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Rear admiral is a senior
naval A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically authorized a ...

naval
flag officer A flag officer is a Officer (armed forces), commissioned officer in a nation's armed forces senior enough to be entitled to fly a flag to mark the position from which the officer exercises command. The term is used differently in different countr ...
rank, equivalent to a
major general Major general (abbreviated MG, maj. gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. The disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the apparent confusion of a lie ...

major general
and
air vice marshal Air vice-marshal (AVM) is a two-star air officer An air officer is an air force officer of the rank of air commodore or higher. Such officers may be termed "officers of air rank". While the term originated in the Royal Air Force, air officer ...
and above that of a
commodore Commodore may refer to: Ranks * Commodore (rank) Commodore is a senior naval rank used in many navies which is equivalent to brigadier and air commodore that is superior to a navy captain, but below a rear admiral. It is either regarded as ...
and
captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a military rank in ar ...
, but below that of a
vice admiral Vice admiral is a senior naval flag officer A flag officer is a commissioned officer An officer is a member of an Military, armed forces or Uniformed services, uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In its broadest sense, the ...

vice admiral
. It is regarded as a two star "
admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general officer, general in ...

admiral
" rank. It is often regarded as a two-star rank with a NATO code of OF-7. It originated from the days of naval sailing squadrons and can trace its origins to the
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by Kingdom of England, English and Kingdom of Scotland, Scottish kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were foug ...
. Each naval squadron was assigned an admiral as its head, who commanded from the centre vessel and directed the squadron's activities. The admiral would in turn be assisted by a vice admiral, who commanded the lead ships that bore the brunt of a battle. In the rear of the squadron, a third admiral commanded the remaining ships and, as this section was considered to be in the least danger, the admiral in command of it was typically the most junior. This has continued into the modern age, with rear admiral the most junior admiralty of many navies. In some European navies (e.g., that of
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning Western Europe and Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Ame ...
), and in the Canadian Forces' French rank translations, the rank of rear admiral is known as ''
contre-amiral Counter admiral is a military rank, rank found in many navies of the world, but no longer used in English-speaking countries, where the equivalent rank is rear admiral. The term derives from the French ''contre-amiral''.Oxford English Dictionary. co ...
''. In the
German Navy The German Navy (german: Deutsche Marine; officially german: Marine ) is the navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily ...
the rank is known as ''
Konteradmiral ''Konteradmiral'', abbreviated KAdm or KADM, is the second lowest naval flag officer A flag officer is a commissioned officer in a nation's armed forces senior enough to be entitled to fly a flag A flag is a piece of textile, fabric (most ...

Konteradmiral
'', superior to the
flotilla admiral Flotilla admiral is the lowest flag rank, a rank above captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police depart ...
(commodore in other navies). In the
Royal Netherlands Navy The Royal Netherlands Navy ( nl, Koninklijke Marine, links=no) is the naval force of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Its origins date back to the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648), the war of independence from the House of Habsburg who ruled over t ...
, this rank is known as ''
schout-bij-nacht Rear admiral is a senior naval A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for war ...
'' (lit.: supervisor during night), denoting the role junior to the squadron admiral, and fleet admiral.


Australia

The
Royal Australian Navy The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the principal naval force A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a Nation's armed forces principally designated for naval warfare, naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riveri ...
maintains a rank of rear admiral; refer to
Australian Defence Force ranks and insignia The Australian Defence Force, Australian Defence Force's (ADF) ranks of Officer (armed forces), officers and enlisted personnel in each of its three service branches of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), the Australian Army, and the Royal Australian A ...
. The abbreviation is RADM. Since the mid-1990s, the insignia of a Royal Australian Navy rear admiral is the Crown of St. Edward above a crossed sword and baton, above two silver stars, above the word "Australia". Like the
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by Kingdom of England, English and Kingdom of Scotland, Scottish kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were foug ...
version, the sword is a traditional naval
cutlass A cutlass is a short, broad sabre A sabre (sometimes spelt saber in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English lan ...

cutlass
. The stars have eight points, unlike the four pointed
Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry An order of chivalry, order of knighthood, chivalric order, or equestrian order is an order of knights typically founded during or inspired by the original Catholic mili ...

Order of the Bath
stars used by the army (which are often referred to as "pips"). Prior to 1995, the RAN shoulder board was identical to the
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
shoulder board. The Royal Navy shoulder board changed again in 2001 and the Australian and UK shoulder boards are now identical except for the word "Australia". Rear Admiral
Robyn Walker Rear admiral (Australia), Rear Admiral Robyn Margaret Walker, (born 1 July 1959) is an Australian medical practitioner and a retired senior officer of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). Walker became the first female admiral in the RAN when she was ...
became the first female admiral in the Royal Australian Navy when she was appointed Surgeon-General of the
Australian Defence Force Australians, colloquially referred to as "Aussies", are the citizens Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determine ...
on 16 December 2011.


Belize

A rear admiral in the Belize Coast Guard is either of two different ranks of
commissioned officer An officer is a person who holds a position of authority as a member of an armed force A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an i ...
s: one-star
flag officer A flag officer is a Officer (armed forces), commissioned officer in a nation's armed forces senior enough to be entitled to fly a flag to mark the position from which the officer exercises command. The term is used differently in different countr ...
or two-star flag officer. In general, in most nations, the term "rear admiral" refers to an officer of two-star rank. The rear admiral (upper half) is a two-star flag officer. Rear admiral is the highest rank in the Belize Coast Guard and is designated a two-star flag on their insignia. Belize Coast Guard rank insignias are similar to those with the U.S Coast Guard.


Canada

In the
Royal Canadian Navy , march = "Heart of Oak" , mascot = SONAR (Newfoundland dog) , battles = , website = , commander1 = , Monarchy of Canada, of Can ...
, the rank of rear-admiral (RAdm) (''contre-amiral'' or ''CAm'' in
French
French
) is the
Navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense ...
rank equivalent to
major-general Major general (abbreviated MG, maj. gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. The disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the apparent confusion of a lieu ...
of the
Army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch Military branch ...
and Air Force. A rear-admiral is a
flag officer A flag officer is a Officer (armed forces), commissioned officer in a nation's armed forces senior enough to be entitled to fly a flag to mark the position from which the officer exercises command. The term is used differently in different countr ...
, the naval equivalent of a
general officer A general officer is an Officer (armed forces), officer of highest military ranks, high rank in the army, armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines. In some usages the term "general officer" refers to a rank above colo ...
. A rear-admiral is senior to a
commodore Commodore may refer to: Ranks * Commodore (rank) Commodore is a senior naval rank used in many navies which is equivalent to brigadier and air commodore that is superior to a navy captain, but below a rear admiral. It is either regarded as ...
and
brigadier-general #REDIRECT Brigadier general #REDIRECT Brigadier general #REDIRECT Brigadier general Brigadier general (Brig. Gen.) or brigade general is a military rank used in many countries. It is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries, usually sit ...
, and junior to a
vice-admiral Vice admiral is a senior naval flag officer A flag officer is a Officer (armed forces), commissioned officer in a nation's armed forces senior enough to be entitled to fly a flag to mark the position from which the officer exercises command. T ...
and
lieutenant-general Lieutenant general (Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed con ...
. The rank insignia for a rear-admiral is two silver maple leaves beneath a silver crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by
St Edward's Crown St Edward's Crown is the centrepiece of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom The Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom, originally the Crown Jewels of England, are a collection of royal ceremonial objects kept in the Tower of London The ...

St Edward's Crown
, worn on gold shoulder boards on the white short-sleeved shirt or the tropical white tunic. The service dress features a wide strip of gold braid around the cuff and, since June 2010, above it a narrower strip of gold braid embellished with the executive curl. On the visor of the service cap are two rows of gold oak leaves. File:Canada-Navy-OF-7-collected.svg, Image:Navy slip-on RAdm.png, Image:Navy olive RAdm.png,


Germany

''Konteradmiral'' is an
OF-7Image:US-O8 insignia.svg, A NATO two-star general's rank insignia An officer of two-star rank is a senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-7. The term is also used by some armed forces which are ...

OF-7
two-star rank An officer of two-star rank is a senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-7. The term is also used by some armed forces which are not NATO members. Typically, two-star officers hold the rank of ...
equivalent to the ''
Generalmajor is the Germanic languages, Germanic variant of major general, used in a number of Central Europe, Central and Northern European countries. Austria Belgium Denmark Finland Germany It is the third-highest general officer rank in the Ger ...

Generalmajor
'' (en:
major general Major general (abbreviated MG, maj. gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. The disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the apparent confusion of a lie ...

major general
) in the
German Army The German Army () is the land component of the armed forces of Federal Republic of Germany, Germany. The present-day German Army was founded in 1955 as part of the newly formed West German ''Bundeswehr'' together with the German Navy, ''Marine' ...
and the
German Air Force The German Air Force (german: Luftwaffe, lit=air weapon or air arm, ) is the aerial warfare branch of the , the armed forces of Germany. The German Air Force (as part of the ''Bundeswehr'') was founded in 1956 during the era of the Cold War as t ...
.


Guyana

The
Guyana Defence Force The Guyana Defence Force (GDF) is the military of Guyana, established in 1965. It numbers about 2500 soldiers and has military bases across the nation. The Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Force is always the incumbent President of Guyana. ...
Coast Guard is the naval component of the military of Guyana. Coast guard ranks are naval ranks similar to the practice in the respective coast guards of Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago. The rank of rear admiral was first awarded to chief of staff Commodore Gary Best on August 19, 2013. The rank insignia consists of two silver pips with green highlights, beneath a crossed sword and baton (also silver colored), all surmounted by the gold-colored Cacique's crown with red, and green highlights. File:Guyana Rear Admiral Insignia.svg,


India

The
Indian Navy The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the Indian Armed Forces The Indian Armed Forces are the military forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for ...

Indian Navy
also maintains a rear admiral rank senior to commodore and captain ranks and junior to vice admiral (and admiral) ranks. File:British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-7.svg, File:12-Indian Navy-RADM.svg, The rank insignia for a rear admiral is two stars beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by
Emblem of India The State Emblem of India is the national emblem of India and is used by the union government, many state governments and government agencies. The emblem is an adaptation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, a statue from 280 BCE. The statue is a dim ...

Emblem of India
, worn on shoulder boards.


Iran

''Before Islamic Revolution (1979)'' The Iranian Imperial Navy (IIN). File:15-IIN-Daryaban-2.png , ''Daryaban'' () ''After Islamic Revolution (1979)'' The
Islamic Republic of Iran Navy , ''Daryādelān''"Seahearts" , patron = , motto = fa, راه ما، راه حسین است, ''Rāh-e ma, rāh-e hoseyn ast''"''Our Path, Is Hussain Hussein, Hossein, Husayn, or Husain (; ar ...
(IRIN), also known as the Iranian Navy. File:19-Daryaban.png, ''Daryaban'' ()


Pakistan

A rear admiral in the Pakistani Navy is a senior and two-star rank naval officer, appointed in higher naval commands. Like most
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existenc ...

Commonwealth
navies, the rear admiral rank is superior to commodore and captain. However, the rank is junior to the three-star rank vice-admiral and four-star rank admiral, who is generally a Chief of Naval Staff of the Navy.


Namibia

File:14-Namibia Navy-RADM.svg, ''Rear Admiral Shoulder board'' The rank of rear admiral is normally held by the commander of the
Namibian Navy The Namibian Navy is the maritime warfare branch of the Namibian Defence Force. History Development of Namibia's navy has been slow, and the force was only formally established on 11 September 1998 as a maritime wing and in 2004 as a fully fl ...
.


Netherlands

''Schout-bij-nacht'' () is a Dutch Naval rank, equivalent to rear admiral in the
US Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") (unofficial). , colors = Blue and gold  , colors_label = Colors , march = "Anchors Aweigh "Anchors Aweigh" is the fight song of the United States Naval A ...
and
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by Kingdom of England, English and Kingdom of Scotland, Scottish kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were foug ...
. It is the second most junior
admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general officer, general in ...

admiral
position of the Dutch Navy, ranking above ''commandeur'' ("
commodore Commodore may refer to: Ranks * Commodore (rank) Commodore is a senior naval rank used in many navies which is equivalent to brigadier and air commodore that is superior to a navy captain, but below a rear admiral. It is either regarded as ...
") and below a ''vice-admiraal'' ("
vice admiral Vice admiral is a senior naval flag officer A flag officer is a commissioned officer An officer is a member of an Military, armed forces or Uniformed services, uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In its broadest sense, the ...

vice admiral
"). The rank of ''schout-bij-nacht'' originated between the 15th and 16th century. Interpreted as "watch-at-night", the ''schout-bij-nacht'' was the officer who supervised the ship when the
captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a military rank in a ...
was asleep. In later times the ''schout-bij-nacht'' was also the officer who supervised an entire naval squadron, in the absence of a senior
admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general officer, general in ...

admiral
, and by the 17th century ''schout-bij-nacht'' was the common rank held by the naval commander of a battle fleet's rear squadron. In the 17th century the navies of
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...

Sweden
and Denmark-Norway adopted the rank as ''schoutbynacht'' and the early
Imperial Russian Navy The Imperial Russian Navy () operated as the navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a Nation's armed forces principally designated for naval warfare, naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral ...
as шаутбенахт ("shautbenakht"). In 1724 the Russians, followed in 1771 by both the
Swedish Navy The Swedish Navy ( sv, Svenska marinen) is the navy, naval branch of the Swedish Armed Forces. It is composed of surface and submarine naval units – the Naval fleet, Fleet () – as well as Marine (armed services), marine units, the S ...
and the
Dano-Norwegian Navy The history of the Danish navy began with the founding of a joint Denmark-Norway, Dano-Norwegian navy on 10 August 1510, when John, King of Denmark, King John appointed his vassal Henrich Krummedige, Henrik Krummedige to become "chief captain and ...
changed the name of the rank to
counter admiral Counter admiral is a rank Rank is the relative position, value, worth, complexity, power, importance, authority, level, etc. of a person or object within a ranking A ranking is a relationship between a set of items such that, for any two items ...
(''контр-адмирал'' in Russian, ''konteramiral'' in Swedish, ''kontreadmiral'' in Danish and Norwegian).


New Zealand

The highest ordinary rank currently filled in the
Royal New Zealand Navy , website = , image = RNZN Crest.jpg , image_size = 150px , caption = Crest of the Royal New Zealand Navy , start_date = , dates ...
is rear admiral and this is the rank held by the Chief of Navy unless that person is also Chief of Defence Force.


Singapore

The
Republic of Singapore Navy A republic ( la, res publica ''Res publica'' (also spelt as ''rēs pūblica'' to indicate vowel length In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived length of a vowel sound: the corresponding physical measurement is length (phonetics), du ...
uses two ranks with the title of rear admiral: rear-admiral (one-star), a one-star rank; and rear-admiral (two-star), a two-star rank. Usually held by the Chief of Navy or Fleet Commander, the rank is reserved for the highest-ranking flag officer of the navy.


Sweden

In
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...

Sweden
, rear admiral is a two-star admiral rank of the
Swedish Navy The Swedish Navy ( sv, Svenska marinen) is the navy, naval branch of the Swedish Armed Forces. It is composed of surface and submarine naval units – the Naval fleet, Fleet () – as well as Marine (armed services), marine units, the S ...
.


United Kingdom

The
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by Kingdom of England, English and Kingdom of Scotland, Scottish kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were foug ...
maintains a rank of rear admiral. Note that the rank of rear admiral is quite different from the honorary office
Rear-Admiral of the United Kingdom The Rear-Admiral of the United Kingdom is a now honorary office generally held by a senior (possibly retired) Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's Navy, naval warfare force. Although warships were used by English and Scot ...
.


United States

In the United States since 1985, there have been two ranks with the title of rear admiral: rear admiral (lower half) (RDML), a one-star rank; and rear admiral (RADM), a two-star rank. Prior to that, a combination of ranks was used.10 U.S.C. 5501 Notes
/ref> US Navy O8 insignia.svg, The stars and shoulder boards of a US Navy two-star, rear admiral USCG O-8 insignia.svg, The stars and shoulder boards of a US Coast Guard two-star, rear admiral USA - PHS - O8 insignia.png, The star and shoulder boards of a US Public Health Service two-star, rear admiral USA - NOAA - O8 insignia.png, The stars, shoulder boards, and sleeve stripes of a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration two-star, rear admiral


Vietnam

In
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...

Vietnam
, the equivalent to rear admiral is the ''Chuẩn Đô đốc'' or ''Đề Đốc'' which is a 1-star rank. It is below the vice admiral (2 star) and above senior captain (of the Navy).


See also

*
Ranks and insignia of officers of NATO navies Rank is the relative position, value, worth, complexity, power, importance, authority, level, etc. of a person or object within a ranking A ranking is a relationship between a set of items such that, for any two items, the first is either "ranked ...


References and notes

{{DEFAULTSORT:Rear Admiral Military ranks of Canada Military insignia Military ranks of Australia Military ranks of Pakistan Naval ranks