I talk about ''myself''.) * Beszélsz ''magad''ról. (You talk about ''yourself''.) * Beszél ''magá''ról. (He talks about ''himself''. But also: She talks about ''herself''. It talks about ''itself''. And formal version of you: You talk about ''yourself''.) * Beszélünk ''magunk''ról. (We talk about ''ourselves''.) * Beszéltek ''magatok''ról. (You talk about ''yourselves''.) * Beszélnek ''maguk''ról. (They talk about ''themselves''.)


Icelandic

There is only one reflexive pronoun in Icelandic language, Icelandic and that is the word ''wikt:en:sig#Icelandic, sig''. It does not differ between grammatical gender, genders nor number. The reflexive pronouns are as such: * Reflexive pronoun: ''sig'' (himself/itself/herself/themselves) * wikt:en:reflexive possessive pronoun, reflexive possessive pronoun: ''sinn'' (his/her/its/their)


Examples

The reflexive pronoun refers to the grammatical person, third person: * Hann talar um ''sig''.(masc. sing.) (He talks about ''himself'') * Þeir tala um ''sig''. (masc. plur.) (They talk about ''themselves'') * Stúlkan flýtti ''sér'' heim. (fem. sing.) (the girl hurried [''herself''] home) * Þær flýttu ''sér'' heim. (neut. plur.) (they [the girls] hurried [''themselves''] home) * Barnið naut ''sín''. (neut. sing.) (the child enjoyed ''itself'') * Börnin nutu ''sín''. (neut. plur.) (the children enjoyed ''themselves'')


Italian

The reflexive pronouns in Italian are: * ''mi'' (first person singular) * ''ti'' (second person singular) * ''si'' (third person singular) * ''ci'' (first person plural) * ''vi'' (second person plural) * ''si'' (third person plural) Reflexive pronouns are usually employed when the direct object in a sentence is also its subject, thus reflecting the action as expressed in the verb on the subject itself. This pronoun allows the building of three kinds of reflexive verbal forms: proper, non-proper (or ostensible), and reciprocal. * Io ''mi'' lavo, or io lavo ''me'' (I wash myself): reflexive proper, because the subject is at the same time the object of the sentence. * Lui ''si'' lava i capelli (He washes his hair): reflexive non-proper, as he does not wash himself but his hair, the real object of the action. * Noi due ''ci'' sposiamo oggi (the two of us are marrying [each other] today): reflexive reciprocal, since the action is performed by the two subjects reciprocally. Notice that the sentence ''I wash myself'' could also be translated in Italian as "io lavo ''me stesso''", stressing the reflexiveness much more than English. The complete list of intensifying reflexive pronouns is: * ''me stesso'' (first person masculine singular) * ''me stessa'' (first person feminine singular) * ''te stesso'' (second person masculine singular) * ''te stessa'' (second person feminine singular) * ''se stesso'' (third person masculine singular) * ''se stessa'' (third person feminine singular) * ''noi stessi'' (first person masculine plural) * ''noi stesse'' (first person feminine plural) * ''voi stessi'' (second person masculine plural) * ''voi stesse'' (second person feminine plural) * ''se stessi'' (third person masculine plural) * ''se stesse'' (third person feminine plural)


Japanese

In the Japanese language, ''jibun'' (自分) and ''jibunjishin'' (自分自身) are reflexive pronouns that correspond roughly to 'oneself'. They differ from English in some ways; for example, ''jibun'' and ''jibunjishin'' do not have to agree in gender or number where English reflexives do. ''Jibun'' can further be bound locally or long distance where English reflexives must always occur locally. Although both English and Japanese pronouns must be c-commanded by their antecedents, because of the syntactic structure of Japanese, long distance binding is allowed.


Korean

In Korean, jagi 자기(自己) and jasin 자신(自身) are used as reflexive pronouns that refer to 'myself', 'himself', 'herself', and 'ourselves'. Jagijasin 자기자신(自己自身) is also a reflexive pronoun but it usually corresponds only to the first person (myself).


Latin

In the first and second persons, Latin uses the ordinary oblique forms of the personal pronouns as reflexive pronouns. In the third person, Latin uses the special reflexive pronoun ''se'', which is the same for all genders and numbers, and declined in all grammatical case, cases except the nominative and the vocative.


Example

* ''wikt:per se, per se''


Macedonian

An alternative full form, ''себеси'', is used for emphasis. * Ана ѝ ја даде ''нејзината'' книга на Марија. (Ana gave her [''Maria's''] book to Maria.) * Ана ѝ ја даде ''својата'' книга на Марија. (Ana gave her [''Ana's''] book to Maria.)


Novial

(Novial is a constructed language, mostly based on Romance languages.) * Lo vida lo. (He sees him.) * Lo vida se. (He sees himself.) * Anna donad lan libre a Maria. (Anna gave her [''Maria's''] book to Maria.) * Anna donad sen libre a Maria. (Anna gave her [''Anna's''] book to Maria.)


Polish


Oblique

In Polish the oblique reflexive pronouns is ''się'' and it declines as above. It is used with 1st, 2nd and 3rd person: * ''Myję się'' "I wash myself" * ''Myjesz się'' "You wash yourself" * ''Piotr się myje'' "Peter washes himself" It has been grammaticalized to a high degree, becoming also a marker of medial and/or anticausative voice: * ''Drzwi się otworzyły'' "Door opened", lit. "Door opened itself" * ''Przewróciliśmy się'' "We fell", lit. "We turned ourselves over" Similarly, the dative ''sobie'' gained an additional, volitional/liberative meaning, usually used in informal speech: * ''Idę sobie ulicą, patrzę sobie, a tam leży sobie dziesięć złoty.'' "So, I'm casually walking down the street and suddenly I see 10 zloty just lying there.", lit. "I'm walking for myself, I'm looking for myself, and there lies for itself 10 zloty" * ''Jestem sobie przedszkolaczek...'' "I'm a kindergartner" (from children's song) Moreover, the phrase ''iść sobie'' has been lexicalized and means "to leave" (cf. French ''s'en aller''): * ''Nudna ta impreza, idę sobie.'' "This party's boring, I'm leaving"


Possessive

Polish also has a possessive reflexive pronoun ''swój'' (''swoja'', ''swoje''). It assumes the gender of the possessed object, not that of the possessor. * ''Zabrał swoje rzeczy i wyszedł.'' "He took his (own) things and went out." * ''Spojrzał na swój telefon.'' "He looked at his (own) phone." * ''Anna oddała Kasi swoją książkę.'' "Anna gave her (Anna's) book to Cathy." Not using a reflexive pronoun might indicate the other party's possession of the object: * ''Anna oddała Kasi jej ksiażkę'' "Anna returned Cathy's book"


Intensive

The intensive meaning is done by the pronoun ''sam'' (inflecting for case, gender and number): Usually inflected ''się'' is added in obliques: * ''Słucham siebie samej'' (fem.) "I listen to myself" * ''Wierzę sobie samej'' (fem.) "I believe myself" Emphatically the accusative can be replaced with dative: * ''Zrobiłem to sam'' (masc.) "I did it myself", "I did it alone" * ''Zrobiłem to samemu'' (masc.) "I did it myself", "I did it personally"


Portuguese

* Quando ele ''o'' vê. (''When he sees him.'') * Quando ele ''se'' vê. (''When he sees himself.'') There are two ways to make a reflexive sentence in Portuguese. The first way is by attaching the reflexive pronoun (me, te, se, nos - also vos) to the verb. The second way is by also attaching the words "mesmo/a(s)" or "próprio/a(s)", masc/fem. (plural) (="self"), immediately after the verb to add stress/intensity : * Eu ''me'' machuquei. / Machuquei-me. (I hurt myself.) * Eu machuquei a ''mim'' [mesmo/mesma/próprio/própria]. (I hurt myself.) * Tu sempre ''te'' machucas . (You always hurt yourself.) * Tu sempre machucas a ''ti'' [mesmo/mesma/próprio/própria]. (You always hurt yourself) * Ele ''se'' machucou ontem. (He hurt himself yesterday.) * Ela ''se'' machucou ontem. (She hurt herself yesterday.) * Ele machucou a ''si'' [mesmo/próprio]. (He hurt himself.) * Ela machucou a ''si'' [mesma/própria]. (She hurt herself.) * Nós ''nos'' machucamos. / Machucamo-nos. (We hurt ourselves.) * Nós machucamos a ''nós'' [mesmos/mesmas/próprios/próprias]. (We hurt ourselves) * Eles ''se'' machucam todos os dias. (They [masc] hurt themselves every day.) * Elas ''se'' machucam todos os dias. (They [fem] hurt themselves every day.) * Eles machucam a ''si'' [mesmos/próprios] todos os dias. (They [masc] hurt themselves every day.) * Elas machucam a ''si'' [mesmas/próprias] todos os dias. (They [fem] hurt themselves every day.) * Vós nunca ''vos'' machucais. [archaic] (You never hurt yourselves.) * Vocês nunca ''se'' machucam. (You never hurt yourselves.)


Romanian

* sieşi, sie, îşi, şi- Dative: himself, herself * pe sine, se, s- Accusative: himself, herself


Russian

The pronoun ''себя'' ''sebya'' universally means "oneself"/"myself"/"himself", etc. It is inflected depending on the Grammatical case, case. When used to indicate that the person is the direct object of the verb, one uses the Accusative case, accusative form, ''sebya''. (It does not have a nominative form.) * ''Он поранил себя''. ''On poranil sebya''. ("He has wounded himself.") Emphasized forms are "sam sebya" - masculine, "sama sebya" - feminine, "sami sebya" - plural. However, the word "sam" usually comes after the noun it is emphasizing. * ''Он сам поранил себя''. ''On sam poranil sebya''. ("He has wounded himself." Literally: "He himself has wounded himself.") This sentence underlines that the subject inflicted the wounds while in the previous example, "sebya" merely indicates that the subject was wounded. In addition, the reflexive pronoun ''sebya'' gave rise the reflexive affix ''-sya'' (-ся) used to generate reflexive verbs, but in this context the affix indicates that the action happened accidentally: * ''Он поранился'' (He has wounded himself by accident.) There are certain stylistic differences between the three usages, despite being rendered in the same way in English. When the person is not a direct object of the verb, other cases are used: * ''Он принес с собой бутылку водки''. On prines ''s soboi'' butylku vodki. ("He brought a bottle of vodka with himself.") - instrumental case * ''Он уронил сумку себе на ногу''. On uronil sumku ''sebe'' na nogu. ("He dropped a bag on his (own) foot." Literally: "He dropped a bag to himself on the foot.") - dative case Compare: * ''Он уронил сумку ему на ногу''. On uronil sumku ''emu'' na nogu. ("He dropped a bag on his (someone else's) foot.") Russian has a reflexive possessive as well. * ''Он любит свою жену.'' ''On lyubit svoyu zhenu.'' (''He loves his wife (his own).'' - Reflexive possessive) * ''Он любит его жену.'' ''On lyubit yego zhenu'' (''He loves his wife (someone else's).'' - It is ambiguous in English, but less so in Russian.) Because of the existence of reflexive forms, the use of a non-reflexive pronoun indicates a subject that is different from the object. If it is impossible, the sentence is invalid or at least irregular: * ''Он поранил его''. ''On poranil ego''. ("He has wounded him (someone else).") * ''Ты видишь себя в зеркале''. ''Ty vidish sebya v zerkale'' ("You see yourself in the mirror") - proper * ''Tы видишь тебя в зеркале''. ''Ty vidish tebya v zerkale'' ("You see you in the mirror") - invalid * ''Ты любишь свою жену?'' ''Ty lyubish svoyu zhenu?'' ("Do you love your (own) wife?") - proper * ''Ты любишь твою жену?'' ''Ty lyubish tvoyu zhenu?'' ("Do you love your wife?") - irregular


Serbo-Croatian

Serbo-Croatian uses the reflexive pronoun ''sebe/se'', which is the same for all persons, numbers and genders, and declined as follows:ContentsSummary
[Grammar book].
* Ana je dala Mariji ''njenu'' knjigu. ("Ana gave ''her'' [Maria's] book to Maria.") * Ana je dala Mariji ''svoju'' knjigu. ("Ana gave ''her'' [Ana's] book to Maria.") The words that modify the reflexive pronoun do show gender and number: * Čudio se ''samom'' sebi. "He wondered at himself." * Čudila se ''samoj'' sebi. "She wondered at herself." * Čudilo se ''samom'' sebi. "It wondered at himself/herself." (neuter singular) * Čudili se ''samima'' sebi. "They wondered at themselves." (masculine plural, neuter plural, or for a mixed group) * Čudile se ''samima'' sebi. "They wondered at themselves." (feminine plural) The enclitic form of the reflexive pronoun, ''se'', has been grammaticalized to a high degree: * ''Vrata su se otvorila.'' lit. "Door opened itself" ("Door opened") * ''Prevrnuli smo se.'' lit. "We turned ourselves over" ("We fell")


Spanish

In Spanish, the reflexive pronouns are: ''me''/''nos'' (first person singular/plural), ''te''/''os'' (second person) or ''se'' (third person). In Latin America, "''os''" is not used, being replaced by "''se''" for the pronoun "''ustedes''". For clarity, there are optional intensifying adjuncts for reflexive pronouns, accompanied by "''mismo/a''" (masculine and feminine forms for "self"). They are not strictly adjuncts: "''sí mismo/a''" (instead of "''se''"), "''ti mismo/a''" (in the Río de la Plata region, it is replaced by "''vos mismo/a''") but "''mi mismo''": they usually postpend the genitive. Examples with "wash oneself": * yo me lavo ''(I wash myself.)'' * nosotros nos lavamos ''(We wash ourselves.)'' * tú te lavas ''(You wash yourself.)'' * vos te lavás ''(You wash yourself'', Rioplatense Spanish) * usted ("Ud.") se lava ''(You wash yourself. [Formal])'' * ustedes ("Uds.") se lavan ''(You wash yourselves. [Formal, plural])'' * vosotros os laváis (in Spain) * él se lava ''(He washes himself.)'' * ella se lava ''(She washes herself.)'' * ellos se lavan ''(They wash themselves. [Masculine])'' * ellas se lavan ''(They wash themselves. [Feminine])'' Note that the indirect object "le"/"les" do ''not'' override "se" in the reflexive.


Slovene

* ''Ana je dala Mariji njeno knjigo.'' (''Ana gave her'' [''Maria's''] ''book to Maria.'') * ''Ana je dala Mariji svojo knjigo.'' (''Ana gave her'' [''Ana's''] ''book to Maria.'')


Uzbek

In Uzbek, the pronoun "o'zi", with the pronunciation of [ɜzɪ], refers to "oneself" and, to create a person specific forms, it requires certain affixes: ''myself'' - "o'zi" + "-mni" => "o'zimni" [ɜzɪmnɪ]; to ''myself'' - "o'zi" + "-mga" => "o'zimga" [ɜzɪmgʌ]; from ''myself'' - "o'zi" + "-mdan" => "o'zimdan" [ɜzɪmdʌn]; ''yourself'' - "o'zi" + "-ngni" => "o'zingni" [ɜzɪngnɪ]; to ''yourself'' - "o'zi" + "-ngga" => "o'zingga" [ɜzɪngʌ]; from ''yourself'' - "o'zi" + "-ngdan" => "o'zingdan" [ɜzɪngdʌn]; ''himself''/ ''herself''/ ''itself'' - "o'zi" + "-ni" => "o'zini" [ɜzɪnɪ]; to ''himself''/ ''herself''/ ''itself''- "o'zi" + "-ga" => "o'ziga" [ɜzɪgʌ]; from ''himself''/ ''herself''/ ''itself''- "o'zi" + "-dan" => "o'zidan" [ɜzɪdʌn]; ''ourselves'' - "o'zi" + "-mizni" => "o'zimizni" [ɜzɪmɪznɪ]; to ''ourselves''- "o'zi" + "-mizga" => "o'zimizga" [ɜzɪmɪzgʌ]; from ''ourselves'' - "o'zi" + "-mizdan" => "o'zimizdan" [ɜzɪmɪzdʌn]; ''yourselves'' - "o'zi" + "-ngizni" => "o'zingizni" [ɜzɪngɪznɪ]; to ''yourselves'' - "o'zi" + "-ngizga" => "o'zingizga" [ɜzɪngɪzgʌ]; from ''yourselves'' - "o'zi" + "-ngizdan" => "o'zingizdan" [ɜzɪngɪzdʌn]; ''themselves'' - "o'z" + "-larini" => "o'zlarini" [ɜzlʌrɪnɪ]; to ''themselves''- "o'z" + "-lariga" => "o'zlariga" [ɜzɪlʌrɪgʌ]; from ''themselves''- "o'z" + "-laridan" => "o'zilaridan" [ɜzɪlʌrɪdʌn]; Emphatic pronoun, Emphatic-pronoun use: ''myself'' - "o'zi" + "-m" => "o'zim" [ɜzɪm] ''yourself'' - "o'zi" + "-ng" => "o'zing" [ɜzɪng] ''himself''/ ''herself''/ ''itself'' - "o'zi" + "-" => "o'zi" [ɜzɪ] ''ourselves'' - "o'zi" + "-miz" => "o'zimiz" [ɜzɪmɪz] ''yourselves'' - "o'zi" + "-ngiz" => "o'zingiz" [ɜzɪngɪz] ''themselves'' - "o'z" + "-lari" => "o'zlari" [ɜzlʌrɪ] Basically, the suffixes change based on the preposition used: * Jon ''o'ziga'' mashina sotiboldi. (John bought ''himself'' a car) * Biz futbol o'ynayotib ''o'zimizni'' jarohatladik. (We hurt ''ourselves'' playing football) * Bu holodilnik ''o'zini'' o'zi eritadi. (This refrigerator defrosts ''itself'' ) * Men ''o'zimdan'' ranjidim. (I'm annoyed ''with myself'') * Ular ''o'zlariga'' qaradilar. (They looked ''at themselves'') * ''O'zlaringizni'' ehtiyot qilinglar. (Take care ''of yourselves'')


Vietnamese

In Vietnamese, the reflexive pronoun is ''mình'' whose meaning can be ''myself'', ''herself'', ''himself'', ''themselves'' etc. depending on the number/gender of its antecedent. * Thằng John tự đánh mình (John hit himself.)


Australian Languages


Guugu Yimithirr language, Guugu Yimithirr

A Pama–Nyungan languages, Pama–Nyungan language, Guugu Yimithirr language, Guugu Yimithirr uses the suffix ''/-gu/'' on pronouns--much like ''-self'' in English, to emphasize that the action of the verb is performed by the subject and not someone else. Take for example, the following exchange. A: B: * Reciprocal pronoun * Reflexive verb * Logophoricity


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Reflexive Pronoun Personal pronouns Transitivity and valency